History of Purdue University (Part 2)
From: Past and Present of Tippecanoe County, Indiana
General R. P. DeHart, Editor in Chief
B. F. Bowen & Company, Publishers
Indianapolis, Indiana 1909

PURDUE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY.

Early in the history of the Purdue University the authorities recognized the necessity of a library. The first report of the trustees, in 1873, contained an appropriation of fifteen hundred dollars for "library, museum, laboratory and philosophical apparatus." President Robert Owen offered his private library of twelve hundred volumes for the use of the University and it was probably a part of this collection which was bought from Professor Owen in 1874 for the sum of one hundred and eighty dollars. The report of 1874 contained a list of reference books all available to students in agriculture, chemistry, engineering, literature and natural history. No doubt these books were kept in the buildings occupied by the class rooms. First these were in the wooden buildings in which the first classes were held and in Purdue Hall.

University Hall was completed in 1877. The central part of the first floor was then divided by a partition into an east and west room. The east room seems to have immediately been set apart for the library. In 1884, the west room, formerly the Biological Laboratory, began to be used as a reading room, in connection with the library. The second floor was long used for the preparatory department, which was discontinued in 1894, and during the following year this space was utilized for the library, the partition and a part of the floor being removed. The addition in 1898 of the lower gallery completed the structural changes, leaving the library as it now stands.

In 1876 books numbering "several hundred," also various magazines and newspapers, were reported on file. Two thousand dollars had been expended on the library and its belongings. Its growth was slow not keeping pace with the needs of the university. From one to three thousand dollars annually were spent from appropriations, nominally, but in fact not so great an amount was placed in books. In 1882 there were two thousand, two hundred and twenty six volumes and forty four periodicals, all valued at five thousand dollars. In 1883 it numbered two thousand, seven hundred and thirty volumes; 1894, five thousand, nine hundred and eighteen volumes; 1895. five thousand, nine hundred and thirty five; 1896, six thousand, seven hundred and thirty nine volumes. At this date, or from reports recently made not further back than 1906, the library contained over twenty thousand volumes.

The following is a partial list of the librarians in charge for the various years: Jesse H. Black, B. S., 1877-8; E. J. Miller. B. S., 1878-80; Moses C. Stevens. A. M., 1880-83; Richard W. Swan, A. M., 1883-89; Eliz. D. Swan, 1889-1902.

The chief benefactor to this library is Dr. G. F. Keiper. of Lafayette, who gives annually a sum of money to be used in the purchase of books in physiology and kindred subjects. One hundred and ten volumes have thus been given through his liberality. Professor Moses C. Stevens donated two hundred and fifty volumes on mathematical works, upon his retirement. These consisted of complete sets of the Mathematical Society and Monthly. Mr. Leo Eliele, pharmacist of South Bend, Indiana, gave sums of money for several years to be spent for books in the school of pharmacy. Many other persons have made like gifts from time to time - all friends of the university.

The agricultural library was transferred to the main library building, and this consisted of one thousand volumes. The basement now contains four hundred feet of shelving placed in proper condition for the use of students. In the Indiana alcove, on the second floor, about two hundred and fifty volumes of general agricultural, horticultural, dairying, live stock and veterinary works have been shelved. The following is the classification in which this library is now divided:

1. General; 2. Political Economy; 3. Education; 4. Mathematics; 5. Physics; 6. Electricity; 7. Chemistry; 8. Biology, Botany and Zoology; 9. Sanitary Science; 10. Pharmacy; 11.. Engineering; 12. Scientific Periodicals; 13. Art; 14. Agriculture; 15. Bibliography; 16. Newspapers.

The present (1909) library committee consists of: W. M. Hepburn, chairman; Dean Goss, Prof. McRae, Prof. Thomas F. Moran. The library staff is: William M. Hepburn, librarian; Blanche A. Miller, Margaret Norton and Bertha G. Ridgway.

This library has an annual increase of about two thousand pieces. These are in following order: Chemistry department, one hundred and seventy five books, two hundred and fifty periodicals in volumes.

Pharmacy department, two hundred volumes on chemistry and one hundred and eighty volumes of journals.

Agricultural department, sixty periodicals, four hundred and fifty periodicals of herd records.

The arrangement of books in a library depends, first, on the scheme of classification adopted and, secondly, on the location of the various classes on the shelves.

