History of Bolinas, CA (Part 2)
From: History of Marin County, California
Alley, Bowen & Company, Publishers
San Francisco 1880

SHIP BUILDING. - On account of the availability of lumber and timber at Bolinas, there have been probably more vessels built here than at any part of the coast outside of San Francisco. The greater portion of this work has been done by two brothers, Thomas and William Johnson. As stated above, they came to this place in 1852, and at once began operations at their business. The following list, embraces the names, time of building of the first and last ones, and tonnage of all the vessels which they have built here "Louisa," built in 1854, fifty tons register; "Hamlet," sixty five tons "Lizzie Shea," forty five tons; "Anna Caroline," eighty tons; "Effie Newell," eighty tons; "Fourth of July," forty tons; "Leda," twenty eight tons; "Emma Louisa Morgan," thirty five tons; "Emma Frances," forty five tons; and "Francis," built in 1870, forty five tons. This makes a total of ten vessels, all of which were schooners, with a total register of five hundred and thirteen tons, and as the carrying capacity was one third greater than the registered tonnage, they had a total burthen of seven hundred and seventy tons. Of all these schooners only two are left, the "Hamlet" and the "Emma Frances." The "Louisa" was sunk off Duxbury reef by colliding with a schooner from Tomales bay; the "Hamlet" runs to Sonoma: the "Lizzie Shea" was lost at Sitka; the "Anna Caroline" was wrecked in the Bay of San Francisco; the "Effie Newell" was rebuilt into a steamer called the "Pearl;" the "Fourth of July" went ashore at Tennessee Valley in a heavy northwester, three lives lost; the "Leda" was lost down the coast somewhere; the "Emma Louisa Morgan" was wrecked inside the heads in a south easter; the "Emma Frances" hails from some Mexican port, and is still alive; and the "Francis" was lost off Point Reyes. The ship yard where these vessels were built was near where Mr. H. McKennon now resides, on the east side of the bay.

Captain; since Judge, Almy built a small schooner in 1855 which he called the "Joseph Almy." It registered nineteen tons, and had a carrying capacity of thirty tons, and was launched in September. His ship yard was located on the Sand beach at the mouth of Bolinas bay, a short distance to the eastward of the channel. He had never built a vessel before; and knew nothing about the work practically, but he was an experienced sailor, and had a theory of his own as to how a schooner should be constructed, and he set about it to put his theory into a tangible form. Ship builders and sailors laughed at him, and prophesied all sorts of evil betidings for his craft, but he laughs best who laughs last, and the outcome proved that the builder of the vessel was. he who had the last smile. When she was launched she proved that she was well proportioned and rode the crested waves like a thing of life. Captain Almy continued to run her for twelve years, and then disposed of her. She changed hands frequently, being used at one time as a pilot boat. She was so seaworthy that pilots in her felt secure in going out as far as the Farallone Islands. At last, in 1876, she came into the hands of Captain Mullet, who used her in the sea lion catching business. In 1878, while in the vicinity of Bolinas bay; a storm overtook her, and she put in for shelter. While there she was chartered by a party of sightseers for an excursion to the Farallones. The trip was made safely, but instead of coming inside the bay when they returned, they cast two anchors on the bar. In the morning when they waked up they fund the vessel rolling in the breakers and dragging both anchors. The men on board were saved, but the schooner was stranded on the beach within a hundred yards of where she had been launched nearly a quarter of a century previous. She had truly come home to die! Her insurance had expired just the week before, which is the only ill luck she ever brought to any man.

