HARMONY VILLAGE AND TOWNSHIP
Harmony is located in one of the best farming communities in Fillmore county, with a large trade territory on
all sides. Corn, stock and small grain are the principal products raised here. Fine roads lead to the village from
all directions, and with its good stores and markets Harmony is one of the important trading points in southern
Harmony is one of the principal villages on the line of the Reno-Preston division of the Chicago, Milwaukee &
St. Paul. It is well laid out, with a hustling, well kept business center, and many fine residence streets. Its
healthful situation, its moral and progressive spirit, its fraternities, its fine waterworks and complete telephone
service, its village park, its excellent churches and its well equipped schools, all make it a most desirable place
in which to live, and its first class trading facilities make it the shipping and purchasing point of a thriving
country district for miles around.
Among the features of Harmony life may be mentioned three churches, a newspaper, two hotels, a city and town hall
combined, a fine new hall erected by the Woodmen, two banks, a roller mill, lumber yard, three elevators, stock
shipping facilities, a good postoffice, one department store and three general stores which are also important
enough to deserve the name of department stores, a drug store, two hardware stores, many farm implement and farm
machinery establishments, a photograph gallery, several liveries, a marble shop, four restaurants, several grocery,
clothing and furniture establishments, and the usual other business activities found in a place of this size.
The Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of Harmony, was organized December 2, 1882, with the following officers
and directors: President, A. Daniels; secretary, Tollef Sanderson; treasurer, Tallak Brokken; Berg Olson, Henry
Dean, G. A. Maland, Edward Burnham and John McCallum. The company grew rapidly and attained much favor. During
the first fifteen years of its existence the average assessment per year was but 70 cents a year on each $1,000
insurance. The present condition of the company is shown from the report rendered December 31, 1911: Policies in
force December 31, 1910, 922, amount, $2,343,930; policies issued during the year 1911, 171, amount, $483,380;
total, 1,093, amount, $2,827,210; deduct policies expired and ceased to be in force during year, 169, amount, $373,540;
policies in force at the end of the year (December 31, 1911), 924, amount, $2,453,670; loss claims presented during
the year 1911, 49; loss claims paid in full and adjusted, 43, amount, $3,579.83; grand total in force December
31, 1911, $2,453,670. The present officers are: President, H. E. Benson; secretary, Thad. T. Brokken; treasurer,
Tollef Sanderson; Alex McKay, S F Miner, Owen Hughes, B. H. Benson, Carl Lawstuen.
Early History. The original owners of the land on which Harmony is located were Edwin Ellis, Rev. T. Larson, who
had a charge near the village, and Thomas Ryan. The railroad came through in 1879, and the village was started
The first merchant in Harmony was F. M. Trogstad, who erected a building in the fall of 1879 and kept a line of
general merchandise. Later William Bollman went into partnership with Trogstad. Still later Bollman became sole
owner and put in a stock of drugs.
The second store was erected by P. T. Larson in the winter of 1879-80. He kept a line of hardware. In 1892 the
firm became Larson & Fradd, Oluf Fradd being the partner. Thus the firm remained until 1902, when Geo. Carnege,
a land dealer, purchased it, and in turn sold to Hallesy & Flatestole. Later it went into the hands of Applen
Brothers, who are the present owners.
The third store was erected in 1880 by Halvor Bruflodt, as a meat market. It was not used for this purpose and
was soon sold to P. T. Larson.
Tallak Brokken soon followed in 1880 by moving his store from near the church south of the village to the present
site of Harmony. He owned this store until his death in 1910.
In the spring of 1881 Thomas Thompson started a general store. It remained as such until 1884, when J. A. Lund
was taken into the firm, and it became Thompson & Lund. In 1892 it became Lund & Rothe, and continued as
such until 1901, when J. A. Lund became sole owner as at present.
A photographer named Thompson came to the village in 1880 and remained about five months.
J. L. Urheim came in the spring of 1882 and opened a drug store. He erected a new store about 1886 and soon after
disposed of the business to Mr. Larson and the building to Mr. Sanderson. Larson soon afterward died and K. S.
Olson took his stock. Sanderson sold to Mr. Brightman, who started a hardware store in 1893. In 1900 Sanderson
again bought the store. but soon sold to E. F. Kidder, the present owner.