The classification used in the library is known as the Dewey decimal system. There are ten main classes to which the integers have been assigned as follows:
000 Bibliography, Cyclopaedias, etc.
100 Philosophy.
200 Religion.
300 Social Science, Economies, etc.
400 Language.
500 Science.
600 Useful Arts.
700 Fine Arts.
800 Literature.
900 Travel, Biography, History.

For convenience these classes are usually referred to as hundreds rather than as units; e. g., the 500's, meaning the Sciences.

Each of these classes may be divided and sub divided to an almost unlimited extent, each division being indicated by the addition of one or more figures. But usually no book is assigned a number consisting of more than six figures. Each book as it comes into the library is given a number which corresponds as nearly as possible to its subject. All books bearing the same number are shelved together as far as practicable. This classification number, combined with another known as the book number (both together spoken of as the call number) written in the volume and on the catalog cards, becomes a symbol by which the book is distinguished from others, by which it is shelved, and by which it may be located when the call number is known.

GROWTH OF THE LIBRARY.

During the three years ending June 30, 1907, four thousand, eight hundred and eighty volumes were added, or an average of sixteen hundred volumes per year, at a cost of four thousand and seventy five dollars. The total number of volumes to date, May, 1909, is twenty two thousand, three hundred and thirty four. The library is open eighty one and a half hours each week - daily average attendance, three hundred and fifty. Evenings opened past two years three hundred and ninety six. Evening attendance, twelve thousand, three hundred and thirty two people. Circulation outside, one thousand per month, or forty volumes a day. Fifty five per cent. of all students are book borrowers.

FINANCIAL.

From 1874 to 1895, the expenditure was five hundred dollars yearly. From 1896 to 1904, one thousand dollars; in 1904-5, the expenditure. not including salaries, was two thousand, seven hundred and fifty two dollars in 1905-6, four thousand, three hundred and eighty four dollars: in 1906-7. it was three thousand, seven hundred and five dollars, making a total of thirty thousand dollars, exclusive of salaries and changes in buildings. This report is to January 31, 1908, under William M. Hepburn, librarian.

PURDUE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTAL STATION.

Like a "wheel within a wheel," the agricultural experiment station, connected with Purdue University, is complete and independent within itself. One section of the congressional act which created the agricultural colleges of this country in July, 1862, provided for "Experimental Stations" in the various states where such colleges were located. The station at this point was established in 1887, their first annual report being issued in 1888. It has come to be one of the most thoroughly scientific stations in the country, that of Iowa being a close rival in all that is new and useful in agricultural experiments.

The land under agricultural conditions consists of about one hundred and ninety acres, of which thirty acres is in permanent pasture. The farm is divided into fields permanently laid out, where staple farm crops are systematically grown. One field of thirty acres is divided into permanent experimental plats upon which corn, oats, clover, grass and other crops are grown under different systems of rotation and fertilization. Aside from this field the general farm is operated on a practical basis, like any well managed live stock farm under private control, with the view of growing grain crops, hay, etc., for live stock. The farm is under regular systems of crop rotation, and every effort is made to secure profitable returns as well as to present an example of good farm management.

The original buildings employed up to 1908 were superseded in 1909 by a magnificent brick structure, commenced in 1907, and was provided for by an appropriation of one hundred thousand dollars made by the general assembly. In the twenty first annual report of the "Station," it is described as follows:

With its frontage of two hundred feet, and its location on one of the most prominent corners of the University grounds, the new building is quite an imposing structure, which is receiving much favorable comment. It is constructed of dark colonial brick, with light colored Bedford limestone trimmings, and has a red tile roof. It is fire proof throughout, the floors being made of tile and reenforced concrete and the stairs of iron with slate treads. The interior finish is golden oak and presents a very handsome appearance.

The building is heated by means of steam, which is supplied by the University power plant. The radiators are automatically controlled by thermostats, which hold the temperature in any room at any degree desired. The building is lighted by both gas and electricity which are secured from the city of Lafayette. The building will be fitted with an electric elevator and an inter department telephone service.

The new Station building is the largest and most substantially constructed structure at Purdue, and is said to be the best building in the United States devoted exclusively to Station work.

