Bergen County from
HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS OF THE
STATE OF NEW JERSEY
BY: JOHN W. BARBER and HENRY HOWE
PUBLISHED BY S. TUTTLE (NEW YORK) 1844


BERGEN COUNTY was bounded, by the act of 1709, as follows:
“That on the eastern division the county shall begin at Constable’s Hook, and so run up along the bay and Hudson river to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York, and along that line between the provinces, and the division line of the eastern and western divisions of this province, to Pequanock river; thence by such river and the Passaic river to the sound; thence by the sound to Constable’s Hook, where it began.” These original bounds have been much reduced by the formation of Passaic Co., in 1837, and Hudson Co., in 1840. It is now bounded N. by Rockland Co., (New York,) E. by Hudson river, S. by Passaic and Hudson counties, and W. by Passaic co. It is 19 miles long, E. and W.; breadth on the B. line 14, and on the W. 9 miles. The surface of the central part is generally level or undulating. On the W. it is mountainous, and on the E. the lofty trap-ridge, known as the “Palisades,” extends the whole width of the county; bordering on Hudson river. The soil, particularly in the valleys, is fertile, and productive in early- summer vegetables, apples, strawberries, &c., which find a market in the city of New York. The inhabitants are of Dutch origin: many still speak that language, preserving much of their primitive simplicity of manners. In the valleys of the Hackensack and Saddle rivers, and on the adjacent hills, are many small and beautiful farms, with neat cottages, in the Dutch style, painted white, surrounded by shrubbery; the whole presenting an air of rural content and thrift. The county is divided into the following 7 townships, all of which, excepting Lodi and Washington, were incorporated in 1798:
Franklin
Harrington
New Barbadoes
Washington
Hackensack (on seperate page)
Lodi
Saddle River

The population of the county, in 1840, was 13,250.


FRANKLIN


This township measures across it, N. and S., 10 miles, and the same E. and W. It is bounded N. by Rockland co., (New York,) E. by Washington and New Barbadoes, S. by Saddle River and Manchester, Passaic co., and W. by Pompton, Passaic co. The Saddle river courses on its E. boundary and the Ramapo through its western portion. The surface is undulating, and on the W. mountainous. The soil is well-cultivated and productive. In 1840, the products of the dairies were valued at $19,800, being more than double that of any other township in the county; the products of the orchard, $15,547. There were raised 24,003 bushels of oats, 18,750 bushels of rye, and 18,652 of Indian corn. There were 5 paper-mills, and 6 cotton manufactories—in the latter of which was invested a capital of $22,810, and the value of. the cotton cloth made $30,812; 15 grist-mills, 25 saw-mills; capital in manufactures, $40,633; 13 schools, 462 scholars. Population, 4,010. Paramus, Hohokus, New Prospect, and Hopper's arc localities in the township; the first of which, 7 miles NW. of Hackensack, contains a Reformed Dutch church, and a few dwellings. The remainder are manufacturing vicinities.

Wampum, or Indian money, is to the present day made in this county, and sold to the Indian traders of the far west. It has been manufactured, by the females in this region, from very early times for the Indians; and as every thing connected with this interesting race is destined, at no distant period, to exist only in history, we annex a description of the manufacture.

The wampum is made from the thick and blue part of sea-clamshells. The process is simple, but requires a skill only attained by long practice. The intense hardness and brittleness of the material render it impossible to produce the article by machinery alone. It is done by wearing or grinding the shell. The first process is to split off the thin part with a light sharp hammer. Then it is clamped in the sawed crevice of a slender stick, held in both hands, and ground smooth on a grindstone, until formed into an eightsided figure, of about an inch in length and nearly half an inch in diameter; when it is ready for boring. The shell then is inserted into another piece of wood, sawed similarly to the above, but fastened firmly to a bench of the size of a common stand. One part of the wood projects. over the bench, at the end of which hangs a weight, causing the sawed orifice to close firmly upon the shell inserted on its under side, and to hold it firmly, as in a vice, ready for drilling. The drill is made from an untempered handsaw. The operator grinds the drill to a proper shape, and tempers it in the flame of a candle. A rude ring, with a groove on its circumference, is put on it; around which the operator, (seated in front of the fastened shell,) curls the string of a common hand-bow. The boring commences, by nicely adjusting the point of the drill to the centre of the shell; while the other end is braced against a steel plate, on the breast of the operator. About every other sweep of the bow, the drill is dexterously drawn out, cleaned of the shelly particles by the thumb and finger, above which drops of water from a vessel fall down and cool the drill; which is still kept revolving, by the use of the bow with the other hand, the same as though it were in the shell. This operation of boring is the most difficult of all, the peculiar motion of the drill rendering it hard for the breast; yet it is performed with a rapidity and grace interesting to witness. Peculiar care is observed, lest the shell burst from heat caused by friction. When bored half way, the wampum is reversed, and the same operation repeated. The next process is the finishing. A wire, about twelve inches long, is fastened at one end to a bench. Under and parallel to the wire is a grindstone, fluted on its circumference, hung a little out of the centre, so as to be turned by a treadle moved with the foot. The left hand grasps the end of the wire, on which are strung the wampum, and, as it were, wraps the beads around the fluted or hollow circumference of the grindstone. While the grindstone is revolving, the beads are held down on to it, and turned round by a flat piece of wood held in the right hand, and by the grinding soon become round and smooth. They are then strung on hempen strings, about a foot in length. From five to ten strings are a day’s work for a female. They are sold to the country merchants for twelve and a half cents a string, always command cash, and constitute the support of many poor and worthy families.



