History of Fairfield Township, Fayette County, IA
From: Past and Present of Fayette County, Iowa
B. F. Bowen & Company
Indianapolis, Indiana 1910


Strangely enough, the early history of this township centers about Taylorsville, a village long since obliterated from the map of Fayette county and which survives only in the memory of the early settlers. Its formal organization as an election precinct, which included the present township of Fairfield and the south half of Illyria, was provided for by the board of county commissioners, October 8, 1850, and the first election was held at the house of Jared Taylor, with Daniel Finney, Henry Baker and David King as judges of the election. But Fairfield was one of the first four townships surveyed in this county, as appears more fully in the chapter on "County Organization." The same chapter gives names of some of the earliest settlers in the township, as well as the establishment of the first road, thus showing the importance of Taylorsville as an early town and trading place. The opening of a public highway from the county line east of Taylorsville, through that town, and on to West Union, was one of the first official acts of the county commissioners, elected in 1850. Reference is also made to the article, elsewhere in this chapter, "Recollections of Arlington and Vicinity," by Hon. James Cooney, ex-county attorney, and a resident of Brush Creek for many years.

It is believed that "Major" Mumford's was the first white family to locate within the present boundaries of Fairfield township. But little is known of this family except some traditional history. Some authorities give them credit with having born to them the first white child in Fayette county. The circumstances surrounding this case are somewhat unique. It seems that the child was born while the parents were temporarily out of the county - in the brush by the road side, in Delaware county. But as their only home at the time was near Brush Creek, where they had made a claim and built a house, it would seem to be fair to give them the "benefit of the doubt!" The Mumfords laid their claim early in 1840. But little was known of township boundaries in those days, and it is probable that the Mumfords were associated with all the early settlers in that section of the county. Some of these were the Gamble family, who came in the fall of 1840 and moved away in 1842.


In the autumn of 1842 two men came to the locality from Dubuque who figured conspicuously in the local history of the country. These were Atwood and Teagarden, the latter buying out the Gamble claim. Teagarden brought his family of wife and three children and moved into the Gamble house, Atwood, a bachelor, going to live with them. It seems that their principal business was selling whiskey to the Indians, and this led to interminable trouble and finally the murder of both Teagarden and Atwood. This atrocious crime was the result of a dispute over the possession of a gun which an Indian had pawned to Atwood, probably for whiskey. During the night of March 25, 1843, Atwood returned from Dubuque with a barrel of whiskey, and found three Indians at the cabin waiting for him. The Indian's gun had been sold or bartered away, and the red man insisted upon having his property. The entire company of five proceeded to get drunk, but it seems that Atwood and Teagarden were more susceptible to the influences of the "fire water" than the Indians, in that they got helplessly drunk, while the Indians were not; and after Atwood and Teagarden were laid out on the floor, it was an easy matter for the Indians to tie them, hand and foot, which they proceeded to do. They then leisurely chopped Atwood to pieces with their tomahawks, but were more considerate in disposing of Teagarden, whom they shot and instantly killed. They also killed a small boy, son of Teagarden's, and seriously wounded another boy and a girl of some nine or ten years, leaving them all for dead. Fearing trouble before the drunken quarrel was over, Mrs. Teagarden had gone to the Wilcox home, and was away when the other members of the family were murdered. The boy, Isaac, and his sister, Marie, survived their injuries and grew to maturity, married and removed from the state many years ago. After completing their ghastly work, the Indians set fire to the house, stole a horse from the stable, and, after taking possession of everything of value to them, made good their escape. But they were captured some time afterwards, indicted by the grand jury of Clayton county, tried and convicted, but none of them ever suffered the penalty of their crimes. One was killed by his fellows in a fight in the jail, another died, and the other escaped, but was killed by members of his tribe. The unpronounceable names of these worthless savages is not a material point in the recital of this, the first murder in Fayette county. The widow of Teagarden married Zopher Perkins, who lived near Taylorsville. A strange coincidence is the fact that an older son of Teagarden, who lived at Dubuque at the time of the massacre, came to the identical locality and built another house and sold liquor to the Indians. He was indicted by the Clayton county grand jury and fined one hundred dollars for this transgression of the law. This occurred on the L4th of June, 1847. Another of the Teagarden boys was indicted for the same offense the next year.

