History of Illyria Township, Fayette County, IA
From: Past and Present of Fayette County, Iowa
B. F. Bowen & Company
Indianapolis, Indiana 1910

ILLYRIA TOWNSHIP.

Close to the north bank of the Volga are still seen the holes where were the two fireplaces of the double log house known as the Culver Trading Post. This has been recognized as the first permanent white man's. dwelling built in Fayette county, though undoubtedly an error, since the Wilcox brothers, at an earlier date, had erected a log house in the Volga valley near the line dividing Westfield from Smithfield township, as is rembered by A. J. Hensley.

George Culver was a banker in Ypsilanti Michigan, who came to Iowa to trade with the Indians, having for a partner one Joseph Hewitt, a man somewhat notorious in the early history of the county. Culver removed to St. Paul about 1848 where he kept a wholesale establishment for supplying goods to his various Indian posts. Two or three logs are still lying near the old site, but nearly all of hewed rock elm are doing duty as a hog house for William D. Mattocks, who now owns the place. Formerly a spring broke forth at the foot of the bank on which the house stood, but no trace of that remains. A few rods northwest an Indian chief was put to rest on his way to the happy hunting grounds. A log inclosure was built in which the dead chief was seated with gun and tomahawk, and there remained till time and worms destroyed the body; but what became of gun and tomahawk is unknown. Scattered here and there in the vicinity are, or were, other Indian graves. Formerly human bones and implements of war and chase were turned up by the plow. Quite a large burying ground was discovered on the farm owned in early days by Milton Crow. The old man fenced it out and left it undisturbed while he lived on the farm.

Levi Cousins, an old and respected resident of Wadena, remembers seeing on the place now owned by James Corbin three poles about sixteen feet high, hewed eight sided, which stood for many years bearing tomahawks, spearheads, and the scalp of a white woman. The trading post stood on section 26, about half a mile east of the creamery owned by F. J. Schroeder, on a portion of the five hundred thousand acre grant made April 4, 1841, by the United States government to the state of Iowa.

The first entry after Culver's, near Wadena, seems to have been made by Samuel Stevens, in 1851, a forty acre lot lying on both sides of the river which crossed it about midway, and included the mill site, and most of the land where Wadena now stands. Mr. Stevens sold to Horace Country man and his father. both millwrights. They constructed a dam, and the elder Countryman built a house and sawmill in 1853-4, and four years later, in 1857-8, Horace built a gristmill in partnership with Major D. B. Herriman, the latter furnishing the funds, and the former the plans and much of the workmanship.

But the next entry of land in Illyria township, after Culver's (who entered on sections 22, 26 and 27, June 25, 1849) was made by Andrew J. Hensley. on section 19, in October, 1849. Hensley had lived in the county for five years previous to this. The land which he entered at that time, subsequently became a part of the David Fussell farm.

Many years ago the sawmill above referred to was dragged from its foundation by a tree catching in its timbers when floating down the river in a flood. The dam likewise was destroyed in 1903, and the grist mill badly damaged. On the representation of Mr. Olmstead (Mr. Culver being short of funds) Maj. D. B. Herriman bought the section on which the trading post was located, without seeing it, and on visiting the place, was so well pleased that he bought also the forty acres entered by Stevens and added gradually to his domain till one thousand four hundred acres were his. He it was who gave the name Wadena to the place, in memory of a former chief, a friend of his. He built the largest house in the county at the time, and Thomas Fennell made the brick close by. Mr. Fennell still lives there.

In the spring of 1852 the county judge appointed Joshua Cousins, Thomas Markley and Asa Parks a committee to organize the township.

They met at the Culver trading post, and using some stumps standing just eastward, they placed a board on the tops for a table, and so in the open air completed the organization. The following persons were duly chosen for office: Township clerk, Thomas Markley; justice of the peace, Asa Parks; constable, Isaac Parks.

Being the eldest member of the community, Joshua Cousins was privileged to name the township. So the name Illyria was selected from the town of Illyria in Ohio, where he had formerly lived. The first election was held the following autumn, in a grove about half a mile north of the Robert A. Richardson place, now owned by Mrs. Ella Clothier, of Fayette, and near the site of the late William Pritchard's home.

The first fair was held the same year, near the same place about one mile southeast. The attendance was large, something like a hundred persons being present! (See Miscellaneous chapter for more complete history of the Illyria fair.)

