History of Springport, New York
From: History of Cayuga County, New York
By: Elliot G. Storke, Assisted by: Jos H. Smith
Published by: D. Mason & Co.,
Syracuse, New York, 1879




CHAPTER XLII.
TOWN OF SPRINGPORT.

SPRINGPORT was formed from Scipio and Aurelius January 30th, 1823, and derives its name from its numerous and copious springs and its lake ports. It lies upon the west border of the County, south of the center, upon the east shore of Cayuga Lake, which forms its west boundary. It is bounded on the north by Aurelius, on the east by Fleming and Scipio, and on the south by Ledyard. The surface rises in gradual slopes from the Lake to the eastern border, where it attains an elevation of 400 to 500 feet.

Its minerals are extensive and valuable, and play an important part in its industrial development. They consist principally of limestone and gypsum, the latter being by far the most abundant and important. Both blue and gray flmestone are found, the latter overlying the former, principally in the south part of the town, near Hamburg, on the lake shore, (which was built up by the early development of the limestone interests,) and on the farm of Robert B. Howland, on which also is a mass of sandstone, covering about an acre. Upon the farm of Philip Yawger also is another detached mass of sandstone. The limestone strata vary from two inches to two feet in thickness, thus affording a convenient variety for practical uses. The quarries at present most extensively worked, lie upon the shore of the lake, about three-fourths of a mile south of the village of Union Springs. The stone is used extensively for canal and railroad purposes.

The gypsum lies principally along the lake shore, to the north of Union Springs, though it exists in the interior, near the center of the north line, where it presents slightly more of the terminal associates of the group. The masses are incomparably larger and of better quality than those to the north and east. They have all been denuded, for they are surrounded and covered to the depth of nine to twelve feet, by the most modern of the upper alluvium of the Chittenango group. They present none of their terminal associates, if we except a portion of the mass in which they are enveloped, whose layers cover portions of the gypsum. This is blackish in color, earthy in aspect, often variegated like the gypsum, contains sometimes lameliae gypsum, and, though more rarely, a little pure sulphur. It has the appearance of an impure gypsum, and is considered by the quarrymen to be an incipient plaster, requñ-ing time only to make it perfect. The gypseous masses are all in a low position, Some of them several feet below the surface of the lake. They show a thickness of fifteen to thirty feet. Beautiful specimens of selenite are abundant, and yield, by analysis, 99.20 per cent, of pure gypsum. The gypseous stone effervesces feebly with acids and presents the following constituents:

Sulphate of lime, hi-hydrate, (pure gypsum)

80.78

Carbonate of lime

1.76

Carbonate of magnesia

3.03

Phosphate of lime

.43

Sand

3.32

Organic matter, (azotic)

.18

Chlorine, potash and clay

10.50



The original deposit covers an area of a square mile on the east shore of the lake, a mile north of Union Springs, and first developed a commercial importance during the warof 1812, when the Nova Scotia plaster was excluded from the markets of this country. The annual product of the Springport quarries, which is regulated by the demand, is from 20,000 to 40,000 tons.

The numerous springs in the town possess features of interest to the geologist. The most important of these are the two in the village of Union Springs, which are about ten rods apart, and discharge their waters into ponds covering respectively five and three acres, thus furnishing a valuable water power. The rise of water in the larger one has been observed to vary from three-fourths to two and one-fourth inches per hour.

These springs, from their copiousness and remarkable situation, have given rise to various theories respecting their source. "While some," says Edward A. Thomas, "have surmised that they came from Owasco Lake, which is several hundred feet higher than Cayuga. others have assigned their origin to still stranger causes. Skillful geologists assert that the formation of rocks is such as to render it utterly impossible for a stream to pass underground from Owasco to Cayuga Lake. But from several places, from two to four miles east of Cayuga Lake, and about forty-five feet underground, large streams have been discovered, which were running from east to west." To the east of the principal plaster quarries are sinks, some of them covering an acre in area, and some apparently 'very old. The surface of some of them has been observed to subside several feet within a period of twentyfive years, while others have originated within twenty years. The original field notes of the survey of the Cayuga Reservation, state that a stream in the locality, but to the east of these sinks, disappeared in the rocks. No stream exists in the locality at present, but the presence of water-worn limestone rocks indicate its previous existence. The disappearance of this stream is made to account theoretically for these surface depressions, by the wearing away of salt rock underlying the plaster formation. Saline, sulphur and chalybeate springs also exist. There is a salt spring on the old Hope place, in Union Springs. Three or four wells have been sunk and a good brine obtained, but not of sufficient strength to compete with the salines at Syracuse. On the place of Alex. Howland, a little south of the salt spring, is an unfailing sulphur spring of considerable strength, the water of which has been used quite extensively for its supposed curative properties. A little south of the railroad depot in Union Springs is another sulphur spring of great strength." All the water come in contact with in the plaster quarries is strongly impregnated with sulphur, and many wells sunk in the village have been abandoned in consequence of the presence of sulphur and brine. Usually, however, no difficulty is experienced in obtaining water free from these elements from the shore, though all the water is strongly charged with lime. In the basement of Spencer's foundry is a chalybeate spring of considerable strength.