HARRINGTON


This township was reduced, in 1840, about one half, by the formation of Washington from the western portion. it approaches in form to a square, and measures across it, each about 5 miles. It is bounded N. by Rockland co., (New York,) E. by Hudson river, S. by Hackensack, and W. by Washington. The Palisades skirt it on its eastern boundary, and the Hackensack river divides it from Washington. The soil is fertile, and the township produces large quantities of orchard-fruit. The township contains 3 stores, 4 gristmills, 4 saw-mills; capital in manufactures $5,200; 6 schools, 154 scholars. Population, 1,130.

The village of Tappan is just over the boundary line, in the state of New York. The place where Maj. Andre was executed is about a quarter of a mile west of the village, within a few hundred yards of the New Jersey line. It is on an eminence, overlooking, to the east, a romantic and fertile valley. A small heap of stones, thrown carelessly together, with an upright stake, marks the place of his execution and grave. In August, 1831, the British consul at New York, (J. Buchanan, Esq.) caused the remains of Andre to be disinterred, and conveyed to London.

The following account of the execution of Andre, which took place October 2d, 1780, is given by an eye-witness:

'I was at that time an artificer in Col. Jeduthun Baldwin’s regiment, a part of which was stationed within a short distance of the spot where Andre suffered. One of our men, (I believe his name was Armstrong,) being one of the oldest and best workmen at his trade in the regiment, was selected to make his coffin, which he performed, and painted black, agreeably to the custom in those times.

“At this time Andre was confined in what was called a Dutch church, a small stone building, with only one door, and closely guarded by six sentinels. When the hour appointed for his execution arrived, which I believe was two o’clock, P. M., a guard of three hundred men were paraded at the place of his confinement A kind of procession was formed by placing the guard in single file on each side of the road. In front were a large number of American officers. of high rank. on horseback. These were followed by the wagon conyaining Andre’s coffin ; then a Large number of officers on foot, with Andre in their midst. The procession movcd slowly up a moderately-rising hill, I should think about a fourth of a mile to the west. On the top was a field without any enclosure. In this was a very high gallows, made by setting up two poles or crotches, laying a pole on the top. The wagon that contained the coffin was drawn directly under the gallows. In a short time Andre stepped into the thud end of the wagon; then on his coffin—took off his bat and laid it down—then placed his hands upon his hips, and walked very uprightly back and forth, as far as the length of his coffin would permit; at the same time casting his eyes upon the pole over his head, and the whole scenery by which he was surrounded. He was dressed in what I should call a complete British uniform: his coat was of the brightest scarlet, faced or trimmed with the most beautiful green. His under-clothes, or vest and breeches, were bright buff, very similar to those worn by military officers in Connecticut, at the present day. He had a long and beautiful head of hair, which, agreeably to the fashion, was wound with a black riband, and hung down his back. All eyes were upon him; and it is not believed that any officer in the British army, placed in his situation, would have appeared better than thIs unfortunate man.