SHIPWRECKS. - While there are no harbors of safety along the coast line of Bolinas township, yet it does not stand out so boldly to the sea as that of Point Reyes, and hence shipwrecks are less numerous. There is, however; one place which is very dangerous, and were it not well known and carefully avoided by sailors, it would prove disastrous to many vessels. This is Duxbury reef, a series of sunken rocks extending in a southerly direction for a distance of about two miles from the coast. The first vessel to be wrecked on this reef was the propeller steamer "S. S. Lewis," bound from Panama to San Francisco with freight and passengers, there being four hundred of the latter on board. The accident occurred at three o'clock A. M., April 9, 1853. The night was very dark and foggy, and knowing that they were near the entrance of San Francisco bay, they fired signal guns at frequent intervals, hoping to be heard at the heads and be signaled into port. They were evidently drifting with the tide waiting for the moving light to show them where they were. At last she drifted upon the reef, and sprung a leak, but fortunately the swell carried her over the rock into deep water. She was then headed for the shore hoping thus to save the passengers. Happily they came upon a beach just at low water, and all on board were safely landed. The return of the tide drove the vessel upon the rocks, and by nine o'clock she had broken to pieces and her sides were washed ashore. All the freight and baggage was lost, as was also the safe containing twenty thousand dollars. More or less of the former was washed ashore, but nothing was ever seen of the latter, nor have divers been successful in finding it. After the passengers were landed, large tents were constructed for their accommodation, and they remained here two days till the Captain and Purser could go to San Francisco and get assistance, and two revenue cutters finally came and took them to their destination. While encamped here Gregorio Briones slaughtered a bullock daily and sent it to them.

The steamer "Governor," or "Eldorado" as she was also known, ran aground at one side of the channel, just at the entrance to the bay. It is not known now in what year it occurred, but evidently about 1853, as she was engaged in transporting lumber from Bolinas to San Francisco. She was an old boat, and but little effort was made to save her. Sand washed into her hold with the water, and anchored her so firmly that no effort could get her to float again.

The schooner "Josephine" went ashore on the beach just west of the channel at the entrance to the bay. No lives were lost, but nothing further is known of her.

In 1870 the sloop "Clark" was run aground at one side of the channel, at the entrance of the bay, but no lives were lost. She was an old vessel, and no effort was made to save her.

The schooner "Joseph Almy," went ashore in 1878 on the beach east of the channel, a full account of which has already been given in these pages.

In 1878 the ship "Western Shore," bound from Seattle to San Francisco, laden with coal, was driven upon Duxbury reef, and sank just inside of it, but no lives were lost. Great quantities of coal were washed ashore, and proved a rich harvest for the people along the beach.

CORD WOOD. - This was a staple interest of Bolinas at one time, there being as high as four hundred cords of wood per week shipped from the bay. At that time there was a number of small vessels owned by Capt. J. A. Morgan, known as the "Mosquito Fleet," all of which were engaged in the wood carrying business. It is estimated that fully five hundred thousand cords of wood have been shipped from here, as many as ten schooners, making each two trips a week, being required during the busy season.

BOLINAS NAVIGATION COMPANY. - This organization was incorporated April 13, 1874, with David McMullen, Samuel Clark, W. W. Wilkins, Wm. J. Randall and George W. Drake, Trustees. The capital stock of the corporation was fifteen thousand dollars, of which nine thousand four hundred dollars was paid up, and the shares had a face value of one hundred dollars each. A double propeller steamer was built in San Francisco, and christened "Continental." When she was brought into the bay it was found that she drew too much water, and that it was unsafe to try to take her over the bar in any kind of rough weather. She was sold to Whitelaw of San Francisco, and after running up and down the coast for a few years, was lost in Humboldt bay.

COPPER MINES. - In 1863 a company was organized known as the "Pike County Gulch Copper Mining Company," of which Samuel Clark was President. The occasion of the formation of this corporation was the indication of copper ore found in extensive outcroppings in this gulch. A tunnel was run seven hundred feet into the hillside, occupying about three years, but copper could not be found in quantities large enough to pay, and the enterprise was finally abandoned. During the same year indications of copper ore were discovered less than a mile north east of Woodville, and Pablo Briones and William Ewings, under the title of "The Union Copper Mining Company," undertook to develop a mine. They were much encouraged, and sent several tons of the ore to San Francisco for reduction, but after working at it seven years they abandoned the mine. It is probable that there is a lode of copper bearing ore somewhere in that vicinity, for the out croppings are common and rich with metal, but it will, however, remain for future generations to find it.