Upon the lake, between Yawger's Point and the main land, is a marsh covering some five acres, covered with a growth of hibiscus, (H. Moscheutos) whose large reddish blossoms present a gorgeous sight from midsummer to early fall. Though not confined to, it is often very abundant in brackish marshes and the vicinity of salt springs, and its presence there may be considered an indication of saline properties in that locality.

The soil of this town is a superior quality of sandy and gravelly loam, intermixed in places with clay, and this and the climate, whose severity in winter is modified by the warmth imparted by the waters of the lake, which rarely freezes, admirably adapt it to fruit culture, to which considerable attention is paid.

The Cayuga Lake Shore Railroad extends through the town, along the shore of the lake, and this, together with its facilities for lake transportation, render it easily accessible, and open up ready markets for its manufactures and farm products.

The area of the town in 1875, was 13,107 acres; of which 11,885 were improved, and 1,222 woodland. Its population was 2,179; of whom 1,908 were native; 271 foreign; 2,160 white; and 19 colored.

This town lies wholly within the reservation made by the Cayugas in 1789, when they ceded to the State their lands within its limits; and on lot 85, about one and one-half miles north of Union Springs, is the site of their principal village, variously named in the different dialects of the Iroquois. Goi-o-gouen, On-ne-io-te, and Gwau-gwah, from the original Huron word Oyngoua, signifying tobacco, and the seat of the mission of St. Joseph, established by Father Etienne de Carheil, a French Jesuit, November 6th, 1668. "The mural remains in the vicinity indicate," says John S. Clark, "that the village extended a mile back from the lake, and as far north as the stream north of the Richardson house; the relics indicating the most ancient residences are found on both sides of the railroad south of the Backus plaster mill, where there was an extensive burial place, and where stone and bone implements abound in connection with articles of European origin. Their totem was a calumet or great tobacco pipe, and their chief sachem bore the hereditary title of Sanuu-aweau-towa.

Father Rafeix, who occupied this mission one year during the absence of Father de Carheil, thus describes this locality in his Relation of June 24th, 1672: Goi-o-gouen is the most beautiful country I have ever seen in America. It is situated in latitude 42 1-2 degrees, and the needle scarcely dips more than ten degrees. It lies between two lakes, and is no more than four leagues wide, with almost continual plains, bordered by fine forests. More than a thousand deer are annually killed in the neighborhood of Goi-o-gouen. Fishing, as well the salmon as the eel, and other fisheries are as abundant as at Onondaga."

Here their councils were held, and here was the residence of the chief of the nation. Here, also, says Clark, "we find a tract containing several acres, known as the Indian burying ground," in the vicinity of which have been found "the usual implements and weapons of stone, beads evidently one in use as a rosary, by some convert to the teachings of these Jesuit Fathers. A well preserved skull, with an iron tomahawk and rusty musket, were found in the same grave." "Every foot turned up by the plow revealed fragments of skulls, and the soil was literally black and fat with the dust of the mouldering dead. On digging a few inches below, where the soil had been undisturbed by the plow, a perfect net-work was found of almost perfect skeletons. Tens of thousands of those sons of the dark forest had here been buried. Abundant evidence appears that a large town once existed here and long continued use of those grounds for burial purposes.

"On an adjoining eminence their council fires had glared for centuries on brave warriors and wise counselors. Here had been their seat of authority and these hills had rëechoed with the eloquence of their orators. Here untold generations had lived, died and were buried. Here lived a feeble remnant of the race when Sullivan, under the stern necessities of war, gave their orchards to the ax, their homes and castles to the devouring torch, and their sacred burial places to desecration."