“Not many minutes after he took his stand upon the coffin, the executioner stepped into the wagon, with a halter in his hand, on one end of which was what the soldiers in those days called a hangman’s knot, which he attempted to put over the head and around the neck of Andre; but by a sudden movement of his hand this was prevented. Andre took of the handkerchief from his neck, unpinned his shirt-collar, and deliberately took the end of the halter, put it over his head, and placed the knot directly under his right ear, and drew it very snugly to his neck. He then took from his coat-pocket a handkerchief, and tied it over his eyes. This done, the officer that commanded (his name I have forgotten) spoke in rather a loud voice, and said that his arms must be tied. Andre at once pulled down the handkerchief he had just tied over his cycs, and drew from his pocket a second one, and gave to the executioner; and then replaced his handkerchief. His arms were tied just above the elbows, and behind the back. The rope was then made fast to the pole overhead. The wagon was very suddenly drawn from under the gallows, whick, together with the length of rope, gave him a most tremendous swing back and forth; but in a few moments be hung entirely still. During the whole transaction, he appeared as little daunted as Mr. John Rogers, when he was about to be burnt at the stake; but his countenance was rather pale. He remained hanging, I should think, front twcny to thirty minutes; and during that time the chambers of (tenth were never stiller than the multitude by which he was surrounded. Orders were given to cut the rope, and take him down, without letting him fall. This was done, and his body carefully laid on the ground. Shortly after, the guard was withdrawn, and spectators were permitted to come forward to view the corpse ; but the crowd was so great that it was some time before I could get an opportunity. When I was able to do this, his coat, vest, and breeches were taken off, and his body laid in the coffin, covered by some under-clothes. The top of the coffin was not put on. I viewed the corpse more carefully than I had ever done that of any human being before. His head was very much on one side, in consequence of the manner in which the halter drew upon his neck. His face appeared to be greatly swollen and very black, much resembling a high degree of mortification. It was indeed a shocking sight to behold. There were at this time, standing at the foot of the coffin, two young men, of uncommon short stature—I should think not more than four feet high. ‘Their dress was the most gaudy that I over beheld. One of them had the clothes, just taken from Andre, hanging on his arm. I took particular pains to learn who they were, and was informed that they were his servants, sent up from New York to take care of his clothes; but what other business I did not learn.

"I now turned to take a view of the executioner, who was still standing by one of the posts of the gallows. I walked nigh enough to him to have laid my hand upon his shoulder, and looked him directly in his face. He appeared to be about twenty-five years of age, his beard of two or three weeks’ growth, and his whole face covered with what appeared to me to be blacking taken from the outside of a greasy pot. A more frightful-looking being I never beheld: his whole countenance bespoke him to be a fit instrument for the business he had been doing. Wishing to see the closing of the whole business, I remained upon the spot until scarce twenty persons were left; but the coffin was still beside the crave, which had previously been dug. I now returned to my tent, with my mind deeply imbued with the shocking scene I bad been called to witness.”

The following account of the massacre of CoL Baylor’s troop, in October, 1778, is taken from Ramsay’s History of the American Revolution, (vol. ii.) This bloody transaction took place (it is stated) about two and a half miles SW. of Tappan, in a barn which formerly stood near Hackensack river.

“One of the most disastrous events which occurred at this period of the campaign, was the surprise and massacre of an American regiment of light dragoons, commanded by Lieut. Col. Baylor. While employed, in a detached situation, to intercept and watch a British foraging party, they took up their lodging in a barn, near Tappan. The officer who commanded the party which surprised them was Maj. Gen. Grey. 1-le acquired the name of the ‘no-flint General' from his common practice of ordering the men under his command to take the ffints out of their muskets, that they might be confined to the use of their bayonets. A party of militia, which had been stationed on the road, by which the British advanced, quitted their post, without giving any notice to Co!. Baylor. This disorderly conduct was the occasion of the disaster which followed. Grey’s men proceeded with such silence and address, that they cut off a sergeant’s patrol, without noise, and surrounded old Tappan without being discovered. They then rushed in upon Baylor’s regiment, while they were in a profound sleep. Incapable of defence or resistance, cut off from every prospect of selling their lives dearly, the surprised dragoons sued for quarters. Unmoved by their sup plicatious, their adversaries applied the bayonet, and continued its repeated thrusts while objects could be found, in which any signs of life appeared. A few escaped, and others, after having received from five to eleven bayonet wounds in the trunk of the body, were restored, in course of time, to perfect health. Baylor himself was wounded, but not dangerously. He lost, in killed, wounded, and taken, 67 privates, out of 104. About 40 were made prisoners. These were indebted for their lives to the humanity of one of Grey’s captains, who gave quarters to the whole fourth troop, though contrary to the orders of his superior officers. The circumstance of the attack being made in the night, when neither order nor discipline can be observed, may apologize, in some degree, with men of a certain description, for this bloody scene. It cannot be maintained that the laws of war require that quarters should be given in similar assaults; but the lovers of mankind must ever contend, that the laws of humanity are of superior obligation to those of var. The truly brave will spare when resistance ceases, and in every case where it can be done in safety. The perpetrators of such actions may justly be denominated the enemies of refined society. As far as their example prevails, it tends to arrest the growing humanity of modern times, and to revive the barbarism of Gothic ages. On these principles, the massacre of Col. Baylor’s regiment was the subject of much complaint. The particulars of it were ascertained, by the oaths of sundry credible witnesses, taken before Gov. Livingston, of Jersey; and the whole was submitted to the judgment of the public.”