The commission of such a crime as above narrated, in the sparsely settled community, naturally created great excitement and an Indian outbreak was thought to be imminent. A courier was dispatched to Dubuque to inform the authorities and preparations were at once made to receive the dusky foe, which then outnumbered the whites a hundred to one. But the Winnebagoes were for the most part a peaceful, inoffensive race, and were seldom in trouble except under provocation, or when fired with liquor, as in the case here mentioned.

Wilcox, Orrear and Beatty were the first to visit the scene of this terrible disaster, and they buried the dead in the ruins of the cabin where the deed had been committed. Mrs. Teagarden remained at the Wilcox house for some weeks after the death of her husband, when she was taken by Wilcox to Dubuque where some of her family still remained. We next hear of her as the wife of Perkins, and living near Taylorsville, as previously related.

The Wilcox cabin, after it was abandoned by that family for a home nearer his land, was the temporary home of a number of the early families in that locality. Among those who lived in it were William Van Dorn, the Hensleys, P. F. Newton. James and Samuel Robertson. The Van Dorn child, which was probably the first white child born in this county, first saw the light in the Wilcox cabin.

Orrear and Beatty were partners for a time in their land holdings, but the former bought the interests of Beatty in the fall of 1843, and Beatty selected another location near by. Orrear was married to Angelina Wilcox, February 25, 1844, and they carried on an extensive dairy business for a number of years, selling their products at Fort Atkinson. Thus early was developed the profits and wisdom of dairying in Fayette county.

In the fall of 1843 the Oatman family located on the prairie northwest of the present site of Arlington and built a house of considerable pretensions for that early day. But their holdings were soon sold to St. John. and seven of the nine members of the Oatman family were murdered by Indians during their attempt to emigrate to California.

M. C. Sperry came to Fairfield township in 1846, but had made a prospecting tour to the county three years previously. He was one of the first justices of the peace elected in Hewitt township, while this county was still under the domination of Clayton county. Mr. Sperry was a prominent and useful citizen of Fairfield township during the balance of his life time.

Taylorsville, of the "long ago," would be an unimportant factor in the history of Fairfield township but for the life work of a few very early pioneers there whose families are now nearly or quite extinct. In this connection we mention Jared Taylor, who laid out the town; M. C. Sperry, who did the first breaking of land in the vicinity; William Stevenson, who built the saw mill in 18J4; Mr. Bassett, who opened the first store in 1852, and Robert Powers and Nathan Putnam, who started in mercantile business a year or two later; Joshua Mead, who was the "architect" and builder of the saw mill; George L. Ransom, who entertained the traveling public at his private home, and Jacob Hartman who opened a hotel in 1856; Peter Kuney and family were early hotel keepers there, as they were, also, at Brush Creek; William White was an early merchant at Taylorsville.

It would hardly be proper to mention the names of the sporting fraternity who resided at Taylorsville, or were frequenters of the place, since some scenes were enacted in early days which would not reflect credit upon the citizenship of those times. Suffice to say that Taylorsville was a medley of contradictions, in that it was once the wickedest place in Fayette county, and at the same time one of the most religious. Horse racing, gambling, drinking, public dances and general carousing were in order at all times, even when religious meetings were in progress in the town.

Jacob S. Gain located near Taylorsville in the fall of 1850, and he and members of his family became prominent in the county's later history. Dr. Silas Taylor and his brother Jared were among the earliest settlers and figured prominently in the county organization period. Samuel Taylor (another brother?) built and operated the first blacksmith shop, but the building soon burned and Taylor was succeeded in the business by Giles Miller, who was also an early justice of the peace, and who was a resident of the county for more than forty years. His last residence, however, was at Hazelton, in Buchanan county.

The steam saw mill erected by William Stevenson soon passed into the hands of Philander Rawson, who, with his son, Walter, later controlled nearly the entire sawing business in the south part of the county. Mr. Rawson purchased a water mill on Brush creek, erected by Jacob Kauffman in early days, and in time merged it into a large and well equipped steam mill, which for many years did a very large business. Walter Rawson subsequently built a steam mill at Arlington, which he operated in connection with an extensive lumber business at the time of his death a few years ago.

