Territorial Gevernment in Nebraska
From: York County, Nebraska and its people
T. E. Sedgwick, Supervising Editor
The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company
Chicago 1921


Formative Steps. There are a vast number of details, historically important and very interesting, concerning the formation and growth of the territory of Nebraska, and its evolution into statehood, and its development into one of the banner states of this great Union, now composed of a sisterhood of forty eight states. It will be possible in this restricted view to only grasp the structural points of this evolution, and this probably can be best accomplished through another chronological survey.

1844. This being the year of the first practically permanent settlements, is a good starting point. As the first projection of the old Fort Kearney and the Mormon arrivals at Florence took place in this year, they touched the eastern border of a vast region extending from the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains, known vaguely and indefinitely as the "Platte Country." It might as well be mentioned right here, that the dominant political issue of the next decade, intervening between this point and Nebraska's final erection as a territory was slavery. It was interjected not only into political affairs, but economic, business, social, church and civic activities as well as state affairs. The fierce struggle over the admission of Missouri had ended without an open disruption of the Union but had left its mark of contention so rapidly gaining a grip upon the affairs of the country that the very suggestion of farther territory to the west, available for territories or states, opened the matter for bitter struggle at once. In this year, 1844, two events forerunning the erection of the new territory occurred. November 30, the first official use of the name "Nebraska" was made by Secretary of War William Wilkins, who suggested the "Platte" or "Nebraska" river country as a good area for another state and December 17, Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, introduced his first Nebraska bill in the House of Representatives at Washington, an effort which came to naught in immediate results, but far reaching in its foundation effects.

1848. Stephen A. Douglas made another futile attempt, by his introduction of the second Nebraska bill.

1851. Another attempt to project a territory west of Iowa and Missouri, even failed to reach a vote, in the session of 1851-2.

1853. This year marks the beginning of the real and final efforts. Willard P. Hall of Missouri, offered a measure, on December 13, 1852, attempting to organize the Territory of "Platte," but from the Committee on Territories, William A. Richardson, of Illinois, secured the reporting of a bill organizing the Territory of Nebraska, but despite the very warm opposition of the southern members, this bill went to the Senate accompanied by pro slavery blasts of warning. Stephen A. Douglas got it out of the committee in the Senate, but too late to secure its adoption in that session. In the fall of 1853, a number of men assembled at Bellevue, and delegated Hadley D. Johnson, a prominent citizen of Council Bluffs, Iowa, to represent them in this matter. On December 14, 1853, Senator Augustus C. Dodge, of Iowa, introduced another Nebraska bill. Senator Douglas, on January 23, 18:54, offered a bill so amending Senator Dodge's offering that it left little but the title, and proposing instead of one territory, Nebraska, set forth two, the other to be called "Kansas" This bill, with some further amendments, was passed on March 4, in the Senate and in the House in May, and signed by President Pierce on May 30, 1854.

Area. The territory as then formed contained 351,558 square miles, extending from the 40th parallel of north latitude to the British Possessions, and from the Missouri River to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. On February 28, 1861, 16,035 square miles were set off to the Territory of Colorado; and on March 2d, 228,907 square miles to Dakota. A triangular tract of 15,378 square miles received later from Washington and Utah territories was included in a 45,999 square miles area taken from Nebraska and given to Idaho, March 3, 1863, which later step virtually reduced Nebraska to its present limits.

Officers. The first corps of territorial officers appointed by President Pierce were as follows:- governor, Francis Burt of Carolina; his secretary, Thomas B. Cuming, of Iowa; chief justice of the courts, Fenner Ferguson, of Michigan; associate justices James Bradley of Indiana, and Edward R. Hardin, of Georgia; marshal, Mark W. Izard, of Arkansas, and attorney, Experience Estabrook, of Wisconsin. Governor Burt reached the Territory in ill health, on the 6th day of October, 1854, and proceeded to Bellevue, where he was the guest of Rev. Win. J. Hamilton, at the old Mission House. His illness proved of a fatal character, and he died on October 18, 1854. Thus ended most tragically and shortly the first gubernatorial administration in Nebraska, before it could shape any official record.