Ole and Gullick Maland started a hardware store in 1886 on the present site of the postoffice. In connection with
the store there was an implement department in charge of Henry Nupson. Soon afterward he became sheriff of Fillmore
county. The Maland Brothers sold to Gray & Williams (Andres and Martin), and after passing through several
hands the store was discontinued.
T. F. Hallisy and M. McCarty started a general store in 1890. It remained as such until 1902, when Mr. Hallisy
sold his interest to Mr. McCarty and started a hardware store. The hardware store was purchased by Applen Brothers
in 1911, and Mr. Hallisy is at present conducting a grocery store and restaurant.
Hans Hanson and S. B. Johnson started a general store in 1890. The partnership lasted about four years, when Mr.
Hanson sold to Mr. Johnson. Mr. Hanson then became a member of the firm of Hanson & Nuland. Three years later,
upon the death of one of the partners, the firm became Hanson & Larson. Later Mr. Hanson became sole owner
and still conducts the business. Mr. Johnson conducted his store for about two years and then sold out to O. N.
Thundale, devoting all his time to the lumber business, which lie had previously established. Later he went into
the clothing business, which he still conducts.
The first hotel was erected by Charles Thompson, who sold to J. B. Pulver, whose son is still the hotelkeeper in
Harmony in 1882. As soon as the railroad station was located in Harmony and the stores began to open the village
became a trading center, and gradually houses for residences were erected. In 1882 the village had a number of
residences, two general stores, one hardware and a grocery store, a postoffice, a wagon shop, a shoe shop, a blacksmith
shop, a lumber yard and two elevators with a capacity of 12,000 bushels each.
Harmony in 1890. According to T. F. Hallisy, the following business firms were operating in Harmony in 1890: Hallisy
& McCarty (T. F. and M.), general store; Fred M. Trogstad, general store; Hanson & Johnson (Hans and S.
B.), general store; Thundale & Hanson (0. N. and Hans), general store; Ben Larson, drug store; Oluf Fradd,
blacksmith; P. T. Larson, hardware.
Municipal History. October 14, 1895, the county commissioners authorized the people of Harmony village to incorporate
and named as inspectors of election Tollef Sanderson, A. G. Gray and J. A. Lund. The first annual election was
held March 10, 1896, with John Jacobson and Thomas Ryan as judges of election.
1896 - President, Samuel Aaberg; trustees, Tollef Sanderson, George McKittrick, Eugene Barnes; treasurer, Samuel
Johnson; recorder, R. R. Barnes; justices, Albert G. Johnson, T. J. Johnson; constables, Emmett Ryan, Ole G. Johnson.
This year a lot was purchased and the lock up erected. A few street lights were also installed. L. A. Barnes was
appointed fire warden.
1897 - President, Tollef Sanderson; trustees, T. F. Hallisy, A. G. Gray, O. N. Thundale; treasurer, S. B. Johnson;
recorder, R. R. Barnes; justice, Samuel Aaberg; constable, J. E. Linderman. April 28, 1897, they decided to put
a sixty foot tower over the village pump.
1898 - President, Thomas Ryan; trustees, P. T. Larson, Samuel Aaberg, Fritz Achatz; treasurer, S. B. Johnson; recorder,
R. R. Barnes; justice, A. G. Johnson; constable, A. Harstad.
1899 - President, O. N. Thundale; trustees, T. Sanderson, James Linderman, Ole Fradd; treasurer, S. B. Johnson;
recorder, J. F. Jones; justice, R. W. Daniels; constable, F. Linderman.
1900 - President, E. W. Pust; trustees, T. F. Hallisy, Charles Anderson, T. E. Wrenn; treasurer, P. A. McKay; recorder,
Edward F. Kidder; justice, A. G. Johnson; constables, M. J. Ryan, F. J. Linderman.
At a special election held October 16, 1900, it was voted to erect a system of waterworks to be owned by the city.
At a special election held December 20, 1900, bonds to the amount of $7,000 were voted for waterworks.
1901 - President, John A. Lund; trustees, T. A. Sorenson, Tollef Sanderson, O. N. Thundale; treasurer, P. A. McKay;
recorder, Ole Larson; justice, E. B. Hartwell; constables, C. B. Helliekson, F. J. Linderman.