The first settlement by the whites was made soon after the extinction of the Indian title, Feb. 23d, 1789, and many, unfortunately, who were attracted to the springs and to localities in this town adjacent to them, suffered ejectment, on complaint of the Indians, by the Stateauthorities. In consequence of its reservation by the Indians this town was not as numerously settled at as early a day, as other localities in the County. The earliest settlement of which we have authentic record was made in 1790, by Frederick Gearhart and Thomas Thompson, and possibly by Edward Richardson, who, about that time, dammed up the north spring and became the first proprietor of the mill property thereon. Gearhart, who was a blacksmith, came from Pennsylvania, and settled two and one-half miles east of Union Springs, where Thomas Alverson now lives. He died here at a very early day, previous to 1805. Thompson's home was the Juniata, in Western Pennsylvania. He came in October, 1790, and settled a little south of Union Springs. He soon after bought a soldier's claim in Scipio, to which the title proved defective, and he subsequently removed to the north-west corner of this town, to the farm now owned by Clinton T. Backus, where he died. Four sons and five daughters came with him, viz: John, Alexander, James, Maxwell, Elizabeth, afterwards wife of William Richardson, Sarah, afterwards wife of Samuel Richardson, Mary, afterwards wife of Jesse Davis, Nancy, afterwards wife of George McFarland, and Isabella, who died at the age of fourteen. They came with their household goods across the mountains on horseback, and drove their sheep, hogs and cows, the journey occupying, some two weeks. Thompson's sons and daughters all settled in that locality on adjoining farms.

William Richardson came in from Chester Co., Pa., in 1791, and settled on the shore of the lake, two miles north of Union Springs. He afterwards removed to Levanna, and died there in 1823, aged ninety-two years. There he took up a tract of four hundred acres, a portion of which was cleared, fenced and sown to wheat the first year, under the direction of his son John, assisted by his brother Samuel, the crop of which yielded forty busheis to the acre. He was tall, well proportioned, and possessed high social and intellectual qualities, while he was passionately fond of sports, such as the chase, fishing, fowling, &c.

At this time, (1791,) there were some 6oo Indians living on their reservation, who rapidly removed, however, after the sale of their reservation in 1794, except a part called "their residence reservation," a tract some two miles square, lying on the lake, a little south of Union Springs, and another tract, one mile square, lying three or four miles north-east of that village, to which their title was not relinquished till 1799. Among the last remaining in the County, were a body of about thirty Tuscaroras, who occupied the tongue of land running out into the lake, about a mile and a half south of Union Springs. Of this little band Steel Trap, whose Indian name was Kanistagia, was king, and Esther, queen. Both were, kind and neighborly, and Steel Trap was a fine fellow, worthy of his name. He was poisoned by a villain who lived near him; and soon after this the queen and her little band removed west.

In the year 1794, James Crane came in from New Jersey, on foot, and settled two miles north-east of Union Springs, on the farm occupied mainly by Horace Schenck, where he died November 8th, 1823. His family consisted of his wife, Abigail, and one son, Henry, who did not come to the new settlement till January 7th, 1804. Crane spent the winters with his family in New Jersey till then, making the journeys on foot. Henry came in with his mother, wife, Mary, and one child, the latter of whom, Joseph H. Crane, is now living in Union Springs, aged seventy-seven. They came with an ox team, the journey occupying seventeen days. Henry settled on his father's farm, and died there January 19th, 1844.

Jesse Davis, a young man, came in from Chester county, Pa., in 1799, and built a grist-mill that year on Yawger's Creek, about a half mile above the grist and plaster-mill of Lafayette Yawger. It was a log mill, with one run of stones. The bed stone was obtained from the Big Gully, and is now in use in L. Yawger's plaster-mill. He brought the -irons for the mill from Philadelphia, and the millwrights from Chester county, Pa. After about three years he removed to another farm, and about 1805, to the farm now occupied by his son-in-law, Aaron Mersereau, where he and his wife died, the former in March, 1842, and the latter in December, 1840. George McFarland, a young man, who afterwards married a daughter of Thomas Thompson, came in with Jesse Davis. He was a millwright and was engaged in building the mill. He took up land two and one-half miles north of Union Springs, which is now included in the Backus farm, and died there in 1830.

Settlements were made in 1800 by James Carr, from Johnstown, Wm. S. Burling, from New York City, Dr. John Mosher, from White Creek, Washington county, John Earl, from Newport, R. I.; and about that time by James Barker, from Hoosick, Rensselaer county, and Gilbert Weed, from Saratoga county. Carr settled one and one-half miles south of Union Springs, on the farm now owned by John Deshong, where he died May 8th, 1839, aged seventy-four. He served as a soldier during the French and Indian, and Revolutionary wars. Only one of his children is living, viz: Deborah, widow of En Bennett, at Cayuga. Hartman Carr, son of James Carr, who was born in Johnstown the year previous to his father's settlement here, and lived in close proximity to the old homestead, died here September 23d, 1876. His wife survives him, aged seventy-five. Burling was a Quaker preacher. He settled in Union Springs, on the corner of Cayuga and Chapel streets. After some ten or fifteen years, he removed to Canandaigua. Mosher settled at Union Springs, where he was the first postmaster. He married here a daughter of Joel Coe, and removed about 1840 to Michigan. Earl was a brother-in-law of Burling's, and bought, in company with him, the mill property at the north spring. He removed some fifteen years after to New York.