From this point, it will be necessary to review the territorial government, giving brief outline of the important events of each administration, and a brief record of the important accomplishments of each territorial legislature.

1854. GOVERNOR CUMING. The first act of Acting Governor Thomas B. Cuming was the official proclamation of the death of Governor Burt. Chief Justice Ferguson of the Courts had arrived in the state on October 11, and Justice Bradley on October 14, but Justice Hardin did not arrive until December 1st. Marshal Izard arrived on the 20th of October, the day after Governor Burt's funeral. Governor Cuming's administration, as acting governor, lasted until February, 1855. Important events transpiring in these four months were:- Capital location. For the seat of government, a fierce competition ensued between Bellevue, Florence, Omaha, Nebraska City and Plattsmouth, and Acting Governor Cuming decided upon Omaha, although his official place of residence remained at Bellevue, until January, 1855. First census. An enumeration was ordered taken on October 24, 1854, which showed a total of 2,732 inhabitants. Considerable discrepancies were later shown to have developed in this task and it bears no material worth as a reliable historical record. The territory was divided into the eight original counties; Burt, Washington, Douglas, Dodge, Cass, Pierce, Forney and Richardson. The first general election was held on December 12, 1854, and on December 20, 1854, a proclamation was issued calling on the First Territorial Legislature to meet at Omaha, on January 16, 1855.

First Legislature. Convened in a two story brick building at Omaha, at 10 o'clock A. M., January 16, 1855. Temporary officers were Hiram P. Bennett, of Pierce County, president pro tem. The Committee on Credentials were Joseph L. Sharp, Richardson, who became president of the council, J. C. Mitchell of Washington County and Luke Nuckolls, of Cass County. In the Representatives the temporary organization was John M. Latham, of Cass County, speaker, and J. W. Paddock, as chief clerk pro tern., and later permanently. The permanent speaker was A. J. Hanscom, of Douglas. The important part of the governor's message, after his - allusions to the loss of Governor Burt, was that pertaining to the Pacific Railway. Local machinery of government was provided for and county officers created. The criminal code of Iowa, with some slight, necessary alterations, was adopted for the regulation of the new territory. Three institutions of learning were incorporated, Simpson University at Omaha, the Nebraska University at Omaha, and the Collegiate and Preparatory Institute at Nebraska City. The favorable report of the committee, of which M. H. Clark of Dodge County was chairman, upon the bill chartering the Platte Valley and Pacific Railroad Company was the far reaching act of this Legislature.

Other Events of This Period. Other events transpiring in the territory, prior to February, 1855, which were foundation stones in the various lines of activity of the commonwealth, were:- December 23, Acting Governor Cuming called for two volunteer regiments for defense against the Indians; December 30th - a convention at Nebraska City adopted resolutions asking that General Bela Hughes of Missouri, be appointed governor and Dr. P. J. McMahon, of Iowa for secretary. January 26, 1855. The territorial capital was definitely located at Omaha.

GOVERNOR IZARD'S ADMINISTRATION. On February 20, 1855, Gov. Mark W. Izard, delivered his inaugural address, as the second official governor of the territory, and he resigned on October 25, 1857. In his administration considerable progress was made. The postoffice at Bellevue was established in March, 1855, with Daniel E. Reed as postmaster. In the same month, the first session of district court was held at Bellevue. Several churches were organized that year, in Omaha, Brownville, and Nebraska City. In January, 1856, Mrs. Amelia Bloomer delivered an address on votes for women in Omaha in the Second Legislature's Hall. The boundary lines of many counties were fixed by the Legislature, in 1856. A road was surveyed and its construction began, from Omaha to Fort Kearney. The real and personal property was assessed and another census taken, which revealed the presence of 10,716 inhabitants. The foregoing facts mentioned, cover mainly the activities of the Second Territorial Legislature which convened at Omaha, on December 18, 1855. Hon. A. D. Jones, of Douglas, was an important figure in this session, and it was he who mainly handled the matter of designating names to the various counties provided for by this session. B. R. Folsom, president of Council and P. C. Sullivan, speaker of the House.