Within the walls of this great modern structure where the true science of agriculture, horticulture and stock raising is taught and experimented with, one is almost confounded with the laboratories used, and he who beholds its wonderful workings must indeed be impressed with the thought that vast are the changes being wrought out by reason of the foresight had by a preceding generation, who in the midst of the great Civil war conflict, took time to formulate the system of agricultural colleges that now make rich the nation in which we live and of which we are proud to be called citizens.

Of this "Experimental Station," one who is connected officially, remarks in one of the reports: The laboratories for agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, dairying, chemistry, botany, entomology, feeding stuff and fertilizer control work, are well equipped with the necessary apparatus for conducting experimental and research work. While not designed for the use of students, they afford an excellent object lesson in actual, practical scientific work. The experiments which are continually being made in orchard cultivation and in the feeding and management of live stock, also afford valuable object lessons in the most modern methods of scientific agriculture. A large number of bulletins and other publications, giving the results of the work in progress, are issued by the Station, and are of high value to the student of agriculture.

Hon. A. O. Reser, then a member of the House, in 1901. sacrificed the chairmanship of a more important committee in favor of another member, in order that he might do better work in behalf of the bill calling for the appropriation for the erection of the agricultural building. So in fact it came about through his efforts, and stands today in all of its beauty as a monument to his untiring zeal.

EXPANSION OF THE STATION WORK.

The work of the Station has been expanding very rapidly during the last three or four years. This was made possible by the passage of the Smith act of 1905, whereby the state appropriates twenty five Thousand dollars annually for the support of the Station, and the Adams act of 1906, whereby the United States government appropriates a sum which will ultimately amount to fifteen thousand dollars annually. The feeding stuff control law of 1907 also brings in considerable revenue, but this is practically all used in conducting the feeding stuff control work and does not apply to any considerable extent in maintaining the experimental work of the Station. This is also true of the funds derived from the fertilizer control, so that while the total receipts of the Station at the present time amount to about one hundred thousand dollars annually, only fifty five thousand dollars or sixty thousand dollars of this amount is available for experimental and research work. It is also to be noted in this connection that the twenty five thousand dollars derived from the Smith act is appropriated for certain specific purposes, and the fifteen thousand dollars derived from the Adams act can only be used for strictly research work, thus leaving a number of lines of the Station work very poorly provided for.

During the summer of 1907 excursions of farmers from Howard, Hendricks and Clinton counties came to Purdue University. Large numbers of farmers and their families took advantage of this opportunity to visit the institution and study the work being done. On March 16th thirty five pupils of the Montmorenci high school spent the day studying the work of the University. These excursions are doing much to bring the people of the state into close touch with the work of the Experiment Station and the University. It is also doing much to acquaint the people with the men in charge of the work here.

Educational trains were run to various points within the state in 1908. The total mileage of these excursions was nine hundred and ninety three, while the total number of farmers and business men in attendance throughout the various routes was fifteen thousand four hundred, and to each a bulletin was distributed. The trains were received in an enthusiastic way by the people at every stop and the lectures were much appreciated. It is felt that the instruction and suggestions given have been followed by the people and that the results of this train work are doing much, not only for the people of the state, but for the future work of the Experiment Station.

SUMMARY OF STUDENTS - 1908-09.

There are students enrolled fromevery county but one in Indiana from the following states and foreign countries:

Alabama

1

Argentine Republic,S.A......

1

Arkansas

6

Bahamas

1

California

4

Canada

2

China

3

Colombia,S.A.

1

Colorado

7

Connecticut

1

Cuba

3

Delaware

1

DistrictofColumbia

4

Florida

1

Georgia

1

Greece

1

Honduras

1

Illinois

54

Massachusetts

2

Mexico

2

Michigan

20

Minnesota

7

Mississippi

3

Missouri

11

Montana

1

Nebraska

7

Nevada

1

NewJersey

18

NewYork

35

Ohio

108

Oklahoma

2

Pennsylvania

38

PhilippineIslands

4

SouthDakota

7

Tennessee

7

Texas

11

Iowa

14

Japan

3

Kansas

3

Kentucky

44

Maryland

1

Trinidad

1

Utah

1

Vermont

1

Washington

4

Wisconsin

6



Total-
In 35 states ( except Indiana) 436
In 11 foreign countries 19
Total 455

March 1, 1909, the standing of the students at Purdue University was as follows: Of the one thousand, six hundred and sevenry six your yesr students, there were four hundres and eighty five Freshman, four hundred and seventy five Sophomore, three hundred and ninty thre Junior, and three hundred and twenty three Senior.