LODI


This township was formed from New Barbacloes, in 1825, and reduced in limits, in 1840, by the formation of Hudson co. Its length is about 6 miles. It is bounded N. by New Barbadoes, E. by ilackensack, S. by Hudson co., and W. by Hudson Co. and Saddle River. The Saddle river courses on its western, and the Hackensack on its eastern boundary. As tending to show the preservation of the ancient Dutch names in this region, it is mentioned that in a sabbath-school, formed in this township,’ in 1827 or 1828, out of 41 scholars, 40 bore the name of Yierriance. This township contains a dyeing and printing establishment, 3 grist-mills, 3 saw-mills; capital in manufactures, $70,000; 2 schools, 52 scholars. Population, 687.


NEW BARBADOES


This township is about 7 miles long, and 3 ½ wide. It is bounded N. by Washington, E. by Hackensack, S. by Lodi, and W. by Saddle River and Franklin. The Hackensack is on the eastern, and Saddle river on the western boundary. The surface is generally level, or undulating; the soil is highly cultivated and productive. Several sloops ply, on the Hackensack, between here and New York, laden with the wood and produce of the country. Population, 2,104.

HACKENSACIC, the seat of justice for Bergen co., iS on the west bank of Hackensack river, 13 miles from New York city. The town was originally settled by six or eight Dutch families, and in eluded in a patent, granted by the proprietors of East Jersey, to Capt. John Berry, commencing about 5 miles below the town, at what was then called the Boiling Spring road, and extending to the north of it about 2 miles; and bounded on the E. by Hackensack, and W. by Saddle River. It was subject to a quit-rent: all the titles to lots in the town are derived originally from this grant; but no quit-rents have been paid since the revolution.

At the commencement of the revolutionary war Hackensack contained only about 30 houses. It now has over 200, and a population of about 1,500. There are 4 churches. The Ref. Protestant Dutch church is a handsome stone edifice (shown in the annexed engraving) on one side of the public green. It is the third built on that site. The first was erected in 1696, and the present one in 1791. There is aüother in the lower part of the town, erected by a congregation formed from the first, styled the “True Reformed Dutch church.” The third one, called “The Independent church,” was formed from the last. There is also a Methodist church in the village. The last three are wooden structures erected within a few years. The courthouse built in 1819, a handsome brick building, is the fourth erected.

Hackensack is one of the most pleasant villages in the state, stretching along through the meadows, on two main streets, for a mile or more: back of these is a new street recently laid out. There are four streets leading from the front to the rear streets. There are several elegant mansions in the town, and a great addi tion is made to its appearance by the cultivation of shade-trees and shrubbery. From a hill about a quarter of a mile west is a beautiful landscape, comprising the whole of the town with its .neat white buildings, the Hackensack quietly meandering through fertile meadows, and in the distance the high hills bounding the Hudson. There are 5 large stores, besides several smaller ones, which do an extensive business with the surrounding country. Six vessels are constantly plying between here and New York; a considerable lumber trade is carried on, and large quantities of pine wood for steamboats are brought from Virginia. The town has many mechanics of almost every variety, and 4 taverns, 3 of which are on the village green. There are 2 academies and 1 female boardingschool, and also a select grammar-school, where young men are prepared for college, under the direction of Rev. John S. Mabon, A. M. The stone academy built in 1762, was the first erected in the village. The frame academy at the upper end of the town has been built only a few years. There are three turnpikes leading from the place; one to Fort Lee, one to Paterson, and one to Hoboken. The last was the second chartered in New Jersey.

We are indebted to the kindness of an eye-witness, for the following detailed account of military operations in this place and vicinity in the war of the revolution.