Third Session of Legislature. Convened at Omaha, January 5, 1857. L. L. Bowen, president of the Council, and O. F. Lake chief clerk; I. L. Gibbs was speaker of the House, and J. H. Brown chief clerk. In this session, the first attempt was made to remove the capital from Omaha. Governor Izard promptly vetoed a bill proposing to establish it at a town to be named "Douglas." He also vetoed the most striking piece of legislation advanced by this session, the repeal of the criminal code, but they passed it over his veto and left the territory without any criminal laws.

Fourth Legislature. This session began on December 8, 1857. Hon. George L. Miller of Omaha was elected president of the Council, Washburn Safford, chief clerk, and of the House, Hon. J. H. Decker, of Otoe, was speaker and S. M. Curran, chief clerk. The memorable event of this session was the secession of a portion of its membership, who attempted to set up a separate assembly at Florence. This division resulted from further attempts to remove the capital from Omaha. This ruption blocked all further attempts to accomplish anything at this session, and it expired on January 16th, by limitation. For a second time Thomas B. Cuming had been acting governor, since the resignation of Governor Izard.

GOVERNOR RICHARDSON. Gov. William A Richardson arrived on January 12th, 1858. His official career was short, as he resigned within a few months and left the territory upon December 5th, whereupon Sec. J. Sterling Morton became acting governor. In the period of sixteen months, from Governor Richardson's accession until Governor Black took office, political lines began to form themselves. The first political convention in the territory had taken place on January 8, 1858, in Omaha, as a democratic mass convention. The republicans followed suit on January 18th at Omaha. A special legislative session was convened on September 21, 1858.

Fifth Legislative Session. Bowen and Curran were president and chief clerk of the Council, and H. P. Bennet, was speaker and E. G. McNeely, chief clerk of the House. A committee consisting of Hons. R. W. Furnas, W. E. Moore and Geo. W. Doane, reported resolutions upon the death of Sec. Thomas B. Cuming, which had occurred on March 23, 1858. Representative S. G. Daily introduced a bill on November 1, to "abolish slavery in the Territory of "Nebraska." It was referred to a special committee, consisting of S. G. Daily, James Stewart, John Taffe, D. P. Rankin, and William C. Fleming. Two reports, with the majority report being favorable, were returned, but the measure was finally laid upon the table.

Gov. S. W. BLACK. Gov. Samuel W. Black, arrived on May 2, 1859, and relieved Acting Gov. (Secretary) J. Sterling Morton of the reins of office. In the first months of his administration, events of interest that transpired were, among, of course, many others not detailed here:- The action in June, of advocates of annexation to Kansas who visited the Kansas constitutional convention. That body allowed them to be heard, but took no action toward extending the boundaries of that state; in August, the democratic convention at Plattsmouth, nominated the first democratic ticket, and the republicans followed with a cimilar convention nine days later, at Plattsmouth. From September 21-24, the first territorial agricultural and mechanical fair was held at Nebraska City. October 11, Chief Justice Fenner Ferguson died.

Sixth Session of Legislature. Convened at Omaha, December 5, 1859. Of the Council, E. A. Donelan, was president and S. M. Curran remained chief clerk; and in the House, Silas A. Strickland was speaker, and James W. Moore, chief clerk. In Governor Black's message he called attention to the fact that since 1854 the territory had expanded from eight counties, to twenty three with representative there and thirty five organized or their boundaries fixed by law. The fight over slavery sprang forth as the main issue in this session. William H. Taylor introduced a bill to abolish slavery in Nebraska, citing that the census of 1854 had shown thirteen slaves living in Nebraska, and gave the names of men who held slaves at the time he was pushing his measure. George L. Miller argued that the measure was not of sufficient importance to warrant the agitation it created, that Nebraska was in no danger of becoming either a slave territory or state, and George W. Doane concurred in his views. Similar attempts appeared in the House, but in the end they were all voted down for the time being. Another notable feature of this session was the first active attempt to raise Nebraska to statehood. A bill was passed at this session, submitting the proposition to the people of the state, and at an election on March 5, 1860, it was rejected by a vote of 2,373 to 2,094.