1902 - President, O. N. Thundale; trustees, T. F. Hallisy, E. W. Pust, A. E. Barnes; treasurer, P. A. McKay; recorder,
Ole Larson; justice, A. G. Johnson; constable, T. E. Wrenn. In June and July the well was drilled for the village
1903 - President, T. F. Hallisy; trustees, R. W. Daniels, William Bollman, E. W. Pust; treasurer, P. A. McKay;
recorder, H. C. Horsrud; justice, L. O. Haugen; constable, F. J. Linderman.
1904 - President, L. O. Haugen; trustees, M. McCarty; J. S. Jacobson, William Bollman; treasurer, P. A. McKay;
recorder, H. C. Horsrud; justice, A. G. Johnson; constable, T. E. Wrenn.
1905 - President, A. G. Johnson; trustees, M. McCarty, R. W. Daniels, James S. Jacobson; treasurer, P. A. McKay;
recorder, H. C. Horsrud; constable, Samuel Dahl.
1906 - President, O. R. Perkins; trustees, Nels N. Nelson; K. D. Olson, H. Daniels; treasurer, C. B. Hellickson;
recorder, P. M. Oistad; justice, A. G. Johnson; constable, C. D. McCarty.
1907 - President, O. R. Perkins; trustees, H. A. Daniels, M. C. Willford, H. E. Hanson; treasurer, C. B. Hellickson;
recorder, L. O. Haugen; justice, Owen Harstad; constable, O. J. Wolstad.
1908 - President, H. A. Daniels; trustees, T. F. Hallisy, her Halvorson, H. F. Jones; treasurer, C. B. Hellickson;
recorder, C. Selvig; justices, William Bollman, E. F. Kidder; constables, C. D. McCarty, F. P. Mark. At the spring
election the people of the village voted to reincorporate.
1909 - President, H. A. Daniels; trustees, T. F. Hallisy, Iver Halvorson, H. F. Jones; treasurer, C. B. Hellickson;
recorder, C. Selvig; justice, M. McCarty; constable, F. P. Mark.
1910 - President, H. C. Horsrud; trustees, R. L. Riceland, K. D. Olson, T. F. Ruddy; treasurer, C. B. Hellickson;
recorder, Joel Wolsted; justices, E. F. Kidder, P. B. Ramer; constable, F. P. Mark.
1911 - President, H. C. Horsrud; trustees, R. Riceland, J. E. Linderman, T. F. Ruddy; treasurer, C. B. Hellickson;
recorder, J. Wolsted; justice, E. F. Kidder; constables, J. E. Linderman, F. Linderman.
1912 - President, H. A. Daniels; trustees, T. O. Applen, P. M. Oistad, William McGee; treasurer, R. W. Daniels;
recorder, Joel Wolsted; constables, F. P. Mark, N. Nelson; justices, A. G. Johnson, E. F. Kidder. The matter of
street lights is now being agitated, and for this purpose a trustee at large was elected in the person of O. N.
Thundale. Owing to the fact that Mr. Daniels is interested in the mill from which the power will be derived he
refused to serve as mayor, and H. C. Horsrud holds over. P. M. Oistad refused to serve as trustee and C. B. Hellickson
The people in the village still vote on township affairs. Village affairs arc voted on at the power house, and
township affairs in the town hall.
Harmony is on the southern tier of towns in Fillmore county. the third from Houston county, the town of Bristol
is on the west. Preston on the north, and Canton on the east. The Iowa river runs through section thirty one, and
two branches from the same river start near the center of the town to run southeast into it. The territory of the
township has the regular thirty six sections of a government town. About one third of the town, the central and
southern part, is composed of prairie. There were originally but three bodies of timber in the whole township,
on section ten about 100 acres, on sections thirty three and thirty four 250 acres, and on section thirty about
100 acres. The soil may be called a clayey loam, is quite uniform throughout the town. There are three quite extensive
ravines in the northern part, laying north and south, and through each flows a stream of greater or less magnitude,
having their origin in springs, of which there are quite a number, the most important and well known being Big
Spring, which at an early day attracted much attention. It comes up in the northwest part of the township and produces
what is known as Camp creek. Camp creek derives its name from the fact that the large number of immigrants and
other travelers who came by this route making a stopping place along the stream. The other rivulets receive various
names, such as Partridge creek and Dayton creek, and in this part of the town they flow directly or indirectly
into Root river.
First Settlers. The pioneer resident of the town was Calvin Hoag, who secured a place in section thirty four
in the fall of 1852. He entered the Union army during the Civil war and lost his life in the defense of his country.
He was the only settler that year.