“After the evacuation of Fort Lee in Nov., 1776, and the surrender of Fort Washington to the British, Washington, at the head of his army, consisting only of about 3,000 men, having sent on his baggage to Acquackanonck, crossed the New Bridge into the town. It was about dusk when the head of the troops entered Hackensack. The night was dark, cold, and rainy, but I had a fair view of them from the light of the windows, as they passed on our side of the street. They marched two abreast, looked ragged, some without a shoe to their feet, and most of them wrapped in their blankets. Washington then, and for some time previous, had his head-quarters at the residence of Mr. Peter Zabriskie, a private house, the supplies for the general’s table being furnished by Mr. Archibald Campbell, the tavern-keeper. The next evening, after the Americans had passed through, the British were encamped on the opposite side of the river. We could see their fires about 100 yards apart, gleaming brilliantly in the gloom of night., extending some distance below the town, and more than a mile up toward the New Bridge. Washington was still at his quarters, and had with him his suite, life-guards, a company of foot, a reginient of cavalry, and some soldiers from the rear of the army. In the morning, before the general left, he rode down to the dock where the bridge now is, viewed the enemy’s encampment about ten or fifteen minutes, and then returned to Mr. Campbell’s door and called for some wine and water. After he had drunk, and when Mr. Campbell was taking the gla.ss from him, the latter, with tears streaming down his face, said, ‘ General, what shall I do, I have a family of small children and a little property here; shall I leave it?’ Washington kindly took his hand and replied, ‘Mr. Campbell, stay by your property and keep neutral,’ then bidding him ‘goodbye,’ rode off About noon the next day, the British took possession of the town, and in the afternoon the green. was covered with Hessians, a horrid, frightful sight to the inhabitants. There were between 3,000 and 4,000, with their whiskers, brass caps, and kettles or brass drums. A part of these same troops were two months after taken prisoners at Trenton.”

“In the latter part of March, 1780, a party of about 400 British, Hessians, and refugees, passed through Hackensack on their way to attack some Pennsylvania troops at Paramus. It was about 3 o’clock in the night when they entered the lower part of the town. All was quiet. A small company of 20 or 30 militia, under Capt. John Outwater, had retired for the night to the barracks, barns, and out-houses, where those friendly to the American cause generally resorted to rest. One half of the enemy marched quietly through. When the rear, consisting mostly of Hessians, arrived, they broke open the doors and windows, robbed and plundered, and took prisoners a few peaceable inhabitants, among whom was Mr. Archibald Campbell. This gentleman, who had been for several weeks confined to his bed with the rheumatism, they forced into the street and compelled to follow them. Often in their rear, they threatened to shoot him if he did not hasten his pace. In the subsequent confusion he escaped and hid in the cellar of a house opposite the New Bridge. He lived until 1798, and never experienced a return of the rheumatism.

The Hessians burnt 2 dwellings and the courthouse. The latter stood on the west side of the green, 8 or 10 rods from Campbell’s tavern. Fortunately the wind was from the west and drove the flames and sparks over the green, and the tavern was saved by the family throwing water over the roof. At this time those in the outhouses were aroused, and the militia hastened across the fields, mounted horses, and alarmed the troops at Patamus. By the time the enemy had arrived at what is itow the Red Mills, 4 miles from Hackensack, they ascertained the Americans were on their way to meet them. Disappointed, they retraced their steps, and when near Hackensack turned off to the north, on the road leading to the New Bridge, to the left of which there is a range about half a mile distant from the road, the intervening ground being level. Here the continentals and militia were hurrying over, kept however at a distance by large flanking parties of the enemy, who, on arriving at the bridge, were detained about two hours in replacing the plank torn off by the Americans. In the mean time their parties were skirmishing with our people. Having crossed over, they marched down the east side of the Hackensack through the English Neighborhood, being pursued 12 miles, to a considerable distance within their lines, down to Bergen woods: They lost many killed and wounded. There were none killed on our side. A young man of the town was wounded by a spent ball, which cut his upper lip, knocked out lour front teeth, and was caught in his mouth. Capt. Outwater received a ball below the knee, which was never extracted. He carried it for many years, and it was buried with him.

The following account of an exploit performed about one and a half mites from the New Bridge, by the celebrated Aaron Burr, then in the revolutionary army, is from a statement made by Judge G. Gardner.

"In September, 1777, the regiment called Malcom’s regiment lay at Suifren’s, in the Clove, under the command of Lieutenantcolonel Burr. Intelligence having been received that the enemy were in Hackensack in great force, and advancing into the country, Col. Burr immediately marched with the effective men, except a guard to take care of the camp We arrived at Paramus, a distance of 16 miles, before sunset. There were considerable bodies of militia in great alarm and disorder, and doing much mischief to the neighboring farms. They could give no intelligence of the enemy but from rumor. They supposed them to be within a few miles and advancing.