James Barker, son of William, was interested with Messrs. Burling and Earl in the mill property, which then included both springs, the south spring not having been used for hydraulic purposes for several years after the other. They subsequently separated; Burling & Earl retaining the north spring property, and Mr. Barker, the south, or smaller spring, where he built a fullingmill. He sold in 1816 to Philip Winegar, and took up a farm one and one-half miles south of Union Springs. He removed to Canada a short time after. Mr. Weed came in company with his sons, Lansing, Gilbert, James, John D. and Alexander, all of whom settled in Springport, except Alexander, who settled near Fitch's Corners, in Scipio. The elder Gilbert died in the town. Lansing moved out of the town in 1805. Gilbert and John D. moved to Canadice, and died there. James moved out of the town about 1816 or '17.

John Nutt came in from Vermont soon after 1800, and settled two miles east of Union Springs, where his son, Harvey H., now lives, and where he died.

Philip Yawger came in from New Jersey with ten children, six sons and four daughters, in 1801, and settled one mile north of Union Springs, where his grandson John C. Yawger now lives. He came by means of Jersey wagons. He died on the homestead September 3d, 1830, aged 77. None of his children are living. One son, Peter, was Member of Assembly in 1827 and 1831. A small stream in the north part of the town perpetuates his name. Numerous grand-children are living in the County; among whom are Philip O., a merchant in Union Springs, and Lafayette, proprietor of a grist and plaster-mill on Yawger Creek, which was built about twenty-six years ago, and in which 500 to 600 tons of plaster are ground per year. Peter took up 260 acres, which are now owned by John O. and Henry, sons of Henry Yawger, and grandsons of Philip. Philip took up a section on the site of Owego, where he stopped one season; but disliking the location he came on to Springport. His grandson, Philip O. Yawger, says the Indians destroyed his first year's crops, which was the cause of much suffering. Upon Philip's farm was discovered the first plaster bed in Springport, about 1809. A portion of the plaster rock was brought to the surface by the plow, and having been paying a high price for Nova Scotia plaster, the hope of finding here a cheaper substitute for that article led him to give it a trial upon a fall crop. The rock was pulverized by means of pounding, and the result was so satisfactory as to lead to further investigation, and the discovery of the plaster bed as before stated. The embargo of 1812, which excluded Nova Scotia plaster, favored the rapid development of Cayuga plaster.

Humphrey Hunt came in from Orange county, Vt., in 1805, and settled one mile south of Union Springs, where Peter B. Wood now lives. He was a Revolutionary soldier, serving the whole seven years, first, on account of his youthfulness, as captain's waiter. He accompanied Sullivan's expedition against the Iroquois in 1779, and was one of the party detached to destroy the villages of the Cayugas on the east shore of Cayuga Lake. He was twice wounded, once in the handand again in the hip. In 1828, he removed to Mt. Morris, Livingston county, and died there a little over a year after.

Ichabod Clark came in about 1805 or '7, and settled about three miles east of Union Springs. His wife was a daughter of Gilbert Weed.

Amos Howland came in from Galway, Saratoga county, about 1806, and settled on Big Gully Creek, two and one-half miles south-east of Union Springs, where he started a woolen-mill, in company with a man named Allen, which he conducted two or three years. He afterwards found employment in the woolen-mill erected by Philip Winegar, at the south spring. He resided here till his death, July 18th, 1850.

Thomas Collins, the first inn-keeper, located about 1807, in Union Springs, where his daughter, Sarah, widow of Thomas Van Sickle, now lives. William Cozzens came in from R. I., in 1810, and settled in Union Springs, where James Arnold now lives. He was an old sea-captain. He was engaged in agricultural, and for a short time, in mercantile, pursuits. He died here in 1842, aged 63. William Cozzens, his son, was a merchant here some thirty-five years and till his death April 3d, 1860. His children are all dead. Elisha Eldredge came from White Creek, Washington county, in 1810, and settled on 100 acres in the north part of the village of Union Springs, where James Arnold now lives. He sold to William Cozzens in 1815, and removed one mile east, to the next tier of lots, where he died November 2d, 1874, aged 97. Three children are living, viz: Joseph and Edward, in Springport, and Isaac, in Chicago.

William Taver came in from Rensselaer county, about 1813, and settled in the south-west corner of the lot on which the brick residence of Clinton Backus now stands. He moved to Williamson, Wayne county, in 1825, and subsequently to the west part of the State, where both he and his wife died.

