Upper Alloways Creek, NJ
HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS OF THE
STATE OF NEW JERSEY
BY: JOHN W. BARBER and HENRY HOWE
PUBLISHED BY S. TUTTLE (NEW YORK) 1844
UPPER ALLOWAYS CREEK. This township is about 8 m. in length, 7 m. in breadth, and is bounded NE. by
Pittsgrove and Pilesgrove. SE. by Deerfield, Hopewell, and Stow creek. Cumberland co.. SW. by Lower Alloways Crek.
and NW. by Elsinborough. There are in the township 1 woollen fac., 6 grist-m., 7 saw-m.; cap. in manufac. $29,800;
S schools, 400 scholars. Pop. 2,235.
Alloways creek, which runs through the township, derives its appellation from an Indian chief, named Alloways, who lived in this country at the period of Fenwick's arrival, in 1675. The township was early settled. About the year 1748, a German Lutheran church, called Emanuel's, was established at Freasburg, the constituents of which are believed to have been all Germans. Their names were Freas, Trollenger, Meyer, Hahn, Born, Wentzcll, Mackassen, Heppel, Ridman, Dillshoever, Sowder, Kniest, Tobal, and others, with their families. These people worked at Wistar's glass-works, 2½ miles above Allowaystown, which are said to have been the first glass-works established in the Union. The church records were kept in German, until 1832, when the Rev. Mr. Harpel took the oversight of the same. In 1836, he was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Reynolds. In Sept. of the same year, he was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Duy, and he, in 1839, by the Rev. Mr. Town.
The above view of the northern entrance into Allowaystown, taken near Reeves and Brother's mills, which appear on the right of the engraving, shows the principal street in the place. This thriving village is at the head of navigation, on Alloways creek, 6 m. E. of Salem. It contains a Baptist and a Methodist church, several stores, and about 800 inhabitants. Ship-building is carried on here to a considerable extent; besides many small vessels, one or two large ships of 600 tons burden have been constructed. The white-oak of this region is said to be nearly equal, for ship timber, to the famous live-oak of Florida. There are a few localities in this township, known as Quinton's Bridge, Freasburg, Stockingtown, and Guineatown; the first of which contains 2 stores, a lime-kiln, and about a dozen dwellings.
The annexed account of military operations in this vicinity, in the revolutionary war, is from Johnson's History of Salem
It was about the 20th Feb., 1778, that a detachment of British troops were sent from Philadelphia, by water, to Salem. They were in number about 500 men, under the command of Col. Abercrombie, of the 52d reginient. They came by water, and returned the same way, after remaining a few days, and helping themselves to whatever they wanted. It was generally believed that they were sent here on a reconnoitering party, and to ascertain the resources of the county.
On the 17th March, 1778, another British regiment, which had been selected from the 17th and 44th regiments in the city of Philadelphia, and mostly Scotchmcn, under the command of Col. Charles Mawhood, and his majors, Simcoe and Sims, said to have been from 1,200 to 1,500 strong, marched into Salem early in the forenoon, having encamped the night before near Sharptown, and anticipating that they might surprise Col. Anthony Wayne, the commander of the Americans, before he was aware of their approach. But Wayne was too vigilant an officer to be surprised here. lie made good his retreat without any loss. As soon as the town was in possession of the enemy, the tories hastened hither, and as many enlisted as to make up two companies, who were called refugees. British officers were put in command of them, and that they might be known from the foreign troops, whose uniform was red, these refugees were dressed in a uniform entirely difFerent from the foreign, which was green, faced with white, and cocked hats with broad white binding around them.
Col. Mawhood, having now an addition of two companies to his regiment, composed of the most desperate and abandoned wretches that ever drew the breath of life, and obtaining from them all the necessary information, learned that our militia, under the command of Col. Benjamin Holmes, were about 300 who were posted on the south side of Alloways creek, at Quinton's bridge, about 3 miles from Salem, and were determined to hold good their standing there, and prevent him, if possible, from crossing into Alloways Creek township. He resolved, therefore, to beat up their quarters, and, as he publicly declared, chastise the insolent rebels, as he was pleased to call our people, for having the impudence to dare to show resistance to his maj esty's arms. He sent out into the country around, and took from the farmers as many. horses as to complete a troop, which he had immediately mounted with his best men, and attached it to the regiment. Col. Holmes, anticipating a visit from the enemy, went on an exploring party with some of his officers to Allowaystown, about 2 miles above Quinton's bridge, for the purpose of appointing a few trusty persons as videttes, with directions to advance on the road from thence towards Salem, and watch the motions of the enemy, lest he might send a detachment that way, cross the creek at the bridge there, and attack him from that quarter.