Before a township could be organized, there must have been people to organize. Settlers had begun to arrive. First came the transitory population, composed mostly of mere squatters, whose names have disappeared. But others who were to remain for the rest of their lives came also. Possibly to some of them were born children on the soil of Illyria. But the first white child who saw the light of the sun in Illyria township, so far as is now known, was Hugh Lockard, born near the south center of the township, a few rods from the line.

For the benefit of those who have believed that Hugh Lockard was the first white male child born in the county, let it suffice to say that his birth occurred October 20, 1850, having been preceded eighteen days by Oscar W. Rogers, at West Union. But several other births in the county antedate these.

In the spring of 1849, a young man left Cornwall, England, and duly arrived in Wisconsin. In September, 1849, he chose a place in northern Illyria, followed the next month by his father, and some of his brothers and sisters. Walter Humphrey entered from the government the farm now owned by. Fred Messerli. Mr. McLaughlin, the place now owned by James T. S. Humphrey, Samuel Holton, the place now owned by Thomas Kerr, while there were those who early came and soon went. Their places were taken by such well known persons as Eaton, Speed, Foxwell, J. O. and W. K. Albright, William Moored, A. W. Kimball, Willard Robbins, R. H. May, C. W. Strong, D. D. D. Briggs, A. J. Patterson, Phil Lowers, Alex. Peters, Joseph Ogle, Daniel Mattocks, Ed. Elwell, O. L. Gilson, John McMillan, George Stansberry, R. A. Richardson, Joseph Holsworth, the Sargents, Thomas Kinsey, William Morras, William Pritchard, Peter Eller, Heinrich Hidinger, Thomas Fennell and others, families well known. Some of their descendants grew to useful citizenship, and still live in the township (see personal sketches).

Very early in the settlement of the township children of the hardy pioneers were found gathered in schools. Very little of the apparatus now deemed essential was there. Log houses. with open fire places, with slabs for stools, with few or no desks. In such buildings children conned their lessons, and froze their backs, while they blistered their faces at the fire places, in the freezing winters. But they learned, and some became scholars, while others failed, as they do now. But spelling flourished. There were giants in those days, and they fought in the spelling contests in the old fashioned "spelling schools." How they did enjoy those simple recreations! The spelling match, the speaking, and at "recess," the wrestling matches and other pioneer amusements!

Wadena "first doctor" was pronouncing words from memory though looking at the spelling book, to decide a hotly contested bout between the Vadena school and a neighboring one and put out the word "document." It was spelled correctly at the first trial, but the doctor's "mental picture" was wrong! We opine he would spell document "document," to this day! He lives in Arlington, and the "pupil" who wasn't downed is writing this article!

The coming of the railroad up the beautiful Volga valley meant much to the progress of Wadena and Illyria township, not alone because of the steady advance in values, which followed, but also in the moral and intellectual advancement. With the railroad came fresh blood and business energy, and from 1877 Wadena took an upward trend. Previously the little hamlet seemed to be in a rut, and most of its citizens were indifferent to the emoluments of honest effort and economical habits. For many years the weekly horse race in the Herriman lane, with its attendant saloon equipment and other features of gambling, furnished the principal amusements and revenue - to the fortunate. Nearly all of the inhabitants in early days were dependent upon daily labor for a livelihood and the Herriman estate, with the mills, and lumbering interests furnished the employment. The people were all poor, hence Major Herriman was looked upon as a kind of benefactor and right well he realized his prominence and importance in this respect. He was not a bad taskmaster, in that he was not over exacting in the amount of labor required, and was always ready to pay. Many of his employes received their pay, in whole or in part, in pork, flour and other products of the big farm, and usually at fair prices. But the Herriman influence predominated, and it was not by any means a saintly influence!

TOWN OF WADENA.

The existence of Wadena dates from the establishment of the Culver Trading Post, about a mile east of the present town, in the year 1841. But Culver came to nearby territory in Clayton ccunty and was elected one of the county commissioners of that county in 1838. He was also assessor of Clayton county in 1839, and became associated with Joe Hewitt, in that county, in 1841. In that year he came to the vicinity of Brush creek, in this county, and assisted the Mumfords in building their house (the second one) and soon thereafter opened the trading post near the present town of Wadena. He continued his traffic with the Indians until their removal to Minnesota in 1848, and accompanied them on their northern migration. During the severe winter of 1842-3, the Indians suffered greatly and were threatened with starvation. Culver came to their rescue and let them have the necessaries of life on credit. Being unable to colleet from the Indians during the succeeding three years, he and Hewitt went to Washington in 1846 and presented their claims to the government and received their pay from that source. This trading post then became the nucleus to the little village which came into existence in 1855, when Horace Countryman and his father built a saw mill and established a home on the present town site; but it was not known as Wadena at that time. (The first postoffice name of the place was "Wardena.")