Elam Anthony, came in from White Creek, Washington county, in 1815, and settled in Union Springs, where he has followed the business of carpenter and joiner. He is now living in that village, aged 88 years, October 5th, 1878. In 1818, he married Nancy, daughter of Humphrey Hunt, who is still living with him aged eighty. He has nine children living, only three in this State, Lydia, wife of Peter Howell, Cordelia, wife of Edward Curry, and Mary, all in Union Springs. Philip Winegar, who took a prominent part in developing the business of the village, came in from Dutchess county, in 1815, on foot, and bought an interest with Esick Mosher, his fatherin-law, in the mill property at the south spring, which consisted of a log grist-mill, with one run of stones, a small saw-mill driven by a " flutter" wheel, and a clothing establishment. The latter with the building erected for its accommodation by Mr. Winegar, in 1830, was burned in the winter of 1834-'5, and rebuilt in 1836. The following year he moved his family here, and settled at Union Springs, where he continued to reside till his death, August 21st, 1862, aged 77. He soon after bought Mosher's interest in the mill property, and he and his sons Esick M., Z. S., and G. W., owned it till 1854, when it came into the possession of the Beardsley Bros.

James S. Allen came in from Greenfield, Saratoga county, in the winter of 1818, and settled on the Big Gully, two miles east of Union Springs, where he took up forty acres, selected for its water privilege, the fall being about twenty feet, and erected a carding and fulling-mill, and manufactory of woolen machinery, which business he carried on till 1830, when he removed to the village and engaged in the manufacture of thrashing machines. He was succeeded in 1842 by his son A. W. Allen, who carried on the business nine years, and who then engaged in other undertakings. The farm on which Allen first settled, now belongs to the Seneca Allen estate. He died here March 28th, 1868.

TOWN OFFICERS.- The first town meeting was held at the house of John Yawger, inn-keeper, the first Tuesday in April, 1823, and the following named officers were elected: Wm. Cozzens, Supervisor; Wm. G. Harkness, Clerk; Giles Robinson, Henry Crane and Gilbert Goodrich, Assessors; Thomas A. Buddington, Giles Robinson and Samuel Wisner, Commissioners of Highways; John S. Toan and Moses Wisner, Poormasters; Asa N. Burnham, Jonathan Carr and Alexander Thompson, Commissioners of Common Schools; Stephen Mosher, Hiram Hunt and Asa N. Burnham, Inspectors of Common Schools; Wm. Sherd and Peter Flinn, commissioners of Public Lands; Samuel Marsh, Collector; Samuel Marsh and Ephraim Sharp, Constables.

The present officers (1878) are:
Supervisor- James L. Hammond.
Clerk- Oscar E. Shank.
Justices- Ashbel W. Carr, Levi Collins and Solomon R. Myers.
Assessors-- John F. Courtney, Samuel Jenney and Llewellyn Davis.
Commissioner of Highways-- - Amos M. Haley.
Overseer of the Poor- John D. Weed.
Inspectors of Election- Jesse D. Thompson, P. Henry Byrne and Horace C. Carr.
Collector-Leonard H. Carr.
Constables- Leonard H. Carr, Walter Garrison, George Bowen, Asa Shank and John T. Stout.
Excise Commissioners- John Quigley, Samuel Jenney and David Everett.
Game Constable- Nathan S. Jennings.

UNION SPRINGS.
UNION SPRINGS 1S beautifully situated on the shore of the lake, six miles south of Cayuga by railroad, and derives its name from the springs before referred to. Its regularly laid out and handsomely shaded streets, with its tasty cottages and ornate dwellings just visible through the luxuriant foliage, present a pleasing picture as viewed from the lake, which, with the little island of Frontenac. that solitary gem of the western lakes, three-fourths of a mile distant, presents an equally picturesque spectacle.

It contains eight churches, (Baptist, Catholic, Christian, Episcopal, Hicksite Friends, Methodist Episcopal, Orthodox Friends and Presbyterian,) the Howland Institute, the Friends' Academy, a Kindergarten school, a Union school, one newspaper office, (the Union Springs Advertiser,) one bank, (the First National of Union Springs,) the New York Central Insurance Company, one hotel, (kept by George E. Ashby,) seventeen stores of various kinds, two meat markets, (kept by S. S. Bliss and Shank & Anthony,) two harness shops, (kept by Wrn. Graves and James Reynolds,) two carriage shops, (kept by N. C. Dean and J. R. Ely,) two grist-mills, a saw-mill, plaster-mill, planing-mill and hubfactory, foundry and machine shop, brick and tile works, limestone quarry and kiln, (owned by Lafayette Hoff) the Cayuga Plaster Company, four millinery shops, (kept by Helen Richardson, Mrs. D. W. Myers, Lucy Rickon and Miss Kate Henry,) two furniture and undertaking establishments, (J. B. Pierson and Peter T. Howell,) two blacksmith shops, (McDermott Bros. and Hoagland & Rosecrants,) two barber shops, (Adam Alt and Frank Hornbeck,) one photographer, (R. R. Abbott,) one bakery, (A. Terry,) a cigar and tobacco store, (George E. Carr,) marble works, (John Irving,) two coal and lumber dealers, (H. H. Morse and E. C. Bowen,) a grain ware-house, (George P. Schenck,) a nursery, (Horace Anthony,) and a patent buckwheat huller manuractory, (Isaac H. Thomas.) Population about 1,400.