Col. Mawhood, on the 18th March, sent out Major Simcoe from Salem before daylight in the morning, with his battalion, who came undiscovered within half a mile of the bridge, and there placed his men in that ambuscade which proved so fatal to a portion of our militia but a few hours afterward. On the left of the main road leading to the bridge, and within half gunshot of it, there ran up a ravine leading from the creek, at that time a thick swamps grown up with maples and bushes of every kind; this swamp continued its course to where the road made a short turn; at about half way between this turn in the road and the bridge on tile Alloways creek, was a two-story brick house, with a barn and other outbuildings; this house was then in the occupation of Benjamin Wetherby; the main road to Salem ran close to the south end of the house, and the barn directly on the opposite side, while the swamp, with its thicket of bushes, came within 80 or 100 feet of the north side of the house. In this swamp, dwellinghouse, and barn, tile British troops were secreted. The family were driven into the cellar. At the upper end of the lane, where the road made a turn, there were woods; from these, some few of the redcoats, (as the enemy were sometimes called,) with a small number of light-horsemen, would show themselves, and march down the road in a taunting manner, as if challenging our people to a contest, and now and then advance near to the brick house, and then retreat to the woods again.
During these petty manoeuvres of the enemy, tile spirit of our soldiers was excited to such a degree, as that there appeared to be an almost unanimous disposition in the militia to go over the bridge and chastise them. The most wary of the officers opposed the movement proposed, because the orders of the commanding officer had been peremptory, that they were to stand their ground, and defend the bridge to the last extremity, should the enemy attempt to force a passage in his absence.
During this parley among them, a little Frenchman by the name of 1)ecoe, a lieutenant, who was full of fight, represented to Capt. William Smith, then the senior officer present, how easy it would be.for them to go over and "drub those insolent rascals." Capt. Smith being equally animated, forthwith mounted his horse, and called upon his men to follow. 'fliey immediately obeyed and marched on, or rallier huddled promiscuously along the road, with scarcely any military order. The decoying enemy, seeing the confused manner in which the militia were approaching them, feigned a retreat. Captain Smith, being in advance of his men, was call-V lug upon them to hasten on, saying, "We will have them before they get to Mill-hollow," a ravine over which the then road leading to Salem passed, and about two miles from Quinton's bridge.
During this higgledy-piggledy marching, if I may so call it, no one thought, while passing, to examine either the barn, dwelling-house, or swamp in the rear of it. When the militia had advanced some yards beyond the house, the enemy rose up, and poured forth upon our people a most destructive fire, from the swamp, house, barn, and fences, under which many of them were secreted. The militia were thrown into confusion, it was at this moment that Capt. Smith displayed great bravery anti presence of mind in attempting to rally his men, but they were so cornpletely surprised that he could not form them into line. The light-horse from the woods now came dashing among them; but their horses, being untrained, soon frightened at the clash of arms and report of guns, and could not be brought within striking distance of the sabre, except in a few instances. Our people retreated fighting in small squads, and although at first surprised, and attacked in flank and rear, they made good their retreat across the bridge, but with the loss of between thirty and forty of their comrades.
Col. Hand, of the Cumberland militia, being informed by Col. Holmes that the enemy were in Salem, put his regiment in motion, and was hastening to join Holmes at Quinton's bridge, and by an unforeseen Providence, as designed, he arrived there at the very moment when the enemy was dealing death and destruction among our people. Immediately on his arrival, lie placed his men in the trenches which our soldiers had but a little while before left, and opened upon the pursuing enemy such a continued and well-directed fire, as soon put a stop to their career, and saved our people from being cut to pieces. Hand had with him two pieces of artillery, which, when they opened, soon obliged the enemy to face about. Capt. Smith had some of his hair shot away from the back part of his head, a bullet grazed his loins, and his horse received two bullets in him, yet he carried his rider safe over the bridge, and then fell dead under him.