CHURCHES - Methodist - The following sketch of the Methodist Church at Bolinas has been kindly furnished by Rev. Wm. Gordon of that place: -

The first Protestant preaching in Bolinas was by Rev. Mr. Gilbert (Baptist), of San Rafael. Sometime in 1861, Rev. Mr. Canberry (Methodist) came to this place and preached a number of times. In 1862 Rev. N. Burton was appointed by the M. E. Conference to the Marin Circuit, which included the State Prison, San Rafael, Olema, and Bolinas, and remained on the charge two years. In 1864 Rev. Wm. Gordon was appointed to this same circuit, and added to the already established appointments, Tomales bay and Chileno valley. With the exception of the State Prison, schoolhouses were the only places of worship. The place of worship in Bolinas, at that time, was a small, dingy schoolhouse, about sixteen feet square, situated near the head of the bay, close to the County road and on the place now owned by Mr. A. Steele. The house had been taken possession of by the woodpeckers, and their rights were disputed only once in two weeks - on the Sabbath - when a few of the people gathered together for public worship. During the Winter of 1865-66 the Sons of Temperance enlarged and improved the house, which made it more suitable as a place of worship, and it was used for such purpose until the Bay District Schoolhouse was built, which became the sanctuary of all religious denominations who chose to occupy it, till the three churches were built in 1877. In 1866 Rev. J. A. Burlingame was appointed to this charge, preaching at Bolinas, in connection with other points of the circuit, once in two weeks, but during the second year of this pastoral work his health failed, and his labor ceased. In 1868 Rev. B. W. Rusk was appointed to the circuit and preached at Bolinas once in two weeks during the two Conference years he remained on the charge. In 1870 the old circuit, embracing nearly all of Marin county, was divided and Rev. Mr. King appointed to Bolinas and Olema, and remained on the charge one year. In 1871 Rev. A. Williams was appointed to San Rafael and Bolinas, and remained on the charge one year. In 1872 Rev. John McIntire was appointed to Bolinas and Saucelito, and remained on the charge one year In 1873 Rev. Mr. Cummings was appointed to Bolinas and remained one year. In 1874 Rev. N. Burton was reappointed to the Marin Circuit, which included Bolinas, and remained on the charge one year. In 1875 Rev. D. E. George was appointed to Bolinas Circuit, which embraced Bolinas, Olema and Point Reyes. Under the pastoral supervision of Mr. George the only camp meeting ever held in Marin county, was conducted in a grove between Bolinas and Olema in July, 1876. Mr. George remained on the charge one year. In 1876 Rev. Mr. Dinsmore was appointed to this charge and remained one year. In 1877 this circuit was divided and Mr. Dinsmore was appointed to Point Reyes and Olema, and Rev. George W. Beatty was appointed to San Rafael and Bolinas. This was the year the Methodist Church was built at Bolinas, costing about two thousand dollars exclusive of the lot, which was donated by S. McCurdy, and is one of the finest buildings of the kind to be found in the State outside of the large towns and cities: an ornament to the place and a credit to the taste and enterprise of those who built it. It is free from all debt, and was dedicated to the worship of God December 16th of that year by Rev. F. F. Jewell, D. D., of San Francisco. In 1878 Rev. W. M. Woodward was appointed to Bolinas, and preached in the M. E. Church every Sabbath for one year when he was removed, and in 1879 Rev. S. Belknap was appointed to the place.

PRESBYTERIAN. - In 1874 Rev. Thomas Fraser, Synodical Missionary for the Pacific coast, went to Bolinas and organized a Presbyterian church, with the following members: - Mrs. Mary Morse, Miss Elonor Strain, Mrs. Gillespie, Hugh Ingram, Mary Ingram, Robert Ingram, Robert D. Baily, Andrew Steele, Mrs. Jane Steele, Mrs. Joseph Morse, and Miss Ada Ingram. Rev. James L. Drum officiated as pastor for the next three years, preaching on alternate Sabbaths and holding the services in a schoolhouse. He was succeeded by Rev. John Hemphill, Jr., who began a movement June 1, 1877, for the erection of a church building. Work on the structure was begun in September, and the house was dedicated to the service of the Lord in November of that year. The cost of the building and finishing was three thousand dollars, all of which had been paid when it was dedicated, which speaks very highly for the ehergy of the minister and the liberality of the people. In architecture it is gothic, and presents a very attractive appearance. In size it is twenty five by sixty two feet. The present membership numbers eighteen.