In 1853, there were but few comers, but among them was William Knox, who located on section twenty five. After
Hoag, the father of Calvin, settled on section thirty four. He died on April 7, 1875. Alexander Cathcart also came
the same year and took land in section twenty five, but he afterwards moved to Ohio.
In 1854, quite a large number flocked in, and a list of them, as far as possible, will be given: Moses Barnes,
William Stork, William Bingham, George Chandler, William Chandler, Torger Drenson, Erick Erickson and five sons,
H. Nelson and two sons, Austin and N. H.; John Ellis, John Williams; Ole Qvamen, Andrew Oleson, Tallak Brokken,
Arne E. Kirkelie, S. E. Kirkelie, Nels Knudson and son, Nels H. Knudson, Henry Evenson and Loren Evenson.
The next year, 1855, those who came were Halmar Kirkelie, Tor Kirkelie, Ole W. Dahle, Gulmand Egelson, Knud Peterson,
Thomas Halverson, Halver Johnson and Halver Berg.
Land Office Records. The first titles to land in Harmony township were issued by the government in 1854. Those
who obtained land that year were as follows, the date of the issuance of the warrant being given first, then the
name of the owner and then the section in which the land was largely located: August 15, John S. Green, 35; August
25, John Blake, 35; September 8, Augustus Chandler, 5; September 8, William Stork, 10; September 15, Ole Erickson,
24; September 15, Herbion Nelson, 24; September 15, Johnson Wilson, 23.
Those who obtained land in 1855 were as follows: March 2, Eber Hubbard, 7; March 1, William Kennedy, 3-10; May
22, John Ellis, 23; May 22, Swen Johnson, 23; June 15, Swend Erickson, 9; July 7, William Bingham, 5-6; August
30, William Bursell, 25; September 4, Augustus M. Barnes, 8-9; October 12, John Cathcart, 25; November 1, After
Hoag, 34; November 7, Andrew J. Drake, 31.
Early Settlers. German Johnson gives the names of the following prominent settlers of the early days, most of whom
were here when he arrived in 1856: Eric Ericson, H. Nelson, John Ellis, John Wilson, Arne Arneson, S. Nune, Kune
PeKnudn, Halvor Ostenson, Tosten Ellis (Qvamen), Arne Kirkelie, Swen Kirkelie, Tallak Brokken, Nels Berg, Osten
Maland, T Harstad, John Johnson (Kasen), Eben Kirkelie, Christian Olson, Austen (Osten) Morem, H. Morgan, Nels
Morgan, Gunder Brokken, John Johnson (Krosso).
William Willford gives the following list of early settlers on Greenfield Prairie still living in 1906: 1853 -
James Hoag and William Knox, Sr.; 1854 - Tallak Brokken, A. H. Nelson, N. H. Nelson, Edwin Stork, J. B. Pulver,
Hans Johnson, John Jacobson, Ole Ellis, Ed Ellis; 1855 - George McMaster, Sr., Homer Hill, Knud Peterson; 1856
- German Johnson, Alonzo Daniels, John Manuel, John S. Norton, Jr., Henry Achatz, John Jacobson and W. H. Norton.