In 1857, Major David B. Herriman traded Minnesota property to Culver for the latter's possessions here without the formality of an examination. "The Major" was so well pleased with his bargain that he continued to add to his possessions in real estate until he had accumulated a large and valuable tract at the time of his death in the seventies. Major Herriman was Indian agent at Crow Wing, Minnesota all Indian agents have military titles, usually that of "Major," and this answers a question often asked with reference to Major Herriman and while so engaged, became acquainted with Mr. Culver. The latter had a contract for freighting goods from St. Paul, the head of steamboat navigation, to Indian agencies in Minnesota and elsewhere, and thus became acquainted with the agent at Crow Wing, which culminated in the exchange of "squatter rights" between himself and Major Herriman. But when the land came into market, a few years after the exchange was made, Culver returned and entered it, and it is presumed that Major Herriman performed the same service in Minnesota for Culver.

The home of the Herrimans was established in the double log house erected for a trading post, and continued there for several years, during which time the well appointed three story brick house was erected, which, for many years, was the admiration and envy, too of the poor pioneers who lived in houses not comparable in value and conveniences to the hewed log building which the Herrimans had abandoned.

The town of Wadena was laid out by Horace and Elizabeth Countryman and David and Elizabeth Herriman, in July, 1857, and the plat was recorded May 11, 1859. For many years the village had a tardy growth and was as "backwoodsy" as any of its backwoods competitors. The first store was opened there by A. H. Blake, and he was followed by Webster, J. N. Hageman, D. A. Brown, who remained in business longest, and kept the most complete stock of goods prior to the coming of the railroad in 1878. Up to the date last written there was never more than one store in the village, if we except the few knick knacks always to be found in the ever present saloon. On the 2d of June, 1878, the first shipment of goods was made over the railroad from the station at Vadena. The village remained the western terminus of the Volga Valley railroad until the winter of 1881, when it was extended to West Union, which is now the terminus of the Volga Valley branch of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. Almost seven miles of this road traverse Illyria township, while the corporation of Wadena has ninety one hundredths miles. The assessed valuation of the road in this township is three thousand five hundred dollars per mile, or a total valuation for assessment purposes of twenty four thousand one hundred eighty five dollars. The United States Express Company operates seven and eighty one hundredths miles of line in the town and township, with an assessment valuation of two hundred seventy four dollars. The same mileage of the Western Union Telegraph Company has a valuation of six hundred twenty five dollars. The Iowa Telephone Company has six miles of line in the township, valued at five hundred and seventy one dollars, and the Interstate has three and one fourth miles, valued at one hundred and seventy five dollars.

THE WADENA SCHOOL.

With the coming of the first pioneers a log school house was built just north of the village site, and schools, religious services, shows, and all public meetings of the town and vicinity were conducted there for many years. The writer was engaged to teach the school there during the winter of 1865-6, but a religious meeting held about the time the school was to commence was the probable cause of the burning of the school house. (It will be remembered that in the days of which we are writing there was a good deal said about "fire and brimstone," and this might have been a case of "spontaneous combustion.") But the absence of the district school was compensated for, in a measure, by the would be teacher organizing a commercial school, whereat all the young people of the town and community and some older ones were enrolled, and the capacity of "Hageman's Hall" about sixteen feet square was taxed in true pioneer style. Some learned to write and keep accounts, but more improved the art of "sparking," in which accomplishment none seemed to be deficient! This teacher was somewhat of a monopolist, in that he held the office of township clerk from 1869 to 1877, the office of township assessor six years of the time covered by the above dates, and the office of secretary of the township school board during the last four years of the above "time limit," resigning all when he removed from the township in the spring of 1877.