One extraordinary act of consummate bravery and desperate daring during the fight, deserves to he recorded. It was that which was performed by Andrew Bacon, of the militia, a roan whose life was protracted until he was past eighty years of age before he died. After our militia had effected their retreat across the creek to their works, Bacon seized an axe, and set to with all his might, with a determination to cut down the draw of the bridge, as it was apparent the design of the enemy was to beat and drive our soldiers from their trenches, if possible; he persevered in chopping, (while the enemy were directing their shot at him,) until he cut away the draw, and rendered it impassable; as he was hastening to the trenches, he received a wound, which, poor fellow, rendered him a cripple for life. The enemy being now foiled, notwithstanding all their exertions to cross the creek, and seeing the draw of the bridge cut away and destroyed in their presence, were reluctantly obliged to give up the contest, and return to Salem.
Colonel Mawhood, exceedingly chagrined that Major Simcoe, with his fine battalion, could not drive our people from their intrenchments, was determined not to permit them to bid defiance to his majesty's arms any longer, and resolved on the morrow to make one desperate eflbrt, with all liis disposable force, to dislodge the militia from their stronghold, and crush them for their insolence. Our troops being well aware that the pride of the enemy was excessively mortified in being thus foiled by a raw and undisciplined militia, in their attempt to take the bridge, employed the remainder of the day in strengthening their breastworks and other defences- in administering all the comfort in their power to their wounded comrades, and in burying of the dead. Their feelings being now wrought up to the highest pitch, on that night they entered into the most solemn resolutions, that no "British soldier should eat bread or set his foot on that side of the Alloways creek," as long as there was a man left to defend it. Accordingly, as it was anticipated, on the next morning about ten o'clock the whole British force appeared, approaching in battle array.
They imagined that they would strike terror into the hearts of our people by playing upon all their martial instruments of music, as they boldly advanced to the foot of the causeway in columns of battalions, where they displayed and formed their lines on the edge of the marsh. The refugees were there in the ranks on the right of the British regulars, and many of them were recognized by our people, as men who had been inhabitants of our own county, then in arms against their own neighbors.
Previous to the approach of the enemy, Cols. Holmes and Hand had placed their men under cover in their intrenchments, both up and down the creek, as far as the discharge of musketry would tell with good effect. The creek running circularly towards the enemy, and from the position in which their line was then formed, they became exposed to the certain and destructive fire from our people in front, and on both flanks. In this position were they when our militia opened upon them such a well-directed and destructive fire, that, brave as they were, they could not long stand it. They then saw, to their woful disappointment, that they could make no impression upon our people; they were not to be intimidated, for they felt themselves secure under cover and upon a high bank, with the creek between them, and the bridge destroyed. For the enemy to make a desperate effort to advance through the marsh to the edge of the Creek, would answer no good purpose, but only expose themselves to certain destruction. In their attempt to penetrate along the causeway to gain the bridge, they were so galled by the incessant fire poured in upon their left flank from what is now the ship-yard, as well as assailed by small-arms and the two pieces of cannon in their front, that they were thrown into confusion, were obliged to retreat back to Salem, and leave the small village of Quinton's bridge in the possession of our gallant militia.
The next day a detachment of the enemy marched through a little settlement called Guineatown, near to Allowaystown, situated at the head of the tide-water, but returned, not venturing to cross the bridge there.
Mawhood now set about accomplishing the errand which he bad been sent to perform-which was to plunder the farmers of all the hay, grain, cattle, horses, and, indeed, of every thing that might be of benefit to the British. He therefore sent out his men and pressed into his service all the teams that he could obtain, and set them to work under the supervision of a military guard in transporting every thing be found necessary to the vessels, which had been sent for that purpose ;-the like in number have never been seen at one time in our creek, either before or since. These productions of the farmers were carried to Philadelphia, where they were very much wanted-that city being the head-quarters of the enemy. The foragers were directed to explore Elsinborough, Lower Mannington, and Salem, where he was sure no resistance could be offered to them. 1-Je directed a strong party to attend the foragers into the township of Lower Penn's Neck. The bridge over the main creek, and road leading from Salem into the Neck, was situated about two miles higher up than where it now crosses.