The village was incorporated November 8th, 1848, and originally included 1,086.85 acres. In 1877, the west bounds were extended to the center of the lake. The following named officers were elected January 16th, 1849: Eseck M. Winegar, President; Eseck M. Winegar, William B. Schobey, Silas Ludlow, James S. Everett and Leonard Simons, Trustees; Philip Winegar, Almeron Durkee and Daniel Mersereau, Assessors; Samuel Smith, Collector; John C. Yawger, Treasurer; John Griffing, Clerk. The present officers (1878) are Henry H. Morse, President; Henry H. Morse, Gaylord Anthony, Michael McDermott and John Close, Trustees; Wm. Cozzens, Treasurer; James Fay, Collector; Noyes S. Collins, Clerk; George Day, Street commissioner.

FRONTENAC ISLAND, containing somewhat less than an acre of land, was used by the aborigines as a place of sepulcher, at least the numerous relics of Indian warfare, and the large quantity of bones found there make this probable. It was deeded to the trustees of Union Springs by the Legislature, in April, 1856, to be kept as a park and pleasure ground. Soon after it was greatly improved by clearing away the brushwood and making gravel walks, and seats; but latterly, from neglect, it is lapsing into it$ primitive wildness. Great interest attaches to it, as no other island is found in this tier of lakes.

MERCHANTS.- The first merchants at Union Springs were Laban Hoskins, from Genoa, and Judge Walter Wood, from Aurora, who opened a store in 1810, where the bank now stands, in the building now used as a dwelling by John Irving. About 1815, Hoskins, (who died here Aug. 29th, 1863, aged 73,) bought Wood's interest, and did business till 1837, when Luman H. Capen, his brother-in-law from Seneca Falls, became his partner, and the two did business till 1855, when they sold to Lebeus Barton, who came in from Scipioville in 1836, and commenced business here in 1849, selling in 1852, to William Cozzens. He had previously, in 1854, purchased William H, Chase's stock. In 1857, Byron Brown became his partner, and in 1858, Samuel Barton, his brother, was admitted. In 1861, the Bartons bought Brown's interest and divided the stock, Samuel continuing the business here three years, and Lebeus going to North Huron, Wayne Co.; but, returning in 1871, he bought out Weed, Day & Co., grocers and bakers, and in 1873, he built the store now occupied by M. A. Barton, into which he put a general stock. In the spring of 1875, he was succeeded by M. A. Barton, who is still doing business.

Dr. John Mosher, Capt. William Cozzens and Asa Burnham, started a store in the fall of 1815, which they continued for several years. Burnham and Mosher afterwards dId business alone, the former but a few years, the latter continuing till about 1842. The same fall (1815) another store was started by Samuel, John and James Williams, and a brother-in-law of theirs named Robinson. They failed in about four years. Philip Winegar and his son Eseck M. opened a store about 1821 or '22. Isaac Valentine, from Flushing, L. I., succeeded the Williamses and continued several years.

Daniel Mersereau, from Staten Island, commenced business here about 1830, and continued till his death, March 7th, 1853, when the business went into the hands of his children, and was continued under the name of T. J. Mersereau & Co., till 1867, when T. J. & D. P. Merscrcau bought the entire interest of the remaining heirs and have since continued it.

Archibald Stewart, who came in from New Jersey with his father, Robert L., in 1811, and settled at Sherwood, commenced the boot and shoe business here in 1831, and still conducts it.

Geo. H. Ham commenced business here in the fall of 1836, and failed after a few years. He was previously engaged in mercantile business several years at Hamburg, about three-fourths of a mile south of Union Springs, which derived its name from him, and to which a considerable number of settlers were attracted at an early day by the limestone interests here. Geo. Valmore, from Troy, commenced the boot and shoe business in 1841, and has since continued it.

John Richardson and John C. Yawger, the former of whom had previously done business some four years, did business a few years from about 1841, under the name of Richardson & Yawger. They dissolved and divided their stock, Mr. Richardson becoming associated with Wm. Cozzens, and Mr. Yawger, with his brother Henry. Philip O. Yawger succeeded his brother John C., in 1862, and did business with Henry six years, and since then, alone.

N C. Howland, who was born in the town August 11th, 1826, commenced the jewelry business in 1861, and is still engaged in it.

