A Gazetteer of Illinois, In Three Parts.
By: J. M. Peck, A. M.
Published by: Grigg & Elliot, Philadelphia 1837

Counties of: Adams, Alexander, Bond, Boone, Clark and Clay


Adams County was organised from Pike county, in 1825, and is thirty miles long, with an average width of twenty-four miles—containing about 810 square miles.

It is bounded north, by Hancock; east by Schuyler and a corner of Pike; south by Pike; and west, by the Mississippi river.

Its streams are Bear creek and branches, Cedar, Tyrer, Mill, Fall, and Pigeon creeks, on the western; arid the north and west forks of M’Kees creek on its eastern border.

For quality of soil, well proportioned into timber arid prairie, it is second to none in the state. - Few tracts of country are equal, and none superior to the one on Bear creek.

Its productions are similar to other counties in the military district, The people in general are enterprising and industrious farmers. The population is about 8,500. AdaLns county is attached to the fifth judicial circuit, and sends one senator and two representatives to the legislature.

The seat of justice is Quincy.


Alexander County lies at the south end of the state, in the forks of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, which wash its western, southern, and a portion of its eastern borders, More than sixty miles of its western side are along the curves and windings of the latter river. It has a fertile soil, covered with a heavy growth of timber, amongst which are oaks of various kinds, especially white oak, cypress, poplar, walnut, hickory, some cherry, elm, etc. and a tract of yellow pine io the northwestern part. A reef of rocks of limestone, intermixed with sand stone, forming the grand chain of the Ohio, six miles above America, is supposed to extend across this county, (below the surface of the earth,) to the Mississippi river. At least one third of the county is alluvion. On Cash river, and near the mouth of the Ohio, the land is inundated in times of high water. Along the Mississippi is an extensive tract of alluvial land, entirely above high water.

The streams in this county are Cash river and branches, Sexton's creek, and Clear creek. Cash river enters it at the northeastern part, passes in a circuitous Course through it, and enters the Ohio six miles above its mouth, at Trinity.

Alexander county is about twenty-four miles long, and upon an average width of eighteen miles-containing ahout 375 square miles.

Alexander county is attached to the third judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Union county, one member to the senate. Population about 2350. It was formed from Union county, in 1819.

The seat of justice is Unity.


Bond County was.organised from Madison, in 1817 it then embraced an extensive district of country, but has since been reduced to an area of twenty miles long, and eighteen miles wide, or 360 square miles. It has Montgoniery on the north, Fayette east, Clinton south, and Madison on the west.

Shoal creek and its branches pass through the middle, and Hurricane fork waters the eastern portion of this county.

It is duly proportioned into timber and prairie. In some parts the latter is rather too level for convenience, but is good second rate land. The population generally are industrious, frugal, and intelligent farmers.

Bond county sends one member to the house of representatives, and with Montgomery one to the senate. It belongs to the second judicial circuit. Population about 3,980.

The seat of justice is Greenville.


Boone County was formed from Winnebago and McHenry counties in February, 1837. It is bounded north by the Wisconsin territory; east by McHenry; south by Kane, and West by Winnebago county. It is about 24 miles long, and 21 miles wide; containing about 500 square miles.

It is watered on the western side by the northern and main branches of the Kishwaukee, and on its eastern side by branches of Fox river.

Its timber, scattered over the county, is found chiefly in groves and oak openings, with a large proportion of rich, undulating prairie. Its representative arid its judicial connection is with Jo Daviess county. The seat of justice not yet located. Most of the land in this and the adjoining counties is unsurveyed and of course not in market, but is rapidly settling. I estimate its population at 600.


Clark County was formed from Crawford county, in 1819; and is bounded on the north by Edgar; on the east by Indiana and the Wabash river; south by Crawford, and west by Coles.

It is twenty-four miles long, east and west; and twenty-one miles broad-containing about 500 square miles.

Its streams are, the North Fork of the Embarras, which crosses the northwestern part of the county; Mill creek, and Big creek, which cross its northeastern part.

Walnut, Union, Dolson, and Parker's prairies are found in this county.

At York, in the southeastern corner of the county, is a steam saw and flouring mill.

Its exports are corn, pork, and beef cattle. From 60,000 to 100,000 bushels of corn are sent out annually.

Clark county has 4,000 inhabitants, sends one member to the house of representatives, and, with Coles, one member to the senate. It belongs to the fourth judicial circuit.

The seat of justice is Darwin.


Clay County was formed from portions of Wayne, Lawrence, Crawford, and Fayette, in 1824.

It is bounded on the north, by Effingham and Jasper; east, by Lawrence; south, by Wayne, and a corner of Edwards; west, by Marion, and a corner of Fayette.

Its medium length is thirty miles; width, twenty-one miles-containing about 620 square miles.

It is watered by the Little Wabash, and branches.

Probably two thirds of the surface is prairie of an infe rior quality. The streams usually overflow their banks in freshets.

Clay county belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, and sends one member to the house of representatives, and also with Fayette and Effingham sends one member to the senate.

Population, at the last census, 1648; increase since, probably about twenty per cent..

Its seat of justice is Maysville.

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