Special Students, forty five; graduates, eighty three. This makes a total of Nineteen hundred and thirty four (1,934).

The following shows the number of students and graduates by years, since the first "Commencement," to and including that of June, 1909:


Year..

....Students.

Graduates.

1875

15

1

1876

17

1

1877

60

2

1878

65

7

1879

76

3

1880

86

7

1881

113

8

1882

111

10

1883

106

16

1884

112

10

1885

128

11

1886

159

24

1887

230

14

1888

269

30

1889

328

39

1890

348

53

1891

419

62

1892

549

74

1893

582

83

1894

626

120

1895

633

127

1896

635

117

1897

664

129

1898

750

134

1899

749

158

1900

849

103

1901

1,049

150

1902

1,169

176

1903

1,339

192

1904

1,440

230

1905

1534

235

1906

2,029

383

1907

2,046

385

1908

2,089

328

1909

1,934

329



Grand total for all years, graduates 3,751

PRESENT BOARD OF TRUSTEES

Andrew A. Adams, Columbia City.
David E. Beem, Spencer.
Charles Sowning, Greenfield.
Addison A. Harris, Undianapolis.
George A. Jamison, Lafayette.
Sylvester Johnson, Irvington.
Charles Major, Shelbyville.
Henry A. Miller, Montmorenci.
Joseph D. Oliver, South Bend.

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD.

Addison C. Harris, president.
David H. Beem, vice president.
Edward A. Ellsworth, secretary.
James M. Fowler, treasurer.

OFFICERS OF ADMINISTRATION, 1909.

Winthrop Ellsworth Stone, Ph. D., LL. D., President of the University.
Stanley Coulter. Ph. D., LL. D.. Secretary of the Faculty and Dean of the School of Science.
Edward Hatton Davis. S. B., Registrar of the University.
Edward A. Ellsworth, Bursar of the University.
William Murray Hepburn. A. M., Librarian of the University.
John Harrison Skinner, B. S., Dean of the School of Agriculture.
Charles Henry Benjamin. M. E., D. Eng., Dean of the Schools of Engineering.
Arthur Lawrence Green. Ph. C., Ph. D., Dean of the School of Pharmacy.

UNIVERSITY PROPERTY.

The property of Purdue University, as shown by the 1908 report made to Governor Hanly by the trustees, is as follows:

Two hundred and forty one acres of land; seventeen principal and twelve minor buildings, and a large collection of apparatus, machinery, library, furniture and live stock, in all valued at one million one hundred and seventy eight thousand dollars, distributed as follows :

Grounds

$110,000

Buildings.

758,000

Furniture and fixtures.

30.000

Apparatus and machinery.

240,000

Library.

30,000

Live stock.

16,000


Besides its function as an educational institution, the university is charged, by law, with the administration of various other important activities, including the farmer's institute; the experimental station, so made by both state and federal acts; the inspection and regulation of the sale of commercial fertilizers and commercial feeding stuffs, etc.

None of these departments has any direct connection with the work of instruction, nor can any of the funds provided for their maintenance be applied in any way to the use of other departments of the university.

The university is, therefore, an organized institution of broad scope and great practical usefulness in connection with the scientific and industrial interests of the state and nation.

Purdue University has come to be ranked with the best schools of technology. Of this its rapid growth in attendance from all parts of the country, and the remarkable interest in its work shown by practical business men are most conclusive proofs. Its graduates are sought for in every department of industrial activity and maintain themselves with credit. It is not too much to say that thousands of young men have found at Purdue an opportunity for training which has opened up careers of profit to themselves and of the highest usefulness to the community.

Over three thousand seven hundred students have graduated from this institution, and more than ten thousand have received instruction for a longer or shorter period.

Tuition is free to residents of Indiana. Non residents pay an annual tuition fee of twenty five dollars. All students pay certain fixed fees to cover the actual cost of materials and privileges furnished.

The present instructional corps of the institution numbers one hundred and thirty five.