The "paper" town of Centerville was brought to the attention of the early settlers in Fairfield through a trifling misunderstanding between Doctor Taylor and William Stevenson. The latter platted a portion of his land and attempted to establish a new town, practically adjoining the old. But Taylorsville had come to stay, and the effort at supplanting it in name proved abortive. Stevenson operated a small store before the opening of the Bassett store (which is credited with being the first mercantile establishment), but Bassett's was the first complete stock of goods displayed in the town. Stevenson was also the first postmaster in the place, though the office was established through the agency and influence of the Taylors. Previously to this, the mail for Taylorsville was carried, irregularly, from Elkader, and later from Volga City. Until after the close of the Civil war, the terminus of the Wadena mail route was at Taylorsville, except as it had one weekly delivery at government expense, and if Wanted oftener, it was sent for at private expense.

The old tavern at Taylorsville, erected in 1856, was kept by M. D. Covell for many years, though he was not the first landlord, as has been stated elsewhere. Peter Kuney succeeded to a monopoly of the hotel business in later years, and operated it, undisturbed, until the town was moved to Brush Creek, when he hitched to the old hotel and moved it over to the other town and operated it there until his death. He was quite successful, both as a hotel keeper and in the accumulation of wealth. Another pioneer in the vicinity of Taylorsville was Hon. W. R. Morley, better known as "Deacon" Morley. His was a character worthy of emulation. The Deacon was a native of Massachusetts, though he came to Iowa from Illinois. He was poor, but by industry and economy, virtues which he possessed beyond that of the average man, he became quite wealthy. And yet with all his "pinching" economy, he was a very liberal man in the distribution of his wealth to worthy applicants. Being childless, he and his wife reared and educated several orphan children and left them well provided for in later life. Mr. Morley was liberal in donating to the building and support of churches, though he never connected himself with any religious denomination. But for his liberality in this direction it is doubtful if the United Brethren church at Brush Creek ever could have been built and sustained. This was the religious home of his wife, and though he was liberal in donating to other religious organizations, it is probable that his contributions to the United Brethren were larger and more regular than to the others.

Deacon Morley was a man of sound judgment, but lacking in education. His inherent goodness and unquestioned integrity placed him in places of trust and honor for which he was not otherwise qualified. But his record as a member of the Iowa Legislature would compare favorably with that of many others elected to the same position during the last sixty years.


A log school house was built in Taylorsville in 1850, this being the first school house erected in the township. Charles Jones, who came to the county with Lorenzo Dutton and others, was the first teacher, and the winter of 1850-1 witnessed the opening of the educational process in the southern part of the county. But schools were opened at Lima, Fayette and West Union about this time, though it is not certain as to which of the four mentioned was the first.

Some of the patrons of this school, besides those previously mentioned, were David German. Elder Lowe, George McKinney, the Lonsherry, Cook, King, Adams and Glidden families.

Mrs. Henry Wilcox, who now lives near the old parental home, was one of the pupils in the first school taught in Taylorsville. She is a daughter of Jacob S. Guin, who died on the overland trip to California. Clarissa Seeley was the successor of Charles Jones. She became the wife of John Moine, who made the first land entry in the county. During the existence of the log school house, it also served the people for a place of worship, for town meetings of all kinds, shows. etc. Some of the pioneer ministers who served the people at this time are mentioned in "Recollections of Arlington and Vicinity," by James Cooney. Taylorsville never had a church building, though religious services were conducted in the town from early pioneer days, mostly by the United Brethren denomination. Rev. William Moore who began preaching on the Taylorsville circuit in the early fifties, received for two years' pastoral work the sum of thirty dollars in cash and two bed quilts!

The schools of this township are operated under the rural independent district system, there being seven independent districts, besides the independent district of Arlington. The latter is presented in Mr. Cooney's article, to which we add in this connection, the following: Number of teachers employed, six; duration of school, nine months; compensation of teachers, one male, ninety dollars per month, and five females at an average compensation of forty three dollars and thirty three cents per month. There are two hundred and forty nine persons of school age in the district, of whom two hundred and thirty nine were enrolled in the schools, with an average daily attendance of one hundred and eighty. The average cost of tuition per month for each pupil was one dollar and ninety four cents. There were twenty four non resident pupils enrolled in the schools during the last year, from whom was realized in tuition fees one hundred and twenty four dollars and twenty cents. The school house is valued at six thousand five hundred dollars, the value of school apparatus is two hundred dollars, and there are nine hundred and forty seven volumes in the school library.