Seventh Legislature. This session convened on December 3, 1860, with Governor Black still in office. W. H. Taylor was president, and E. P. Brewster, chief clerk of the Council, and in the House, H. W. DePuy was speaker and George L. Seybolt was chief clerk. During this session, slavery received its final quietus. John M. Thayer in the Council and Representative Mathias introduced bills, and when the House Bill was passed, then vetoed by the governor, it received passage over the veto. Governor Black was the last of the succession of democratic governors who had presided over the territory since 1854. He left the territory on May 2, 1861, and died on the field of battle in defense of the Union, in the second year of the war.

GOVERNOR SAUNDERS. Alvin Saunders, of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, was appointed governor, by President Lincoln, and with him, in May, 1861, came Algernon S. Paddock, as secretary. Governor Saunders held the mantle of office until the actual installation of statehood in 1867, and during much of this time, Secretary Paddock was acting governor at intervals. It was, of course, during Governor Saunders' administration that the period of the Civil war, and Nebraska's height of Indian depredations took place, and he had a busy administration. Also, another important event of his administration was the projection into a reality, the Pacific Railroad. In his message to the Eighth Session of the Legislature, which convened December 2, 1861, the governor said:

"A mere glance at the map of the country will convince every intelligent mind that the great Platte Valley, which passes through the heart and runs nearly the entire length of Nebraska, is to furnish the route for the great central railroad, which is to connect the Atlantic and Pacific States and Territories."

The apportionment of $19,312 as Nebraska's share of the tax necessitated by the breaking out of the war was endorsed by the governor, and this session likewise passed resolutions renewing Nebraska's vows of allegiance to the federal government, branding secession and nullification as treason against the general government and stamping Nebraska's position in the great struggle over the preservation of the Union, beyond doubt.

Nebraska's Part in the War. With a population of less than 30,000, Nebraska sent 3,307 men to fight for the preservation of the Union. Under the proclamation of President Lincoln calling for three years' volunteers, one regiment was assigned to Nebraska. Governor Saunders immediately called for volunteers to fill Nebraska's contingent. The first company was formed June 3, 1861, and the regiment was filled within fifty days, by organization of the tenth company, July 22.

The officers who served this regiment were Colonels John M. Thayer (promoted to brigadier general October 4, 1862) and Robt. R. Livingston of Plattsmouth. Besides Colonel Livingston, the lieutenant colonels were Hiram P. Downs, of Nebraska City; Wm. D. McCord, of Plattsmouth, and Wm. Baumer of Omaha. Besides McCord, Livingston and Baumer, who had been promoted, the Majors were Allen Blacker, of Nebraska City, Geo. Armstrong, Omaha, and Thos. J. Majors of Brownville. The regiment composed of Companies A to K, inclusive. This regiment embarked at Omaha for the field of action on July 30, 1861, and were stationed in Missouri, going into winter quarters at Georgetown. February 2, 1862, they left for Tennessee, and from Fort Henry went to Fort Donelson, where in that siege they participated in their first real engagement, with General Lew Wallace as their division commander. They participated at Corinth, and scouted in the southwestern states in 1862 and 1863, coming to St. Louis in fall, and participating in numerous memorable occasions in the western field during 1863 and 1864. They assisted in Indian excursions prior to being mustered out of service on July 1, 1866.