S. W. Rogers, from Avon, commenced the drug business here in 1863, in company with Dr. M. B. Eaton, with whom he was associated two years. He then bought Eaton's interest, and has since carried on business alone, with the exception of a short time, when he was. associated with Dr. B. A. Fordyce.

David Everett, from Hackettstown, N. J., commenced business here April 26th, 1864, as a partner with his uncle, J. S. Everett, who commenced business in August, 1848. July 26th, 1869, he bought his uncle's interest, and has since done business alone.

F A. Carr, who is a .pative of this village, commenced the hardware business about 1871.

F Woodworth & Son, (Frank,) hardware merchants, came in from Baldwinsville in the spring of 1871 or 1872, and bought a half interest with Charles N. Howland, with whom they did business two years.

W. S. L. Freer, jeweler, from Newark, Wayne county, commenced business in 1873. In March, 1878, he became associated with J. R. Montague, a former resident of the village, with whom he is now doing business, under the name of Freer & Montague.

J. Wallace Elverson, grocer and crockery ware dealer, commenced business in February, 1873, in company with A. L. Rowland, whose interest he bought in February, 1876.

W. H. Cozzens, grandson of Capt. Wm. Cozzens, dealer in books and stationery, commenced business in August, 1875.

R. Schenck, dealer in boots and shoes, commenced business in 1876. He is a native of the town.

E. M. Hart, druggist, came from Romulus, Seneca county, and commenced business in April, 1876.

J. Brougham, dealer in boots and shoes, came in from Root, Montgomery county, and commenced business April 1st, 1877.

Geo. D. Hibbard recently commenced business in the north part of the village.

POSTMASTERS- The post-office was established at Union Springs in 1811, and Dr. Jno. Mosher, who was the first postmaster, held the office till about 1841. He was succeeded by Geo. P. Morgan, who held it in 1842, and for a period of four years. Wm. Smith held the office for one year after Mr. Morgan, in 1846, and was succeeded by Frederick P. Cone, who held it till about 1849. Jno. C. Yawger was postmaster from 1849-'53; Edward Eldredge, from 1853-'57; Dr. Noyes Palmer, from 1857-'61. N. C. Simons next held it nearly four years, and was succeeded by Joseph Clark, who held it till Mr. Johnson took the presidential chair, when A. B. Capron was appointed, and held the office till 1869. James B. Burlew next held the office till 1873, and was succeeded by James R. Angel, the present incumbent, who was appointed December 10th, 1873.

PHYSICIANS.-- The first physician in Union Springs was John Mosher, who practiced from 1800 till his nephew Stephen Mosher came in about 1817. The latter practiced till 1833, when he sold to David L. Dodge, from Dutchess county, who practiced till about 1851. He was followed about this time by Noyes Palmer, from Montezuma, who practiced till his death, May 7th, 1863. Charles Farnham, from Scipio, practiced here from 1841-'8. S. A. Tremain, from Trumansburgh, came in about 1856, and practiced till the opening of the war. Joseph G. Richard. son came in from Philadelphia in 1867, and practiced three or four years. F. H. Hamlin came from Wayne county in 1869, and practiced till 1874. Dr. Wm. G. Harkness, who joined the County Medical Society, November 3d, 1808, while a resident of Fleming, was one of the earliest physicians in Springport. He lived two miles north-east of the village. He was also an early teacher; he taught school about 1810, about a mile south of the village.

The present physicians are, Benjamin A. Fordyce, an allopath, who joined the County Medical Society, June 4th, 1846, and came in from Venice in the spring of 1866. Peter H. Peterson, a homeopath, who was born in Fleming April 6th, 1803; educated in Auburn, and commenced practice here in December, 1841. George Randolph Parry, who was born in Philadelphia, Pa., September 3d, 1839, and educated there; graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1862, and from the University of Pennsylvania, in 1867, in which year he commenced to practice here. O. W. Smith, who was born in Canajoharie, June 25th, 1840; educated at the Geneva Medical College, from which he graduated in the spring of 1866; commenced practice in the spring of 1867, in the village of Ames, Montgomery county, whence he came to Union Springs in 1872, and Channing Holt. who was born in Worthington Conri., April 12th, 1849; educated at Hartford, Connecticut; graduated from the University of New York in the winter of 1875; and came to Union Springs in October, 1878.