THE TEMPERANCE CAUSE IN BOLINAS. - The following has been furnished by Rev. William Gordon: - Fifteen years ago temperance reform was needed in Bolinas as well as some other places, and an effort in this direction was made by the Good Templars, who effected an organization in the Winter of 1864-65. It had but few members and did not survive more than a few months. On the 12th of September, 1865, the Bolinas Division, No. 8, Sons of Temperance was organized by Rey. William Gordon, D. G. W. P., in his own house, and the following charter members elected to the respective offices: - L. J. Foster, W. P.; John O'Harvy. W. A.; Lewis Gordon, R. S.; Louis Woodrum, A. R. S.; Jessie Cole, F. S.; J. M. Burke, P. W. P.; Loss C. Pyles, Treas.; George Davis, Con.; Peter O'Neil, A. Con.; W. B. Foster, I. S.; Edward Baker, O. S.; William Foster, Ch.; Joseph Almy, G. T. Sproat, John Jacobson, William Gordon. This division continued to prosper for several years, and included among its members nearly all the prominent citizens of the community, numbering at one time over seventy members. Their place of meeting was the schoolhouse, near the head of Bolinas bay, which they enlarged and fitted up for their use as a hall to meet in. They accomplished a great amount of good, which has never died out, although the organization disbanded several years ago. September 23d, 1878, Bolinas Division, No. 9, Sons of Temperance was organized by Rev. William Gordon, D. G. W. P., and the following charter members elected to the various offices: -H. Strain, W. P.; Hugh Munro, W. A.; David McCoy, R. S.; William Strain, A. R. S.; Dougald McLean, F. S.; David McMullin, Treas.; Samuel McMullin, Chap.; William Betten, Con.; James Golden, A. C.; James McMullin, I. S.; Joseph Gastael, O. S. This division is now in its fourth year, and owns its own hall in Woodville, which cost the division about five hundred dollars.

CATHOLIC CHURCH. - There have been church services held by the Catholic people of this place for a number of years, but it was not till 1877 that they erected their church edifice. The building is not yet completed, however, but when it is it will be a very handsome structure. It has cost so far about three thousand dollars. Services are held in it once a month.

SCHOOLS. - There are two school districts at this end of the township, the Bay View and Bolinas, but the whole section was included in one district till 1876, when it was divided. The house in the Bay View district was built in 1863, but was not used for school purposes until the division of the district occurred. Two teachers have been employed since 1878, an addition having been made to the building for the use of the primary department.

DRUIDS GROVE. - Duxbury Grove No. 26, United Ancient Order of Druids was organized Under Dispensation August 2, 1874, and their charter was granted June 3, 1875. The charter members were Joseph Adams, James Pedrotti, Henry Wegner, Albert. Ingerman, Samuel Clark, J. C. Gibson, W. J. Randall, Thomas Johnson, John Turner, Wm. Betten, James M. Davis, and W W. Wilkins. The first officers Under Dispensations were Samuel Clark, N. A.; James M. Davis, V. A.; W. J. Randall, Sec. and Treas. The first officers Under Constitution were the same as above. Their present officers are E. F. Betten, N. A.; N. C. Odin, V. A; Samuel Clark, R. Sec.; R. T. Cottingham, F. Sec., and James Steele, Treas. The present membership is fifty. When the Grove was first organized the meet. ings were held in an upper room at the residence of Samuel Clark, and were continued there until the completion of the new hall, September, 1879. The building is twenty six by fifty and thirty feet to the eaves. The lower story is fourteen feet to the ceiling, and is used for a public hall. The upper room, which is the lodge hall, is fifteen feet to the ceiling and twenty five by thirty five feet, with two ante rooms. This room is nicely furnished and is one of the most pleasant lodge rooms in the county.