Reminiscences. The following letter from one of the early and prominent citizens is given entire, as it contains
an interesting account of those early days: "Lime Springs, Ia., April 20, 1882. Gentlemen: I was born February
27, 1808, in the county of Otsego, New York, and learned and carried on the hatter's trade in Cooperstown till
the business failed. On June 1, 1837, with my wife and child, we landed in Racine, Wis., and settled in the north
part of the town of Geneva, Walworth county, where we suffered untold hardships in common with the settlers of
that region. Our first purchase of provisions for a winter's supply was lost in Geneva lake, leaving us destitute
to fight our way to keep soul and body together. Of the many things I did in that new country nothing affords me
greater satisfaction than the remembrance of my action on the great moral questions that agitated the community
in which I lived at that time. I called a meeting at my house and organized the only anti slavery society ever
existing in those parts and strenuously advocated the cause, and it finally became very popular in the town, the
county and the state. My wife was Angeline Johnson. We were married in Cooperstown, N. Y., September 7, 1835. As
to our children, Adaline was born in Cooperstown, Edwin. William Ellis, Ann Louisa, Charles Franklin and Rosalie
Gertrude in Wisconsin. Feeling that my work in Wisconsin was done we all removed, in the latter part of June, 1854,
to Harmony township, Fillmore county, and on August 10 pre-empted a quarter of section ten. We found at that time
but few settlers in town. I recollect Moses Barnes was in possession of a claim on which is the famous Big Spring,
and Erick Erickson, Mr. Nelson and After Hoag with their families were in town. 1 am not certain, but think Hoag
was the first settler in the south part. Knud Peterson was the first settler and proprietor of Greenfield, which
was once quite a little village, but finally entirely disappeared. In the development of the town it was my lot
to enact a very prominent part in the laying out of roads and attending to other things incident to a new settlement,
having been chairman of the board of supervisors for many years, and assessor and justice of the peace each for
one term. The Indians were quite numerous when we first arrived in Minnesota, and they conceived a great admiration
for our bright colored bed quilts and for our improved rifle, which in the hands of our boys, William and Edwin,
did great execution among the deer, and we had plenty of venison and deerskins. At first Democracy was rampant
in the town, county and territory, and in my efforts to free the town from this rule I was ably assisted by After
Hoag, Daniel Dayton and many others by organizing the anti slavery sentiment in town in opposition to it, and after
a hard struggle we succeeded and I can say without boasting that I became quite conspicuous as a leader in the
struggle. In the summer of 1854 I passed through where the county seat now is, the flourishing village of Preston,
and nothing was then there to mark the site of a village except a single log cabin, which, solitary and alone,
stood amid the invisible possibilities around it. William Stork."
Political. The town was organized on May 11, 1858, when the original townships in the county held their first town
meetings. It was held at the "Greenfield" schoolhouse. The judges of election were Moses Barnes, John
H. Addison, and William Walter. The whole number of votes cast was eighty one. The following officers were elected:
Supervisors, Francis J. Craig (chairman), James E. McMillan and Thomas Elliott; town clerk, O. S. Erickson; assessor,
After Hoag; collector, Austin Nelson; justices of the peace, William Benson and William Knox; constables, Thomas
Ryan and Thomas Halverson.
Postoffices. The first postoffice was called Peterson, and Knud Peterson was the postmaster. The name was afterwards
called Windom, in honor of Senator Windom, but has been called Harmony since about 1872. There have been two other
postoffices in town, Big Springs, in the northwest part, and Wilton Centre, in section one. But they have been
discontinued and Harmony is the only one remaining.
Big Springs. James P. Tibbetts came from Bangor, Me., to Preston in 1855 and pre-empted a quarter section of land
in the town of Harmony, about a mile from Big Spring. As a speculation he had the land platted on paper and recorded
as "Big Springs," dividing the entire 160 acres into lots, with blocks for business purposes, blocks
for residences, for public institutions, for churches and for parks, with a river flowing from the Big Spring,
which was the center of the place, and to be the center of attraction. It was taken to Chicago and lithographed
in colors. He was then ready for business and went East and succeeded in selling most, if not all, the farm in
this way, obtaining from $25 for a residence lot to $150 for a corner business lot. Several years later, when the
taxes had become past delinquent, Mr. Tibbetts bought up the tax titles and the property was again sold, this time
as a farm.
The Big Spring. This noted spring was in the claim of Moses Barnes, made in 1853. It was here that the first hotel
was built, in 1853, by Mr. Barnes, and being on the stage line he did a thriving business for several years, particularly
in the winter, when the navigation of the Mississippi was suspended, as this was on the St. Paul and Dubuque line.
The second tavern in town was opened by Daniel Dayton, in section six, in 1855. At first he put up a log building,
in the autumn of that year, and it was known as the Ravine House. The next year he constructed a stone addition,
and it was continued as a hotel until about 1865.
Greenfield Village. This village, now extinct, Was located about three quarters of a mile south of the present
village of Harmony and about sixty rods east of the Norwegian church. Of early days in Greenfield, William Willford
When I crossed the Mississippi river in 1854 there were no railroads in this locality. It was the old covered wagon
or prairie schooners that were pouring into Minnesota with hundreds of families seeking a new home. At that time
there was but one village platted in the county and all locations were designated by grove or prairie. I soon learned
the location of Washington and Franklin Prairie in Winneshiek county, Iowa, and Looking Glass Prairie in towns
100 and 101, ranges eight and nine, Greenfield prairie in town 101, ranges nine and ten, Richland prairie in towns
101 and 102, range eight, Highland prairie in towns 102 and 103, ranges eight and nine, Buffalo Grove in town 102,
range eleven and Pleasant Grove in town 105, range thirteen. In December, 1854, Elliota and Carimona, which were
on the Brink & Walker stage route from Dubuque to St. Paul, were platted, and in the year 1855 the population
of Fillmore county had so increased by the incoming emigrants that six more towns were platted in order given,
viz., Fillmore, Jordan, Forestville, Preston, Big Spring and Newburg.