The rural independent districts employed one male teacher and six females, at salaries ranging from thirty dollars per month in one district, to forty two dollars and thirty three cents in another, the average for the entire township being thirty seven dollars and thirty cents. The schools were in session eight months in the year, and one hundred and forty three of the two hundred and eighteen pupils of school age were enrolled in the schools. The seven school houses are valued at four thousand five hundred dollars, the school apparatus in them is valued at six hundred and seventy five dollars, and there are four hundred and ninety nine volumes in the school district libraries.


Arlington has three church edifices, representing the Christian, the Methodist Episcopal and the United Brethren denominations.

Mention is made of these in Mr. Cooney's article, and but little more need be said. The same is true of the social and fraternal societies of the place, though the Masonic history is worthy of more than passing notice, and the interested reader is referred to the history of Freemasonry in Fayette county, by Past Grand Master D. W. Cements.

The United Brethren church has not been in a prosperous condition for a number of years. This is due, in part, to the death or removal of some of the prominent members whose contributions and influence kept the organization together; but the principal cause was due to the division of the church throughout the country on certain disciplinary changes by the general conference some twenty five years ago. Some churches accepted the change without question, while others revolted and continued to maintain the original organization, assuming that they 'were the United Brethren church in fact, and that the adherents to the new disciplinary doctrines were seceders. This brought litigation, weakened both branches of the church, and has resulted in the disorganization of many churches. The Arlington church still has services by the "Radical" branch, or what they term to be "the original United Brethren church," and a regular pastor of that faith is stationed there. It is claimed that this denomination was the first to enter the field, and that Rev. John Brown preached the first gospel sermon at the Orrear cabin in 1847, and that continuous services were kept up by traveling ministers until the Brush Creek church was organized in 1876. The church was built and dedicated two years later. The building committee consisted of W. R. Moorley, Jonas Gunn. Lucius Carey, Rev. O. R. Robbins (who was also the builder) and Dr. C. F. Waldron. The building is of brick, thirty two by forty eight feet, sixteen feet high, surmounted by a spire and belfry.

Bye James Cooney.

A flourishing, incorporated town located in section 28 of Fairfield township, with a population of about eight hundred and fifty. This township has some of the richest and most valuable agricultural land in Iowa. The town was platted in 1856, on land owned by C. D. and T. E. Shambaugh, D. C. Finney, F. R. Hynes. Nelson Huckins and Isaac Walrath. The town was named Brush Creek and was known by this name until the railroad was built into the place.

When the name of the town was changed to Arlington, R. N. Hibbard, Es., was mayor, and was the leader of the citizens favoring the change of name, which was objected to by some of the older residents and by the officers of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. Hon. L A. Thompson, being then a member of the Legislature for Fayette county, succeeded in having the law of the state amended so as to compel the railway company to change the name of the station to Arlington. The place for a time was known as Mouton, one Charles Moe being the first white land owner and settler there. Moe sold his land to C. D. and T. E. Shambaugh, December 20, 1856. The Shambaugh were the first business men in the town; they built a log house where they kept hotel and a general store.

York Lodge No. 202. Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, was established at Tavlorsville. January 26, 1867, but was removed to Brush Creek in 1873.

The township elections were held at Taylorsville until 1872, when a change of voting place was made to Brush Creek. Soon after the location of the present railway, at and through Brush Creek, several buildings, including the present hotel building, were removed from Taylorsville and with them nearly all the business of this hitherto prosperous village.

There is now a large, well kept cemetery near the old town plat of Taylorsville, which is the most used burial ground for southeast part of the county.

The first public school in Brush Creek was taught by Samuel Taylor in the school house known as Newton school house which was moved to the village. There is now a large two story brick building which was built in 1877, and an addition thereto, afterwards built. The estimated value of Arlington public school property is six thousand five hundred dollars.


The Christian church (church of Christ) was organized in April, 1858, under ministration of Elder Brittel, and was the only denomination owning and maintaining a church building here until 1876, when the Methodist Episcopal church was organized, and a church building erected. In the year 1878 the United Brethren congregation built its present brick church. These three denominations now have good church buildings here and hold regular Sabbath services. A German Lutheran congregation holds services here at times, but has no church building.