The burned school house was succeeded by a stone structure of somewhat larger dimensions than the one destroyed, this one being eighteen by thirty six feet, all in one room. It was an unsightly edifice, erected on contract with Major Herriman, for a consideration of eight hundred dollars. It immediately came into the same services required of the old one, for Wadena had not then even thought of a church, opera house or public hall. The first term was taught in this house by the "monopolist" above mentioned, who continued to hold the position during eight succeeding winter terms, with the exception of one winter. Ninety four pupils, of all ages, from the trundle bed to young men older than the teacher, were enrolled during the first term in the "new school house." An assistant was provided, but it does not require a strong stretch of the imagination to discern how unsatisfactory would be the recitations of two classes at the same time, in opposite ends of the same room. Slab benches were provided, some of them actually having backs to them. These were loose, and could be moved around as needed, provided there was enough muscle applied. Wide planks were fastened around the walls on two sides; with stationary plank seats affixed. When the pupils were at study, they sat with their backs against the edge of this sloping plank "desk"; but when writing time came, they gracefully dismounted and faced the stone wall! A huge "box stove" filled the requirements for heating purposes, it being stationed well to the front, so that the heads of the pupils sitting under about ten yards of hot stove pipe might not get their ears frozen! The benches were high enough to prevent the little folks from beating a tattoo on the floor, and thus annoy the larger pupils who had their backs against the edge of the plank desk. The lighting was on a par with the other arrangements, and as for ventilation well, such a thing had never been heard of! Neither had carbonic acid gas and the other "ingredients" found in the breath of ninety four persons confined for six hours a day in the same room. Is it any wonder that children went home sick with headache? But this is only a feeble representation of the typical pioneer school in Illyria, as well as all other pioneer localities, except that few of them could boast of having solid stone school houses. But soon after the advent of the railroad, and the incoming of quite an addition to the population, conditions were revolutionized in the village of Wadena. Soon a brick school house of two rooms was erected down in the town, and pupils were "graded" according to their advancement. On the 22d of July, 1895, the town was incorporated, and an independent town district established. (Previously the school had been sustained by the district township.) During the year 1909, an addition was built to the school house, which was otherwise improved, with the possibility of four rooms, three being now utilized, and three teachers employed. The value of the building at present is about three thousand five hundred dollars, and it is a credit to any town of the size. During the year 1909, two female teachers were employed during a period of eight months, at an average salary of forty three dollars and fifty cents per month. There were one hundred nineteen persons of school age in the district, of whom ninety four were enrolled in the school, with an average daily attendance of sixty two. The average cost of tuition per month for each pupil was one dollar and twenty three. The value of apparatus used in the school is one hundred eighty dollars, and there are two hundred two volumes in the school library.

In 1871 a Catholic church was erected, under the jurisdiction of Thomas Fennell, Sr., and this served the purposes of the large congregation of Catholics within reach of it, until a year or two ago, when it was torn down and a handsome structure erected on the site of the old building. See history of the Catholic church for further details. The abandoned school house, after being plastered outside and in, was turned into a church for the United Brethren, and served this purpose until the building of the handsome little union church down town. It has been merged into a dwelling house.

For many years after the building of the mills at Wadena they were the principal incentive to the farmers to visit the place. There was no hotel, and seldom a boarding house, in the town until after the railroad Was completed to the place; hence men and boys not accustomed to visiting saloons were forced to patronize them in an endeavor to get something to eat as well as to drink.

But an entirely different moral tone pervades the locality at present, and there is a growing tendency to eliminate every feature of lawlessness, and this is supported by the best people in the town. Mention has been made of the three first merchants in the place, but these have been followed by many other excellent men. Prominent among them is George G. Scott, who came to the town with the railroad, and owned and operated a large mercantile business for about thirty years. Mr. Scott is a man of great industry, backed by keen business sagacity and an untarnished record as an honest and upright man. He probably did more for Wadena and surrounding country than any other merchant who ever lived there. He is now retired from active pursuits, enjoying the fruits of a well earned competence.

It would be impossible to enumerate all the business people who have located in Wadena, but we will give the names of a few who maintained a continuous residence there from pioneer days until death claimed them.