The Second Regiment, Nebraska Cavalry, was organized in the fall of 1862, as a nine months regiment, and served about one year. Its. activities were mainly in Nebraska, and Dakota in the Indian skirmishes. Colonel Robert W. Furnas of Brownville was in command, with W. F. Sapp of Omaha, as lieutenant colonel and Majors George Armstrong of Omaha, John Taffe, of Omaha, and John W. Pearman, of Nebraska City. When this Second Regiment was mustered out of service, in September, 1863, Major George Armstrong was commissioned by Governor Saunders to raise an independent battalion cavalry from its veterans. This battalion, consisting mainly of Companies A, B, C and D, were mustered into service as the First Battalion, Nebraska Veteran Cavalry, and assigned to duty on the plains. In July, 1865, this battalion was consolidated with the First Regiment, Nebraska Veteran Cavalry, and mustered out of service a year later. -

When, in August, 1861, a call was issued for two companies of cavalry to join the First Nebraska Regiment (Infantry) two Companies, "A" at Omaha under Capt. M. T. Patrick, and "B" at Omaha, under Capt. J. T. Croft, were formed: They did not join the First Nebraska, but with two other companies, one from Nebraska City recruited around there and from Page County, Iowa, under Capt. J. M. Young, and one recruited under Lieut. Wm. Curl of St. Louis, were merged into the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, under which name they went through the war, although also called the "Curtis Horse." They served their time in the Southwestern Army.

During the Indian outbreaks, centering around August, 1864, in addition to the handful of regulars available at the regular military posts, and the First Nebraska Veteran Volunteer Cavalry, and the many unofficial, hurried local organizations of settlers, along military plan, there were numerous companies of militia organized and called out by Governor Saunders. These included Companies A, B and C, First Regiment, Second Brigade, Company A, First Regiment; First Brigade, a detachment of thirteen men, artillery militia under Capt. Edward P. Childs; and Company "A," Pawnee Scouts, under Capt. Frank North, and a company of Omaha Indians, under Capt. Edwin R. Nash.

Ninth Sission of Legislature. This session convened at Omaha, January 7, 1864. E. A. Allen was President and J. W. Hollingshead as Chief Clerk of the Council, and in the House, George B. Lake was Speaker and R. Streeter, Chief Clerk. Governor Saunders in his message referred to the prosperous condition of the territory, and paid high tribute to the courage and high patriotism of the Nebraska Volunteers.

Tenth Session of Legislature. Convened at Omaha, January 5, 1865, and elected O. P. Mason, President and John S. Bowen, Chief Clerk of the Council, and in the House, S. M. Kirkpatrick was Speaker and John Taffe, Chief Clerk. Governor Saunders had desired only one term, but in February, 1865, joint resolutions were passed urging his re-appointment, and that of Secretary Paddock.

The Eleventh Session, met at Omaha, January 4, 1866. O. P. Mason remained as President and W. E. Harvey was chosen as Chief Clerk of the Council. Jas. G. Megeath was speaker and George May, chief clerk of the House. This session authorized the people of the Territory to vote upon the question of statehood.

The Twelfth and Last Territorial Legislature. This session convened January 10, 1867, after the first provisional (state) Legislature had convened on the preceding July 4th. E. H. Rogers was President and O. B. Hewitt, Chief Clerk of this session's Council, and in the House, W. F. Chapin was speaker and J. S. Bowen remained as Chief Clerk. This was an uneventful, valedictory session, as statehood was now virtually an accomplished fact.


1862-3. During this session of Congress, a bill was introduced, authorizing the territories of Nebraska, Colorado and Nevada to take the preliminary steps toward admission into the Union as states. This measure did not reach final action during the life of that session.

1864. On April 19th, an act of Congress was approved by the President and became a law, enabling the people of Nebraska to form a State constitution and government. But the continuance of the war, the Indian trouble pending about that time, and concurrent conditions rendered immediate action upon this permission inexpedient.