Arlington enjoys a fine modern waterworks system put in at a first cost of about five thousand dollars, which has been improved and extended at an additional cost since. The waterworks is the property of the town. Arlington also has gas works (acetylene), owned by a private corporation, which gives a fine service and is well patronized.

The first bank established here was by Rawson & Rice, known as Brush Creek Bank. Rawson & Rice (A. Rawson and Ed. Rice) were also livestock buyers and energetic business men who did much to make the town prosper in a business way. There are now two banks at Arlington: First State Bank, of which D. B. Allen is cashier and Miss Fannie Bates bookkeeper. Chauncey Deming is president of this bank. The First National Bank was established in 1910, and T. J. Ainsworth is cashier. This new national bank is now erecting its bank building. Guy L. Rawson is president of the bank, and John Wilken vice president. He is a prosperous business man of the town, and was the chief promoter of the new bank.

The town was visited by a cyclone in June, 1883, which wrecked the Methodist Episcopal church, and several dwelling houses. No person was fatally injured, but considerable property was wrecked and some narrow escapes were reported.

Arlington has a good opera house of two stories. The second story is used as lodge rooms by the Masons, Odd Fellows, Modern Woodmen of America, Royal Neighbors, Grand Army of the Republic and other societies of the town. There is a town hall owned by the city, where council meetings and elections are held, and where the town keeps its fire extinguishing hose and other property. This hall was built at a cost of two thousand dollars, exclusive of value of lot.

The following is a partial list of the pioneers and former business men of the town and vicinity, now deceased, who were most active and contributed most to the building and prosperity of the town:

Andrew Ainsworth, farmer; William Ainsworth, farmer and carpenter; William Anglemyer, farmer; Vernon Arbuckle, retired farmer; Alex Anderson, machinist; P. G. Abbott, fanner; Adam Becker, merchant and farmer; Charles Bond, retired farmer; Chancy Brooks, retired farmer; Ira Calkins, retired farmer; James Crawford, retired farmer; James Cole, retired fanner; James Dempster, farmer; George L. Doane, farmer; Michael Eckert. retired fanner; Samuel Fereclay, fanner; A. J. Fish, farmer; Charles Glime, retired fanner; Fred Clime, merchant, fanner, politician, etc.; D. B. Hoxton, retired farmer; George Hancock, farmer; Jacob Hill, farmer; W. H. Hoover, merchant; Mat Hammas, tinner and plumber; Charles Jaques, farmer; Albert Johnson, fanner; James Kennedy, farmer; Peter Kuney, hotel keeper and farmer; J. D. Kuney, livery and feed stable; L. C. Kuney. merchant; William King, retired fanner; W. F. Lackey, retired farmer; M. Lackey, wagon maker; Peter Leonheart, farmer; Charles K. Leonheart, druggist; W. D. Little, cooper; John W. Lickiss, retired farmer; Eugene Moine, farmer; William McAlavey, fanner; A. C. Manson, farmer; John Mead, retired farmer; Mathew McCrea, merchant; Joseph Menges, retired fanner; William R. Morley, farther, Henry Moyer, farmer; J. P. Moine, farmer; Palmer F. Newton, farmer; O. H. Osborn, owner and editor "News"; S. T. Oviatt, proprietor furniture store; William Philips, attorney at law and fanner; Calvin Perkins, farmer; L. Page, farmer; Albert Probasco, farmer, ex-member county board supervisors; Philander Rawson, farmer; Walter Rawson, sawmill, lumber dealer; Edward Rice, hanker. ex-member Legislature; George Rice, farmer; S. E. Rice, farmer; James Richards, farmer; O. R. Robbins, United Brethren preacher and mechanic; J. B. Squires, retired farmer; George Simpson, Sr., retired farmer; C. D. Shambaugh, merchant and fanner; T. E. Shambaugh, merchant and fanner; Ben Shambaugh, justice of the peace and farm owner; James Shambaugh, retired farmer; Monroe Shumway, druggist; W. H. Smith, drayman; William Spatcher, blacksmith; William Truesdell, retired farmer and carpenter; William F. Taylor, retired farmer; Killen M. Voshell, retired fanner; Alex. Vandell, merchant; Isaac Walrath„ farmer and hardware; Jacob H. Valrath, farmer and hardware; Stephen Vestcott, retired farmer; Loyd Vestcott, farmer; G. Wheeland, physician; Chandler Wilcox, farmer; C. G. Wheeland, farmer; Peter White, attorney at law and farmer; W. C. White. merchant; R. A. Wilcox. farmer; Heiman Wilson, retired farmer.