Thomas Markley was the pioneer carpenter. He reared a large family, some of whom reside in the town at present; Joseph Nicol was the first shoemaker, or cobbler; Joseph Mitchell was the first blacksmith, followed by George Ciple. All are dead except the last named, who lives in West Union. After various changes in the operation of the grist mill, Alvin Sears leased it and located there in the early sixties. He died of cancer many years ago. The mill subsequently fell into the hands of B. N. Talcott and Porter Nye, who greatly improved it in the seventies, but found it unprofitable in later years, due to the expense of hauling wheat in and manufactured products out, in competition with mills more favorably situated. Mr. Talcott died and Mr. Nye removed to Minnesota. Eber White was one of the first saloon keepers, followed by Philip Lowers. Both are long since dead. John Hellerich was the first harness maker, and his industry and good workmanship have made him wealthy. He still conducts the only business in his line. Stephen Seward, Cal Craw ford, Henry Cook, Heinrich Hidinger, Peter Eller, the three Fennell brothers, Martin Walters, were pioneer farmers. William Sargent was an early blacksmith in the village, though his parents were among the first settlers in northwestern Illyria, and William and his brother John did not locate in Wadena until in the early seventies. Together they operated a blacksmith and wagon shop for some years; but John removed from the county and William retired. He served several years as justice of the peace in Wadena.

Rev. William Moore, an early settler in northeastern Illyria, bought land in section 23, north of Wadena, in 1869, and opened up a new farm in the timber. He died in 1873, and the property was distributed among his heirs and is now owned by his son, Rev. Jasper S. Moore, who has developed it into a fine stock farm with good improvements and modern equipments. He has two hundred and fifty acres, acquired through the original homestead and several additions by purchase.

The township of Illyria is specially adapted to diversified farming. It was originally nearly all timber land, there being several sections of heavy timber, as good as any in the county. Most of this was held in early days by foreign speculators. It was tardy in development because of the high prices at which it was held, but is now all owned by residents of the township, and most of it has been cleared and turned into excellent farms. There was no prairie land of any consequence in Illyria township. It is rolling and in some localities quite hilly, but the acreage of waste land is small. It is well watered with neverfailing streams and many fine springs. The Volga river and its numerous tributaries are the principal sources of water supply, this river, at Wadena, furnishing one of the best water powers in the county.

EDUCATIONAL.

The schools of Illyria have always been the special pride of the people, and teachers have been well paid in the township, compared with the wages paid elsewhere, from the beginning of their career. As the settlement of the township progressed, schools were supplied by the district township board until there are now ten sub-districts with comfortable school houses, to supply the educational needs of two hundred and forty two pupils of school age in the rural districts. Of these, one hundred and sixty eight were enrolled during the last year, while several students were in attendance at higher institutions of learning. The average daily attendance in all the rural schools was one hundred and sixteen, and the average cost of tuition for each pupil, per month, was three dollars and five cents. Duration of the schools was seven and one tenth months. Fourteen female teachers were employed at an average compensation of thirty four dollars and eighty seven cents per month. The value of the ten school houses is conservatively estimated by the school officers at five thousand three hundred dollars, the school apparatus at one hundred and eighty seven dollars, and there are seven hundred and seventy six volumes in the school libraries.

CHURCH AND CEMETERIES.

The Illyria Union church was erected some years ago for the accommodation of all Protestant denominations, and is a neat and convenient edifice. It is located near the entrance to the Illyria cemetery, where nearly all of the early pioneers, and many of succeeding generations, are buried. In early times this was called Leo cemetery, and both church and cemetery are located on section 2, on the Elkader and West Union road.

There is a handsome, well kept cemetery at Wadcna, established about the time of Major Herriman's death, and his was one of the first interments there. It is located just east of the old stone school house. The ground for this cemetery was donated by Major Herriman, who erected a fine granite monument for himself and wife, before the death of either. Many interments have been made in this cemetery since it was opened to the public. and a visit by an early settler to the two burial places just described would reveal to him the resting place of most of his early friends and acquaintances.

CHANGED CONDITIONS.

But a new generation of people has come upon the stage of action in Illyria township, and but very few of the original settlers are to be found there. In some instances the sons and daughters of the pioneers are still to be found on the farms entered by their fathers, but the changes which time has wrought are indeed surprising when a candid thought is given to the subject. Perhaps a greater change is noticeable in the town of Wadena than elsewhere in the township, though many permanent and valuable improvements are noticeable everywhere.

Wadena has assumed the air of a prosperous and growing little town, with handsome, well kept homes, good streets and cement walks, with new additions opened as the expansion of the village requires. There is a good opera house, good hotel, several "up to date" mechanical shops, a progressive and wide awake citizenship, and men at the bottom of things who have integrity, public spirit and business energy.

WADENA SAVINGS BANK.