1866. February 9, the action of the Territorial Legislature made local provision for carrying that law into effect.

June 2, an election was held to decide the question. The tabulation of this vote will serve to show the closeness of the question even then, and also the development of the state, illustrating what counties were then formed.














































L'Eau-qui-Court (now Knox) no returns







































Soldiers' vote






The closeness of this vote might be puzzling, viewed fifty or sixty years in the retrospective were not the explanation made.that considerable politics was injected into this question. The republican party in President Johnson's administration was somewhat divided, and a coalition of the Johnson or liberal wing of that party, with the democrats, especially for patronage and like purposes, alarmed such of the republicans as those in Nebraska. The republicans of Nebraska desired the adoption of the constitution and to secure two senators and a representative to help sway the narrow margin at Washington; while the democrats worked almost as hard against the adoption of the statehood instrument as for their own ticket.

July 4, 1866. According to the provision of the new Constitution therefor, the first provisional (state) legislature met on this date, at Omaha. F. Welch was President and C. E. Yost, Chief Clerk of the Council, and W A. Pollock, Speaker, and J. H. Brown, Chief Clerk of the House. Perhaps the most remarkable achievement of this session was the election of two men to the U. S. Senate, both of whom had won their military spurs, Maj. Gen. John M. Thayer, being elected "the senator from the North Platte" and Chaplain Thomas W. Tipton, "the senator from the South Platte" and the "state of Nebraska" being disregarded in the designations. Hon. T. M. Marquette had been elected as the first representative.

July 18, 1866. A bill was introduced into the National Congress to provide for the admission of Nebraska, and passed on July 28th, but owing to the near approach of the end of the session, the quiet pocketing of that bill by President Johnson was all that was needed to prevent its becoming a law at that time. Congress adjourned and left the embryo state out in the cold, with a set of state officials, legislature and everything elected ready to function; but its charter not issued yet.

December, 1866. When Congress convened, somewhat new conditions had taken place and the republicans, with their Solidarity strengthened were not worrying so much about new accessions of numerical membership. While the Fifteenth amendment had not yet been adopted, the stalwart feeling in favor unlimited in the color line was rapidly growing. The conservative gentlemen who framed the new Nebraska constitution had inserted the word "white" in the franchising qualifications, and as this was a factor not provided for in the enabling act, opened the path for further obstacles. Then the representatives of the older states were now more interested in preserving their sectional and individual weight then granting accessions to the rapidly growing and menacing Northwest. But in January, 1867, a bill looking to the admission of Nebraska received the indorsement of Congress. But it was promptly vetoed by the President, on the ground it embraced the conditions referred to not covered in the enabling act; that the proceedings attending the formation of the constitution were different from those prescribed, and that the population of the territory did not justify its becoming a state. The bill, however, was passed over the President's veto, by a vote of 30 to 9 in the Senate and by a vote, the day following, in the House, of 120 to 44. But the provision was added that the act was not to take effect,

"Except upon the fundamental condition that within the State of Nebraska there shall be no denial of the elective franchise, or any other right, to any person by reason of race or color, except Indians not taxed; and upon the further fundamental condition that the Legislature of said State, by a solemn public act, shall declare the assent of said State to the said fundamental condition."

February 14, 1867. Territorial Governor Saunders, still the Chief Executive of Nebraska issued a proclamation calling together the newly elected state legislature to comply with the conditions above set forth.

February 20, 1867. Immediate action was taken upon this subject, and a bill was passed by the Senate, by a vote of seven to three, and by the House, twenty to six, and approved by the governor. The Legislature provided for the formal notification of the President of the United States of the acceptance of the conditions prescribed, and then adjourned.

March 1, 1867. President Andrew Johnson issued the proclamation declaring Nebraska a state. The next day, Hon. T. M. Marquette presented his credentials in the national House of Representatives and consummated the bond. The two senators, by waiting two days lengthened their terms a couple of years, but Marquette was tired of Washington, so he qualified, cast a few votes in two days and came home.