DEATHS BY DROWNING. - Several men have been drowned at this place from vessels. Capt. Riley, of the sloop "Falmouth," is the only master of a vessel who has met his death in that manner. As he was taking his craft out over the bar, standing at the helm, the mainsail jibed and the boom knocked him into the sea, and he was lost. A sad affair occurred here by which a man by the name of Clute lost his life by drowning. He had just made all his arrangments to return to the Eastern States for the purpose of getting married, and having some friends at Bolinas he started for that place on board the sloop "Frazier," for the purpose of paying them a visit before he returned East. When they arrived off Rocky Point the vessel was becalmed and there was a prospect of spending the night there. Two men, George Gavitt and Mr. Crane, proposed to proceed in a yawl boat, and Clute, being very sea sick, desired to go with them. When the boat got into the breakers it was upset, and he went down, with the words, "O, George." Instead of wedding festivities there was mourning in that far away Eastern home.

POSTOFFICE. - J. C. Gibson is the present postmaster. This office was established June 3, 1863, with Henry Clover as postmaster.

OLEMA - Early Settlement. - It is very befitting that the history of the early settlement of the northern end of this township should opened with a sketch of Rafael Garcia. This pioneer of pioneers of Marin county was born in San Diego about 1790. He remained in that place until he entered the military service, which was at an early age. In the course of a few years he had attained to the rank of "Alferez" or ensign. The only glimpse which we get of his military career is from a letter written by ex-Governor Juan B. Alvarado, dated January 5, 1874, from which we take the following extract. Speaking of the Mission San Rafael, he says: - Fifty years ago the Indians hereabouts were very savage and hostile, and it was thought prudent to station a small guard at the mission for protection. This guard of three or four soldiers was commanded by Corporal (ensign) Rafael Garcia. The Friar and the Corporal held out the olive branch of peace to the savages, but were not met in the same spirit. The Caynameros, a Marin county tribe, made a descent on the mission with a purpose to surprise and massacre the inhabitants. Our corporal was not surprised, however, but made a gallant defense. When the Indians appeared in sight, with hostile demonstrations, he embarked the Friar Juan, his (Garcia's) wife, Loreto, and two or three children, upon a balsa or raft made of tules, and despatched them with the tide to go elsewhere for safety. Strange to say this frail float and its precious cargo landed safely near the Presidio. The corporal having freed himself of the non combatants, made a stubborn fight, and repulsed the assailants, or as the Governor has it - Garcia en este easo defenclio la mission y Presidio a su, valor y resignacion, los Indios fueron rehazados y espulsados de las immedracion,es del establecimients. It will be seen by the above that Garcia was the first man to have a family in Marin county. Father Gleeson, in his "History of the Catholic Church in California," gives the date of the establishment of this mission as 1817, at which time he was about twenty seven years of age. It is not known just when his connection with the army ceased, but it was not until he had served his full time. He was then for several years major domo of several missions, among which were Sonoma, San Rafael, San Jose and others. He came to Bolinas and located what is now known as the Briones rancho about 1834. He was followed soon after by his brother in law, Gregorio Briones, to whom he disposed of the Baulinas rancho, and located on the rancho adjoining it on the north, and now known as the rancho Tomales y Baulinas. This was about 1837. He built a very large adobe house for the use of his family, which stood on the present site of Thomas Crandall's house. The work was done by Indians, and an Indian was foreman and had full charge of the work. He afterwards built two more adobe houses for the use of his servants and employe's; also several frame buildings. In the olden and balmy days of the Spanish-Mexican regime, the Samma Summarum of the dolce far niente style of life of that age could be found at this ranch. Three thousand head of cattle roamed at will over the hills and through the valleys, one of which was slaughtered daily to supply the demands of the establecimiento. Four hundred horses bore the ranch brand, and extensive flocks of sheep and herds of swine formed a part of the princely possessions of the Garcia estate. Looms and spinning wheels were brought into requisition, and the wool grown upon the sheep was washed, carded, spun and woven into cloth beneath the shelter of the ranch houses. The hides of the cattle were tanned, and boots and shoes made of the leather. The seasons came and went unheeded, and life was to those old Spaniards a near approach to the Utopian's dream. A Summer's sun, set in a bright ethereal empyrean, across whose rays not even a hand breadth's cloud ever passed to cast its shadow on the world, showered down a golden flood of radiant light to bless the happy days, while the Winter's rains fell in copious showers, causing the grass to spring to luxuriant life over all the hills and dales spreading as it were an emerald tapestry on every hand full dainty enough for tread of princely feet. But the dream ended, and sad indeed the awakening. From the lap of luxuriance they fell into the arms of poverty, dying sad and broken hearted. Gone were their flocks and herds, and the land on which they had roamed. Life which had been to them a hey day of sunshine and gladness was robbed of all that went to make it worth the living for, and to many of them death was a welcome guest, lifting the burdens and cares which had gradually settled upon their shoulders. Rafael Garcia was married to Senorita Maria Loretto Aletemerando, either at San Diego or San Jose, in about 1810. Eight of their children grew to manhood and womanhood, of which five were boys and three were girls. He died February 25, 1866, while his wife survived him till April 17, 1873, when she was foully murdered by one Ambrosio Carrera.