Not the least of Wadena's business growth in recent years is the establishment of the Wadena Savings Bank, this being the only monetary institution in the town or township. It was organized, principally, with local capital, and is controlled by local men. Edward Fennell, an early pupil of the writer's, is president and one of the principal stockholders. The directorate of the bank is composed of substantial farmers in the township, and a splendid business has been done from the start. People have confidence in the institution and its management, which is sufficient guarantee of its future success. A general banking business is transacted, and this is a great convenience to the people who were formerly obliged to go to West Union or Fayette to do their banking. The institution owns a fine brick building, erected with special reference to its needs, and the equipment compares favorably with that of any bank in the county.

POLITICAL HISTORY.

The political history of Illyria township is somewhat unique. Major Herriman and his five sons were all uncompromising Democrats and, during the years of Herriman dominance, controlled the politics of the township. Employes on the Herriman estate were almost all Democrats. In fact, it was charged that "the Major" would not hire a man who was not of his own political views. Whether this was true or not was immaterial, in that the men employed were usually indifferent on political subjects and were easily swayed. For many years the Democrats always had a large plurality of votes cast, and seldom was a Republican elected to a township office if he had a Democrat competitor.

Wadena and vicinity was solidly Democratic, while the northern part of the township was as solidly Republican. But within recent years the parties have exchanged places as to their dominance, and now the Republicans are in the ascendancy.

The town and township has always had capable officers who had the interests of the people in view, and it mattered little as to the political complexion of the incumbents.

The early settlers of this township were largely of American birth, though there were a few Irish and Germans among the pioneers. A few English and Welsh families also found homes there in an early day. In later years the Scandinavians have found homes on the land held by speculators, or by purchase from actual settlers, and have become quite an important factor in the later history of the township.

In the seventies the Grangers were quite strong in Illyria, as they were throughout the state and nation, and lodges were organized at the school houses or private residences. Many of the people - men and women - were members of this organization.

There is an Odd Fellows' lodge and an organization of the Ancient Order United Workmen, at Wadena. The postoffice was established there in 1863, and for a time the "office" was at Herriman's. Zenus Hurd was the first postmaster.

Iowa has always been noted for her patriotism. That part of her domain known as Illyria township, Fayette county, Iowa. has been no exception. As the political struggle between North and South became more bitter, sectional feeling ran rife. Neighbors, otherwise friends, became furious enemies. This sometimes gave rise to ludicrous effects as the following shows: A short time previous to the outbreak of hostilities, a certain Mr. King, from "Ole Kaintuck," fell sick with cholera morbus; believing himself about to die he sent for a near neighbor, a preacher of the Gospel, to hasten to his bedside. The good man, supposing his neighbor desired his ministrations, made haste at dead of night to visit his afflicted fellow citizen. On reaching the house, the sick man said to him, "Elder (Rev. William Moore), I have one last request to make of you." "Very well, my friend," replied the preacher, "I shall do what I can for you, what would you have?" The reply was, "Do not bury me, when I die, in that dad 'abolition' graveyard."

But the war having begun, sons whose forbears came from the South rallied around "Old Glory," and shoulder to shoulder marched with those of Pilgrim ancestry to maintain "one and inseparable" their common country. Loyalty to the flag was stronger after all than ancestral prejudice.

A curious token of this was once manifested at a township election held before the war. A certain man whose paternal fathers hailed from Virginia while his mother's derivation was North Carolina, at that election voted for the first time with the Abolition party. As the votes were cast the members of each party formed in two lines or groups, and our friend looking first at the opposite line, and then at his own, was heard to remark, "Just look at the other crowd." But time has healed the wounds, and the ointment of loyalty poured out lavishly in those dreary days has eased the smart. And now one flag and one country is our heritage.

While brothers marched with muskets and banners, sisters stayed by the stuff. The farms were tilled by the women's hands.

"Brave boys were they,
"Gone at their country's call."


But equally brave and more resolute were those girls who, with anxious hearts and aching limbs, toiled and waited "news from the front." How fast fell the tears from longing eyes when the letters from the seat of war were read, and tidings came of the death of brother, lover, husband, son or father!

Some died of disease, some of wounds; some died of yearning for home and dear ones ne'er to be caressed again; others were shot in battle, and the filthy prisons of the South held some in their foul embrace till starvation slowly pressed out the light of life. No loving hand to minister to the dying. No woman's tender care to soothe the pain!


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