Governors. Francis Burt, October 16, 1854; died October 18th. (Acting Gov. Thomas B Cuming served in the following interim.) 2nd. Governor Mark W. Izard, Feb. 20, 1855; (Acting Got Thos. B. Cuming, served again after Governor Izard's resignation October 25, 1857). 3d. Wm. A. Richardson, January 12, 1858 (Secretary J. Sterling Morton, acting governor from December 5, 1858, to May 2, 1859). 4th. Samuel W. Black, May 2, 1859 (with Morton acting governor again in 1861, February to May). 5th. Alvin Saunders, May 15, 1361 (with Secretary A. S. Paddock, as acting governor for a portion of the time from 1861-1867). Secretaries. Thomas B. Cuming, August 13, 1854; John B. Motley, acting March 23-July 12, 1858, until the arrival of J. Sterling Morton, who served from July 12, 1858, until May 6, 1861, and Algernon S. Paddock, May 6, 1861, until 1867.

Auditors. Chas. B. Smith, Mar. 16, 1855; Samuel S. Campbell, Aug. 3, 1857; Wm. E. Moore, June 1, 1858; Robert C. Jordon, August 2, 1858; Wm. E. Harvey, Oct. 8, 1861; John Gillespie, Oct. 10, 1865.

Treasurer. B. P. Rankin, Mar. 16, 1855; Wm. W. Wyman, Nov 6, 1855; Augustus Kountze, Oct. 8, 1861.

Librarians. James S. Izard, Mar. 16, 1855; H. C. Anderson, Nov. 6, 1855; John H. Kellom, Aug. 3, 1857; Alonzo D. Luce, Nov. 7, 1859; Robt. S. Knox, ____ 1861.

Judiciary. Chief Justices were, Fenner Ferguson, October 12, 1854; Augustus Hall, March 15, 1858; William Pitt Kellogg, May 27, 1861; William Kellogg, May 8, 1865; William A. Little, who died in office, 1866.

Associate Justices. James Bradley, Oct. 25, 1854; Edward R. Harden, Dec. 4, 1854; Samuel W. Black, 1857; Eleazer Wakely, April 22, 1857; Joseph Miller, April 9, 1859; Wm. E. Lockwood, May 16, 1861; Joseph E. Streeter, Nov. 18, 1861; Elmer S. Dundy, June 22, 1863.

Clerks were H. C. Anderson, 1856; Charles S. Salisbury, 1858; E. B. Chandler, 1859; John H. Kellom, 1861; William Kellogg, Jr., 1865.

District Attorneys were S. A. Strickland, June 11, 1855; Jonathan H. Smith, June 9, 1855; D. S. McGary, May 10, 1855; John M. Latham, Jacob Safford, William Kline, Nov. 6, 1855; Jas. G. Chapman, William McLennan, George W. Doane, Aug. 3, 1857, U. C. Johnson, October 11, 1859.

Delegates to Congress. Napoleon B. Gidding, December 12, 1854; Bird B. Chapman, November 6, 1855, who defeated Hiram P. Bennett by a vote of 380 to 292; Fenner Ferguson, August 3, 1857, who had received 1,642 votes to Chapman, 1,559; Benj. P. Rankin, 1,241, John M. Thayer, 1,171 and 21 scattering in a total of 5,634. Experience Estabrook, October 11, 1859, whose vote of 3,100 defeated Samuel G. Daily with 2,800; J. Sterling Morton, in 1860, with 2,957 votes, defeated Samuel G. Daily, who had 2,943; Samuel G. Daily, in election of 1862, with 2,331 votes this time won out over John F. Kinney, who polled 2,180 votes; Phineas W. Hitchcock polled 3,421 over George L. Miller, 2,399 votes in the election of 1864.

U. S. Marshals. Mark W. Izard, Oct. 28, 1854; Eli R. Doyle, April 7, 1855; Benjamin P. Rankin, March 29, 1856; Phineas W. Hitchcock, Sept. 19, 1861; and Casper E. Yost, April 1, 1865.

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