The institution has grown so rapidly in favor that at present more than one thousand persons are annually turned away for lack of proper room and general conveniences. The students bring, directly and indirectly, more than two million dollars annually to the city of Lafayette.

While the recent years have shown an increase in appropriations on the part of the general assembly, there will doubtless be larger ones demanded and cheerfully granted to meet the growing demand for even greater work in this, one of America's most excellent educational institutions. It is, indeed, a marvel when one considers that it was opened but little more than a third of a century ago.

JOHN PURDUE, THE FOUNDER.

The man for whom Purdue University was named was John Purdue, who, as has been observed in the history given, was a large donor in the establishment of the institution. Mr. Purdue was a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1802, and when very young was taken by the family in their removal to Ross county. Ohio. From 1826 to 1830 he taught school in Piqua, Ohio, during which time he enjoyed the "happiest hours of his life," as he once remarked. He first visited Lafayette in 1837, and permanently located here in 1839, forming a partnership with Moses Fowler in the mercantile business in the Hanna building on the north side of the square, under the firm name of Purdue & Fowler. In 1840 the business was removed to the Taylor block, now occupied by the Lafayette National Bank. Later Fowler retired and Mr. Purdue continued until 1848, when the firm of Purdue, Stacey & Company was organized, adding a wholesale department This relation continued until 1861, when the firm of Purdue, Brown & Company was formed, who were subsequently bought out by Dodge, Curtis & Earl. In 1855 Mr. Purdue engaged in the commission business in the city of New York, under the firm name of Purdue & Ward. In 1865 he returned to Lafayette, where he remained until his death, in the month of September, 1876.

In all that tended to help develop this county Mr. Purdue was ever foremost. He was a broad minded, conservative gentleman, who left his impress on the community in which he lived for so many years.

It has been well said that among the very few means of perpetuating one's name, that of founding or endowing some public institution is perhaps the most enduring monument that can possibly be reared to one's memory. Harvard, Cornell, DePauw and Purdue educational institutions will in all human probability outlast the solid granite shafts and bronze tablets placed here and there to mark the spot where rests the mortal remains of some illustrious dead.

HON. JOHN A. STEIN.

Another character, sturdy, intelligent and loyal to the foundation and early history of Purdue University, was that of John A. Stein, of Lafayette, who had great influence with Mr. Purdue and the early donations to the institution. It was he, who in the Indiana legislature, during that stormy session when the bill authorizing the location of this university at Lafayette, was being passed upon, uttered these words, so full of meaning to Lafayette:

"I say the people of Indiana do demand the most perfect system of education this legislature of Indiana can give it. Some men have rheumatic sensibilities. I entertain no hostility to Indianapolis. I take as much pride in it as any other senator on the floor, but there is a certain Indianapolis ring that have stood as lions in the path of the State University, and have prevented it from becoming as respectable and self supporting as it should have been. While the State University has struggled along in its poverty they have stood prepared to take the floor and cast their gibes and sneers at its scanty rags fluttering in the wind. I am for making it what its name implies, `a state university.' I have never been blessed with a collegiate education, much to my regret, but I have ever felt a warm interest in behalf of education."

These words were spoken away back in 1869, when the congressional act which declared the state must do its share toward establishing the university before 1871 or lose the land granted to this state for agricultural college purposes. It was the eleventh hour of the day and something must needs be done. His work in the state senate had a telling effect and Lafayette secured the prize, and now after all these departed years, and since this gentleman has passed from earth's shining circles, other men get praise where he seems to have been lost sight of in connection with the founding of this university. Headstones and markers and historic mention frequently occur, which of themselves is highly proper, but with the doing of these things, the name and memory of Mr. Stein should not be lost sight of, but some befitting memorial monument or memorial pile of some description should be erected on the beautiful campus of this university, from which place have gone forth into the great busy marts of trade, science and commerce hundreds of men whose names have become famous, and this was made possible by the pleadings in the legislative halls of Mr. Stein. Give heed and give honor to whom honor is due.

Of Mr. Stein it should be added that he was a writer of note; a loyal supporter of the Union cause, even many months before Fort Sumter was fired upon, he foretold the impending crisis, saying, "If war must come to settle this question - then let it come." He was a princely gentleman, a brilliant orator, a scholarly man, a superb soldier and withal an honest man, both in public and private life.

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