Captain Andrew Sinnickson lived at that time in Penn's Neck, and being notified of the party approaching, hastily collected together as many of his men as could be mustered, came upon the guard and their foragers, (in what was then called the Long Lane,) and after a severe contest the enemy was routed, and in the melee the commanding officer lost his hat and cloak, and was obliged to flee to Salem without them. The next (lay Capt. Sinnickson sent a flag into the town, with the hat and cloak belonging to the iinfortunate officer, with something like this laconic message: "That lie had to regret the sudden departure of the officer, the owner of these articles, but hoped that if he intended another visit into that township he mught have the pleasure of detaining him, until they became better Acquainted."
Below is the letter of the British commander to Col. Elijah Hand, written a day or two after the affair at Quintin's Bridge, together with the reply:
COLONEL MAWHOOD, commanding a detachment of the British army at Salem, inauced by motives of humanity, proposes to the militia at Quintin's Bridge and the neighborhood, as well officers as private men, to lay down their arms and depart, each man to his own home. On that condition, he solemnly promises to re-embark his troops without delay, doing no further damage to the country; and he will cause his commissaries to pay for the cattle, hay, and corn that have been taken, in sterling money.
If, on the contrary, the militia should be so far deluded, and blind to their true interest and happiness, he will put the arms which he has brought with him into the hands of the inhabitants well affected, called tories; and will attack all such of the militia as remain in arms, burn and destroy their houses and other property, and reduce them, their unfortunate wives and children, to beggary and distress. And, to convince them that these are not vain threats, he has subjoined a list of the names of such as will be the first objects to feed the vengeance of the British nation.
Given under my hand, at head-quarters, at Salem, the twenty-first day of March, 1778.
C. MAWHOOD, Colonel.
"Edmund Keasby, Thomas Sinnickson, Samuel Dick, Whitten Cripps, Ebenezer Howell, Edward Hall, John Rowen, Thomas Thompson, George Trenchard, Elisha Cattel, Audrew Sinnickson, Nicholas Kean, Jacob Hufty, Benjamin Holmes, William Shute, Anthony Sharp, and Abner Fenton."
COLONEL BAND'S REPLY.
SIR: I have been favored with what you say humanity has induced you to propose. It. would have given me much pleasure to have found that humanity had been the line of conduct to your troops. since you came to Salem. Not denying quarters, but butchering our men who surrendered themselves prisoners, in the skirmish at Quintin's Bridge, last Thursday; and bayoneting, yesterday morning, at Hancock's Bridge, in the most cruel manner, in cold blood, men who were taken by surprise, in a situation in whieh they neither could nor (lid attempt to make any resistance, and some of whom were not fighting men,- are instances too shocking for me to relate., and I hope for you to hear. The brave are ever generous and humane. After expressing your sentiments of humanity. you proceed to make a request, which I think you would despise us if complied with. Your proposal that we should lay down our arms, we absolutely reject. We have taken them up to maintain rights which are dearer to us than our lives; and will not lay them down till either success has crowned our arms with victory, or, like mans cient worthies contending for liberty, we meet with an honorable death. You mention that, if we reject your proposal, you will put arms in the hands of the tories against us. We have no objection to the measure, for it would be a very good one to fill our arsenals with arms. Your threats to wantonly burn and destroy our houses and other property, and reduce our wives and children to beggary and distress, is a sentiment which my humanity almost forbids me only to recite; and induces me to imagine that I am reading the cruel order of a barbarous Attila, and not of a gentleman, brave, generous, and polished, with a genteel European education. To wantonly destroy will injure your cause more than ours; it will increase your enemies and our army. To destine to destruction the property of our most distinguished men, as you have done in your proposals, is in my opinion, unworthy a generous foe; and more like a rancorous feud, between two contending barons, than a war carried on, by one of the greatest powers on earth, against a people nobly struggling for liberty. A line of honor would mark out that these men should share the fate of their country. If your arms should be crowned with victiry, (which God forbid!) they and their property will be entirely at the disposal of your sovereign. The loss of their property, while their persons are out of your power, will only render them desperate; and, as I said before, increase your foes and our army. And retaliation upon tories, and their property, is not entirely out of our power. Be assured that these are the sentiments, and determined resolution, not of myself only, but of all the officers and privates under me.