Among the pioneer settlers advanced in years not now actively engaged in business, now having good homes in the town and most of them well to do farmers, all highly respected citizens, are:

Hon. Andrew Addis, ex-clerk of district court and member of General Assembly, representative from Fayette county; Joseph Antoine, W. H. Benedict, J. A. Blanchard, James Carnal, Robert Ewing, J. A. Foster, W. C. Glime, J. T. Gable, John Howard, Lewis James, J. R. McDonald, Charles Roe.

The principal business firms now are as follows:
Attorneys at Law - John Hutchison, D. D. Palmer.
Blacksmiths - Jake Montz, Robert Rutherford, H. Roloff.
Banks - First State Bank, D. B. Allen, cashier; First National Bank, T. J. Ainsworth, cashier.
Barbers - G. A. Goodspeed, ____ Robbins.
Boots and Shoes - William Powell.
Billiard Hall - Emmet Taylor, proprietor.
Creamery - Farmers Co-operative Company.
Cement worker - Charles Cushion.
Cooper's Shop - J. H. Little.
Carpenters - Frank Ainsworth, M. Lackey, R. L. Newton, Robert Hunter, Henry L. Palmer, J. P. Wiltsie, Albert Wilson.
Clothing Store - T. L. Gleim, manager.
Draymen - Oliver Murphy and Andrew Perkins.
Drug stores - Walter M. Shumway, D. and B. B. Walrath.
Dentist - Dr. E. S. Taylor.
Furniture and Undertaking - W. H. Gleim & Sons.
Feed Mills - R. L. Newton, John Silha & Son.
Grocery Stores - E. D. Allen, G. C. Bates.
General Stores, Dry Goods and Groceries - J. M. Welch, Frank Kuney Company, George A. Lickiss, G. C. Bates (extensive grocery trade).
Hotel - St. Cloud, W. Kenyon, proprietor.
Harness Makers - William House, J. C. Milken.
Hardware Stores, Harness Stock and Farm Implements - Jewell & Moyer, John C. Wilken.
Ice Business - Floyd Finney.
Jewelry Store - A. R. Bird.
Livery Stables - George Hyde, L. Rittenhouse.
Lumber Dealers - Keve Lumber Company, Guy L. Rawson.
Meat Market - H. Schoeppe.
Millinery Store - Floy-Hallack.
Newspaper - W. F. Lake, editor.
Opera House - Kingsley, proprietor.
Painters - Roy Newton, L. J. Palmer.
Photograph Gallery - C. Stetter.
Postmaster - O. Z. Wellman.
Physicians and Surgeons - O. O. Ayer, C. E. Bower (homeopathic) Gates M. Brown.
Racket Store - C. B. Woodson.
Real Estate - A. Rittenhouse.
Restaurant - Crothers.
Saw Mill - Guy L. Rawson.
Stock and Grain Buyer - George Simpson & Son.
Teamsters - Paul Hendrickson, A. Hulderson, C. N. Finney.
Tinner and Plumbers - E. D. Miller, John Cramer, both with Jewell & Moyer.
Veterinarian - Dr. C. M. Allen.
Wagon Shops - M. Lackey, H. Roloff.

By James Cooney.

Taylorsville, a former town located' on section 22 and 23 of Fairfield township, was laid out by farad Taylor, who settled here in 1851. A log school house was erected here in 1850 and school was taught in the building. The United Brethren church ministers held regular church services in this log school house, among whom were Revs. Israel Shaffer, John Dollarhide, William Moore, George Watrous, Enoch Fothergill, Willis Bunton, John Brown, the latter beginning his ministerial career in the county in 1847.

Killen Voshell and Hannah Taylor were married at Taylorsville in March, 185L, by farad Taylor, justice of the peace. Mr. Voshell resided near here on his large valuable farm until his death in 1909.

In 1856 Jacob Hartman opened a hotel at Taylorsville; Peter Kuney and his son. J. D. Kuney, kept the hotel when the town was at its best. This town at one time had a large trade. A. M. Childs conducted a general merchandise store as early as 1860. Becker and Kuney and William White had good stores here also.

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