The first land disposed of by Garcia was to Messrs Post and Taylor, in 1855, and the amount was three hundred acres, of which one hundred lay on Daniels' creek, at the present site of the paper mill, and the other two hundred was in three tracts lying in Olema valley. During the next year these last mentioned tracts were disposed of to John Connor, Wm. Johnson and John Garrison. The first named died on his place, the second sold his place, in 1864, to Levi Balver, and went to Monterey county, where he still lives, while the third sold to Nelson Olds, and went to Sonoma county, and continues to reside there. Subsequently, Olds purchased a league of land from Garcia, which was bounded on the east by Daniels' creek, and on the west by Olema creek. Olds still lives on the place. John Nelson and Wm. Randall came to Olema in June, 1857, and bought fourteen hundred acres from Garcia, located on the south side of the Olds tract. All these men had families except Connor and Nelson. A man by the name of Benjamin Miller had a claim on one hundred and fifty acres just west of Nelson and Randall, and some trouble grew up between them, which culminated in the killing of Randall by Miller in June, 1861.

Benjamin Winslow built the first house in the present town of Olema in 1857, which was a store, bar, and hotel combined, and was known as the "Olema House." In 1859 John Gifford erected a hotel, which he called the "Point Reyes House," and in 1864 Manuel Levy opened the first store, while Charles Nelson built the first dwelling house.

SCHOOLS. - The entire northern portion of this township was included in one district, formerly, and was called Olema. It was divided in 1866, and the southern portion retained the old name, and the northern portion received that of Garcia. The village of Olema was included in the latter. The first schoolhouse built in the Olema district was erected in the Spring of 1860. The money was secured by subscription, and much work was done on it by the citizens, especially by Wm. Randall, who was a carpenter. It was four by eighteen, weather boarded and covered with shakes, and was located on the ranch now owned by Joseph Muscio. The first teacher was in Englishman by the name of James Bailey, who boarded around during his term, which lasted three months, and was paid by subscription. The schoolhouse in the Garcia district was erected in 1866, and is a two story building, thirty by forty in size. The lower floor is used for school pur poses, and the upper as a public hall. There is only one grade in the school. In 1878 the Garcia district was divided, and aschoolhouse built north of the station.

OFFICIAL AND BUSINESS DIRECTORY. - Olema is a pretty little village, lying in a very pleasant valley of the same name, and contains about one hundred souls. The postoffice was established there February 28,1859, with Benjamin T. Winslow postmaster. The office is at present under the charge of W. L. Crandall, who is also Justice of the Peace. James Fried is Constable, and Nelson & Friedlander are agents for Wells, Fargo & Co. The business interests of the town comprise one hotel, three stores, two blacksmith shops, one livery stable, and one meat market. It is reached by stage from Olema station, which is located about two miles away on the North Pacific Coast Railroad. Tokoloma is also about the same distance away. There are no churches, but services are held by both the Methodists and Presbyterians in the schoolhouse. The present fine hotel was built in 1877. Both the former hotels were destroyed by fire, the Point Reyes House having been burned April 27, 1876, and the Olema House June 27, 1876, just two months later.