My prayer is. sir, that this answer may reach you in health and great happiness.
Given at head-quarters, at Quintin's Bridge, the 22d day of March, 1778.
ELIJAH HAND, Colonel.
The annexed plan of the Affair at Quintin's Bridge," is a reduced copy of one drawn by Lient. Col. Simcoe, accompanying his Military Journal. Col. Simcoe was the celebrated commander of a partisan corps, in the revolution, called the "Queen's Rangers," and late in life was lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, at which time, although a gentlemanly man, he was noted for his prejudices against the United States. His journal has been republished at New York the present year, (1844,) by Bartlett & Welford. The following is Major (afterward Lieut. Col.) Simcoe's account of his operations in the vicinity of Salem:
An expedition was formed under the command of the late Colonel Maw
bond, consisting of the 27th and 46th regiments, the Queen's Rangers, and New Jersey Volunteers; they embarked the 12th of March, and fell down the Delaware. On the 17th, the Queen's Rangers landed, at three o'clock in the morning, about six miles from Salem, the Huzzars carrying their accoutrements and swords. Major Simcoe was directed to seize horses, to mount the cavalry and the staff, and to join Colonel Mawhood at Salem; this was accordingly executed. Major Simcoe, making a circuit and pass. ing over Lambstone's bridge, arrived at Salem, near which Colonel Mawhood landed. The Huzzars were tolerably well mounted, and sufficient horses procured for the other exigencies of the service; Colonel Mawhood had given the strictest charge against plundering; and Major Simcoe, in taking the horses, had assured the inhabitants that they should be returned, or paid for, if they did not appear in arms, in a very few days; and none but officers entering the houses, they received no other injury. The Queen s Rangers' infantry were about two hundred and seventy, rank and file, and thirty cavalry; Colonel Mawhood gave directions for the forage to take place on the 18th. The town of Salem lies upon a creek of that name which falls into the Delaware nearly opposite Reedy island; the Aloes, or Allewas [alloways] creek, runs almost parallel to the Salem creek, and falls into the Delaware to the southward of it; over this creek there were three bridges: Hancock's was the lower one, Quintin's that in the centre, and Thompson's the upper one. Between these creeks the foraging was to commence; the neck, or peninsula, formed by them was a its greatest distance seven, and at its least four miles wide. The rebel militia was posted at Hancock's and Quintin's, the nearest bridges, which they had taken up and defended by breast-works. Colonel Mawhood made detachments to mask these bridges, and foraged in their rear: the officer who commanded the detachment, consisting of seventy of the 17th infantry, at Quintin's bridge, sent information that the enemy were assembled in great numbers at the bridge, and indicated as if they meant to pass over whenever he should quit it, in which case his party would be in great danger. Colonel Mawhood marched with the Queen's Rangers to his assistance: he made a circuit so as to fall in upon the road that led from Thompson's to Quintin's bridge, to deceive any patrole which he might meet on his march, and to make them believe that he directed it to Thompson's, not Quintin's bridge. Approaching the bridge, the Rangers halted in the wood, and Col. Mawhood and Major Simcoe went to the party of the 17th, but in such a manner as to give flO suspicion that they were part of a reinforcement; the ground was high, till within two hundred yards of the bridge, where it became marshy; immediately beyond the bridge the banks were steep, and on them the enemy had thrown up breast-works; there was a public house very near the road, at the edge of its declivity into the marsh, on the Salem side. Colonel Mawhood asked Major Simcoe "whether he thought, if he left a party in the house, the enemy would pass by it or not ?" who replied, "that he thought they would be too cowardly to do it; but at any rate the attempt could do no harm, and, if he pleased, he would try." Colonel Mawhood directed Major Simcoe to do so who accordingly, profiting by the broken ground of the orchard which was behind it, and the clothing of his men, brought Captain Stephenson and his company into the house undiscovered; the ftont windows were opened, and the back ones were shut, so that no thorough light could be seen; the women of the house were put In the cellar, and ordered to be silent; the door was left open, and Lieutenant M'Kay stood behind it, with a bayonet, ready to seize the first person whose curiosity might prompt