“Col. Burr set some of the militia to repair the fences they had destroyed, and arranged them as well as time would permit; and having taken measures to secure the troops from surprise, and also for the protection of the cornfields, he marched immediately, with about 30 of the most active of the regiment, and a few of the militia, to ascertain the position and numbers of the enemy. About 10 o'clock at night, being 3 miles from Hackensack we got certain intelligence that we were within a mile of the picket guard of the enemy. Cot. Burr then led the men into a wood, and ordered them to sleep till he should awake them, of which we had great need, having marched more than 30 miles since noon. Col. Burr then went alone to discover the position of the enemy. He returned about half an hour before day and waked us, and told us that he was going to attack the picket of the enemy; that we had only to follow him, and then forbid any man to speak or to fire, on pain of death. He then led us between the sentinels in such a way, that we were within a few yards of the picket guard before they suspected our approach. He then gave the word, and we rushed upon them bethre they had time to take their arms, and the greater part were killed. A few prisoners and some accoutrements were brought off without the loss of one man. Go!. Burr immediately sent off an express to Pararnus, to order all the troops to move, and to rally the country. Our little success had so encouraged the inhabitants, that they turned. oat with great alacrity and put themselves under the command of Col. Burr. Bat the enemy, probably alarmed by these threatening appearances, retreated the next day, leaving behind them the greater part of the plunder which they had taken.”

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the graveyard annexed to the church. The first is on a tall granite monument in the rear of the building, and the last on a fiat stone lying horizontally upon the ground, under the willow seen in the preceding engraving.

“In memory of Col Richard Varick, formerly mayor of the city of New York, and at the time of his decease, president of the American Bible Society. Born 25th March, 1753. Died 30th of July, 1831, aged 78 years, 4 months, and 5 days.”

“In memory of Peter Wilson, LL.D., who was born in the parish of Ordignhill in the shire of Bamff, Scotland, Nov. 23d, 1746, and emigrated to this county in 1763. For many years he was the efficient and successful principal of the academy in this place, and afterward of that at Flatbush, L. L, and for 26 years officiated as professor of languages in Columbia College. A zealous and successful patriot and Christian, and exemplary in all the public, social, and domestic relations which he sustained, hc closed a life of indefatigable activity and constant usefulness, on the 1st of August, 1825, in the 79th year of his age. ‘Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord. They rest from their labors and their works do follow them.”

“In memory of the Hon. Brigadier-general Enoch Poor, of the state of New Hamp shire, who departed this life on the 8th day of September, 1780, aged 44 years.”

At the time of the death of General Poor, the American army was at Kinerhamach, near the line of New York and New Jersey. The funeral was attended by Washington and Lafayette, and the procession, composed of a long line of soldiers, both foot and horse, extended from the church to the upper end of the town. They had 2 field-pieces, which were not discharged, probably on account of the vicinity to the enemy. Lafayette, on his last visit to this country, was shown the grave. He was much affected, and on turning away, exclaimed, “Au! that was one of my generals !“


SADDLE RIVER


SADDLE RIVER, previous to the formation of Passaic CO., com prised within its limits what is now Manchester of that co. It was then sb.aped like a saddle, from which it derived its name. It is now 7 miles long and 2 wide, and is bounded N. by Franklin, E. by New Barbadoes, SE. by Lodi, and W. by Acquackanonck and Manchester. The Passaic courses its western and the Saddle river its E. line. The latter merges into the former at the S. point of the township. The surface is level, and the soil well-cultivated, and very productive in garden vegetables. The township contains 4 grist-m., 1 saw-m. ; 3 schools, 86 scholars. Pop. 828.


WASHINGTON


WASHINGTON was formed from the western part of Harrington in 1840. It is about 7 miles long, 5 wide, and is bounded N. by Rockland co., N. Y., E. by Harrington, S. by New Barbadoes, and W. by Franklin. The Saddle river courses on its W., and the Hackensack on its B. boundary. The surface is level and well watered. The dairy business is extensively carried on. Paskack, is the name of the post-office in this township, 10 miles N. of Hackensack, and 73 from Trenton. The township contains 6 stores, cap. $7,300; 6 grist-m., 14 saw-m.; cap. in manufac. $5,200; 4 schools, 135 scholars. Pop. 1,833.

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