THE PAPER MILL. - The pioneer paper mill of the Pacific coast was put in operation in this township in 1856 by Messrs. Samuel P. Taylor & Post. The mill is located on land purchased by them of Rafael Garcia, and situated on Daniels' or Paper Mill creek, something more than five miles east of Olema. The building is a wooden structure of sufficient capacity for all required purposes. The power for driving the machinery is both water and steam. About one half mile above the mill a strong dam has been constructed across the creek from which the water is conducted to the mill in a flume. The engine is one hundred horse power, and is used only in the Summertime when the water supply is exhausted. A description of the modus operandi of paper making will not be without interest hence it is appended. Paper is made, at this place, from old scraps of paper, cotton and linen rags, old rope and burlaps, which articles come to the mill in great bales. It is carefully sorted and the proper material for the various kinds of paper segregated. In this establishment book, news, brown wrapping (hardware) and Manilla paper is manufactured. For making book and news paper only white cotton or linen rags and white paper are used. Manilla paper is made of old rope and burlaps, while the heavy wrapping paper is made of the coarse material which will not work into Manilla; The rope and burlaps are first passed through a chopping machine which cuts them into pieces about two inches square. This process is gone through with twice, when the material is passed through a coarse bolt for the purpose of freeing it from dirt. It is then placed in a large vat and covered with lime water which is kept hot and moving about by a jet of steam passed into it. The object of this is to bleach the material. After remaining in this vat fifteen hours it is put into a vat in which there is a beater, which is so arranged that all the matter in the vat must pass through the machine, which consists of a cylinder under which there is a plate both of which are corrugated; water is added to the mass and the cylinder set in motion. As the material gets ground up finer the cylinder is allowed to work closer and closer to the plate until they touch. Muriatic and sulphuric acids are now added to further bleach the pulp, which it has now become. After the rope and burlap material has been triturated for six hours a certain proportion of paper pulp is added and the process continued three hours longer. It is then passed into a vat called a "stuff chest" in which there is kept revolving an "agitator" so that the pulp may be kept evenly distributed through the water. It is pumped from this into a box like receptacle to which there is a gauge to regulate the outward flow of the pulp according to the desired weight or quality of the paper to be made. From this it passes through a strainer or screen, so that only particles of a given fineness can pass into the composition of the paper. It is now deposited into a vat in which there is a gauge cylinder revolving, arranged so that the water is drawn from the inside of it. This causes the pulp to float on the current of the water passing through the screen, against it, awl to adhere to and pass up on it. It is taken from this cylinder by a felt belt and passed through a press roll, when it is taken up by a coarser felt belt and passed through another press roll, during which process all the water has been extracted. It is then passed over four consecutive cylinders through which a current of steam is passing for the purpose of thoroughly drying it. The pressure of steam in these cylinders varies from forty to sixty pounds, according to the quality of the paper. It then passes through two series of calender presses of three cylinders each whence it passes to the reels. From these it is placed under the knife and cut into sheets of the requisite size. It is then folded and put into quires and pressed, and then bundled, when it is ready for the market.

The capacity of the mill is about twenty tons of paper a month, which, if made into Manilla bags would amount to over five hundred thousand. Three hundred tons of rags and ropes are consumed annually During 1867 this mill manufactured three hundred and eighty four reams of colored paper, three thousand five hundred reams of news and book, and nine thousand two hundred and fifty reams of Manilla; and the value of the total product was sixty four thousand eight hundred dollars. There were used three hundred tons of rags, rope and burlaps, two hundred and fifty barrels of lime, and two thousand pounds of muriatic and sulphuric acids. About twenty men are constantly employed, the most of whom, however, are Chinese.

POWDER MILLS. - These works are located on Daniels' creek, about three miles above the paper mill. The buildings were erected in 1866 at a cost of sixty three thousand dollars. In 1867 there were manufactured thirty thousand kegs of blasting powder and two thousand packages of sporting powder. The buildings were distributed over several hundred acres for greater security. Both water and steam power were used. In November, 1877, an explosion occurred by which three men were killed and several of the buildings demolished. The latter were, however, soon rebuilt. At the present time nothing is being done there, and the buildings are going to decay.

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