him to enter; the Queen's Rangers were brought into the wood near to that part where it ended in clear ground, and two companies, under Captain Saunders, were advanced to the fences at the very edge of it, where they lay flat. Colonel Mawhood then gave orders for the detachment of the 17th, who were posted near the house, to call in their sentinels and retreat tip the road in full view of the enemy. This party had scarcely moved, when the enemy laid the bridge and passed it; a detachment of them went immediately across the marsh to the heights on the left, but the principal party, about two hundred, in two divisions, proceeded up the road; Captain Stephenson, as they approached the house, could hear them say, "Let us go into the house," &c., but they were prevented, both by words and by action, by the officer who was at their head: he was on horseback, and spurring forward, quitted the road to go into the field, on the right, through a vacancy made by the rails being taken for fires; his party still proceeded up the road, and the first division passed the house; the officer, his sight still fixed on the red clothes of the 17th, approached close up to the fence where Captain Saunders lay; he did not immediately observe the Rangers, and, it is probable, he might not, had he not heard one of the men stifling a laugh; looking down he saw them, and galloped off; he was fired at, wounded, and taken. The division that had passed the house attempted to return. Captain Stephenson sallied, drove them across the fields. Captain Saunders pursued them. The Huzzars were let loose, and afterward the battalion, Colonel Mawhood leading them. Major Simcoe directed the 17th back to the house, with the grenadiers and Highlanders of the Rangers, ready to force the bridge, if ordered; the enemy, for a moment, quitted it; Colonel Mawhood thought it useless to pass it. Some of the division, who passed the house, were taken prisoners, but the greater part were drowned in the Aloes creek. The officer who was taken proved to be a Frenchman. The Rangers had one Huzzar mortally wounded; and what was unfortunate, he was wounded by a man whom in the eagerness of the pursuit he had passed, given quarters to, and not disarmed; the villain, or coward, was killed by another Huzzar. The corps returned to Salem.
The rebels still occupying the posts at Quintin and Hancock's bridge, and probably accumulating, Colonel Mawhood determined to attack them at the latter, where, from all reports, they were assembled to near four hundred men. He intrusted the enterprise to Major Simcoe, and went with him and a patrole opposite to the place; the Major ascended a tree, and made a rough sketch of the buildings, which, by conversing with the guides, he improved into a tolerable plan of the place, and formed his mode of attack accordingly. He embarked on the 20th, at night, on board the flatboats; he was to be landed at an inlet, seven miles below Aloes creek, when the boats were immediately to be returned, and by a private road he was to reach Hancock's bridge, opposite to which, Major Mitchell was detachcd with the 27th regiment, to co.operate with him. Major Simcoe foresaw the difficulties and dangers, but he kept them to himself: every thing depended upon surprise. The enemy were nearly double his numbers; and his retreat, by the absolute orders to send back the boats, was cut off; but he had just confidence in the silence, attention, and spirit of the corps. By some strange error in the naval department, when the boats arrived off Aloes creek, the tide set so strong against them that, in the opinion of the officer of the navy, they could not reach the place of their destination till mid-day. Major Simcoe determined not to return, but to land on the marshes at the mouth of the Aloes creek; there were good guides with him: they fbund out a landing place, and after a march of two miles through marshes, up to the knees in mud and water, labors rendered more fatiguing by the carriage of the first wooden planks they met with, to form bridges with them over the ditches, they at length arrived at a wood upon dry land. Here the corps was formed for the attack. There was no public road which led to Hancock's bridge, but that which the Rangers were now in possession of; a bank, on which there was a footway, led from Hancock's to Quintin's bridge. Hancock's house was a large brick house; there were many storehouses round it, and some few cottages. Captain Saunders was detached to ambuscade the dyke that led to Quintin's bridge, about half a mile from the quarters, and to take up a small bridge which was upon it, as the enemy would probably fly that way, and if not pursued too closely, would be more easily