On May 16, 1856, T. P. Ropes located this "Goshen" of Fillmore county, in longitude 92° west from
Greenwich and about 43° 20" north latitude. On hearing of the success of Ropes locating this center of
attraction I began to consult my map and became satisfied that Greenfield must certainly be on the Brink &
Walker stage route and about midway between Dubuque and St. Paul, believing, that if located at this point as described,
it would be very essential to the happiness and prosperity of the early settlers of Fillmore county. This Brink
& Walker stage route via Ossian, Decorah and Burr Oak, Ia., entered Fillmore county in town one hundred one,
range nine, and ran diagonally across the county from the southeast to the northwest, the stages stopping at stations
Greenfield, Carimona and Fillmore in Fillmore county and Pleasant Grove in Olmstead county, Minnesota. in 1856
and 1857. This thread that bound together in the "fifties" Dubuque and St. Paul is, save to the historian
and those who live along the route, an unknown chapter to the present generation, yet the flavor of romance, the
memories of almost forgotten glories, of a noble, ambitious mission, successfully accomplished clings to every
hoary monument of that ancient highway. Over this route came the sturdy and fearless hunter and trapper, followed
timidly and falteringly by the homemaker, until at last the tide of emigration taking courage, poured in a deluge
over this route to the land of promise.
To supply the trade demands and that of the growing population of Minnesota in the early days, long trains of freighting
wagons in the summer and freighting sleighs in winter were a familiar spectacle, and the caravan of huge freighters,
each carrying from two thousand to four thousand pounds. This great freight traffic created a class of men of its
own, strong and daring, and had need to be, as fur coats and overshoes were unknown in those days of frontier life
in the winter time, and they had to substitute blankets for fur coats, and wear cowhide boots minus the overshoes
when the thermometers registered 30° and 35° below zero. In the winter time the bulk of the freight handled
by the freighters was oats, corn and dressed pork that was collected along the route between Decorah and Dubuque,
Ia., by the local dealers. J. B. Pulver handled the ribbons in 1856 and 1857 from Ossian, Ia., to Pleasant Grove,
Minn. The caravans of freight wagons and sleighs, and the four horse stage coaches were picturesque features of
the old life that history will not repeat. Later I learned that Ropes had platted this town of Greenfield (which
had at that time the prospects of a great future) and had made its location more explicit, and designating it on
section fourteen, town 101, range ten, west of the fifth principal meridian, and Knud Peterson and J. S. Norton,
Sr., as proprietors. Its growth and the business done in this town (especially "moonshine") during the
last half of 1859 was said to have been marvelous. In the winter of 1856 and 1857 Nature covered this town with
a blanket of snow the thickness of about forty two inches. Shortly after this blanket was spread "Old Sol"
with his illimitable heated rays warmed up the outer surface of this great blanket, which was followed by zero
temperature that congealed it, thereby forming a crust on the outer surface of this blanket strong enough to hold
up one hundred and fifty pounds to the square foot. This period of time whenever referred to by the old settlers
is called "the winter of the crust." Many of the early settlers who were not in the habit of hunting
often pursued deer and caught them on the crust for the sake of informing their friends in the East by letter that
they had killed a deer. This was the winter that the deer were mercilessly annihilated in Fillmore county by the
settlers and hunters traveling on snowshoes and killing them with clubs and axes. It was impossible for teams to
haul loads until the roads were made passable by the use of shovels and none were opened only the main thoroughfares.
Many of the settlers hauled their fuel the entire winter on hand sleds. When trips were made across the country
off the main roads they were made on Norwegian "skis," which was the only possible locomotion that could
be used during that winter. On August 3, 1857, E. D. Hawkins platted the expansion, which was also on section fourteen,
town one hundred and one, range ten, and for aught I know covered the entire section, and Arne Arneson and Knud
Peterson as proprietors of the addition.
In 1856 Knud Peterson built a store. According to German Johnson, an early settler, this store was also used as
a tavern and as a place for distributing mail