defeated. Captain Dunlop was detached to the rear of Hancock's house, in which it was presumed the rebel officers quartered; directed to force it, occupy and barricade it, as it commanded the passage of the bridge. Different detachments were allotted to the houses supposed to. be the enemy's quarters, which having mastered, they were ordered to assemble at Hancock's; a party was appropriated to relay the bridge. On approaching the place, two sentries were discovered; two men of the light infantry followed them, and, as they turned about, bayoneted them; the companies rushed in, and each, with proper guides, forced the quarters allotied to it. No resistance being made, the light infantry, who were in reserve, reached Hancock's house by the road, and forced the front door, at the same time that Captain Dunlop, by a more difficult way, entered the back door; as it was very dark, these companies had nearly attacked each other. The surprise was complete, and would have been so, had the whole of the enemy's force been present, but, fortunately for them, they had quitted it the evening before, leaving a detachment of twenty or thirty men, all of whom were killed. Some very unfortunate circumstances happened here. Among the killed was a friend of government, then a prisoner with the rebels,, old Hancock, the owner of the house, and his brother. Major Simcoe had made particular inquiry, and was informed that he did not live at home, since the rebels had occupied the bridge. The information was partly true; he was not there in the day-time, but unfortunately returned home at night. Events like these are the real miseries of war. The roads which lead to the country were immediately ambuscaded; and Lieutenant Whitlock was detached to surprise a patrole of seven men who had been sent down the creek; this he effected completely. On their refusal to surrender, he fired on them. Only one escaped. This firing gave the first notice of the success of the enterprise to the 27th regiment; with so much silence it had hitherto been conducted. The bridge was now laid; and Major Simcoe communicated to Colonel Mitchell that the enemy were at Quintin's bridge ; that he had good guides to conduct them thither by a private road, and that the possession of Hancock's house secured a retreat. Lieutenant-Colonel Mitchell said that his regiment was much fatigued by the cold, and that he would return to Salem as soon as the troops joined. The ambuscades were of course withdrawn, and the Queen's Rangers were forming to pass the bridge, when a rebel patroll passed where an ambuscade had been, and discovering the corps, gallopped back. Lieutenant-Colonel Mitchell, finding his men in high spirits, had returned, purposing to march to Quintin's bridge; but being informed of the enemy's patroll, it was thought best to r('turn. Colonel Mawhood, in public orders, " returned his best thanks to Major Siincoe and his corps, for their spirited and good conduct in the surprise of the rebel posts." Two days after, the Queen's Rangers patrolled to Thompson's bridge; the enemy, who had been posted there, were alarmed at the approach of a cow the night before, fired at it, wounded it, and then fled; they also abandoned Quintin's bridge, and retired to a creek, sixteen miles from Aloes creek. Major Simcoe, making a patrole with the Huzzars, took a circuit towards the rear of one of the parties sent out to protect the foragers; a party of the enemy had been watching them the whole day, and unluckily, the forage being completed, the detachment had just left its ground and was moving off; the enemy doing the like, met the patrole; were pursued, and escaped by the passage which the foragers had just left open. One only was taken, being pursued into a bog, which the Huzzars attempted in vain to cross, and were much mortified to see above a dozen of the enemy, who had passed round it in safety, within a few yards; they consisted of all the field officers and committee-men of the district. The prisoner was their adjutant. The enemy, who were assembled at Cohansev, might easily have been surprised; but Colonel Mawhood judged, that having completed his forage with such success, his business was to return, which he effected. The troops embarked without any accident, and sailed for Philadelphia.
UPPER ALLOWAYS CREEK.
This township is about 8 m. in length, 7 m. in breadth, and is bounded NE. by
Pittsgrove and Pilesgrove. SE. by Deerfield, Hopewell, and Stow creek. Cumberland co.. SW. by Lower Alloways Crek.
and NW. by Elsinborough. There are in the township 1 woollen fac., 6 grist-m., 7 saw-m.; cap. in manufac. $29,800;
S schools, 400 scholars. Pop. 2,235.
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