LAWYERS.- So far, as we have been able to learn, Caleb Winegar was the first lawyer at Union Springs. He practiced from about 1845 till his death, June 1st, 1870. He was a son of Philip Winegar. Oliver Wood practiced here from about 1852-'4. He was succeeded by William B. Woodin, who practiced till elected Surrogate in November, 1859, when he removed to Auburn, where he now resides. He was a member of Assembly in 1855, and afterwards State Senator for eight years. Nathan Roberts came in from Varick. Seneca county, and A. B. Capron, from Homer, about 1860. Roberts practiced three or four years and removed to Missouri; and Capron, till 1862, when he sold to Daniel A. Robinson, and entered the army. Robinson was born in Farmington, Ontario county, October 13th, 1831 and came to Union Springs in 1862, continuing here eight years, after which he spent two years in New York and Washington engaged in soliciting patents and prosecuting claims. He returned to Union Springs in the spring of 1874, since which time he has been in the employ of the Cayuga Plaster Co. Etsel Wood was born in South Amboy, N. J., April 25th, 1835. He began the study of law in 1863, with D. A. Robinson, of Union Springs, and was admitted in December, 1866, at Rochester, since which time he has practiced here. Reuben F. Hoff was born in Union Springs November 24th, 1840. He was admitted to the bar December 6th, 1866, and commenced practice in 1870, at Union Springs, where he has since continued. He was elected Justice in 1871, and held the office four years; and in 1874, was elected Special Co. Judge, which office he held till January 1st, 1878. Noyes S. Collins was born in Camden, Oneida Co, November 13th, 1851. He graduated at the Albany Law School; was admitted in 1875, and commenced practice that year in Union Springs.

NEW YORK CENTRAL INSURANCE COMPANY.

This Company was organized January 9th, 1863, with a capital of. $50,000, which was increased December 31st, 1864, to $100,000. The first officers were Albert Beardsley, President; William Clarke, Vice-President; Joseph B. Clarke, Secretary. Mr. Beardsley held the office of president till his death, February 4th, 1874, when he was succeeded by W. E. Hughitt, who still holds the office. William Clarke held the office of vice-president till his death in August, 1865, when he was succeeded by Smith Anthony, who held it till January, 1867, when David Anthony was elected. He was succeeded in January, r873, by Sanford Gifford, who still holds it. Joseph B. Clarke was succeeded in the secretaryship by Amos M. Clark, the present secretary, in Janu- ary, 1871.

UNION SPRINGS.

The greatest volume of business done, as shown by the premiums received, was in 1875, when it reached a little over $200,000, by a continual increase from $25,000, the amount for the first year. At present the business aggregates about $150,000, which is about an average for the last five years. The company is in a prosperous condition, and has paid since its organization an average dividend of eight per cent. The assets are $225,310.63; the net surplus, $10,01262.

The total amount of premiums received is $1,171,113.50; total amount of losses paid, $1,172,302.63; the greatest loss in any one fire was $5,000. The present directors are, Wrn. E. Hughitt, Henry Yawger, Geo. Bailey, Win. B Schobey, Hicks Anthony, Sanford Gifford, Geo. P. Schenck, Alvin Coburn, Richard Montague, and Amos M. Clark. The company occupy rooms over the bank.

PRESS. -The papers published in Union Springs are:

"The caynga Tocsin- By Royall T. Chamberlain. Five column folio. Weekly. Established December 25th, 1811. Removed to Auburn about a year thereafter.

"Cayuga Democrat- By William Clarke. Five column folio. Weekly. Cass campaign sheet. Established in the spring of 1848. Published a short time.

"Cayuga Telegraph- By William Clarke. Six column folio. Weekly. Established June 5th, 1848. Published about two years. Succeeded by the

"Union Springs Ledger- By William Clarke and C. C. Williams. Weekly. Established 185-. Continued only a few months.

"Christian Union- By J. B. Clarke. Four column quarto. Semi-monthly. Religious. Established January 22d, 1859. Removed to New York in October, 1859.

"Union Springs Herald- By J. B. Clarke. Six column folio. Weekly. Established October 15th, 1859. Burned out November 30th, 1861.

"Casket of Gems- Anonymous. Small literary paper. Published a short time. Succeeded by the

"Cayuga Lake Recorder- By I. O. Crissy and T. E. Hitchcock. Seven column folio. Weekly. Established November 11th, 1859. Mr. Hitchcock withdrew in the summer of '59. Paper continued by I. O. Crissy until December 13th, 1861, at which time the editor raised a company of cavalry for Scott's 900, which he accompanied to the field.

"Cayuga Lake Herald- By B. G. Gibbs. Six column folio. Weekly. Consolidation of the Union Springs Herald and Caynga Lake Recorder. Established December 13th, 1861. In 1862 Mr. Gibbs enlisted in the army and the paper was continued by J. B. Clarke, the proprietor.

"Cayuga Lake Herald- Continued by Emerson B. Williams in the spring of 1863. Discontinued in October following.

"Cayuga Lake Record- By John W. Stanton. Six column folio. Weekly. Established January 7th, 1864. Continued nine months.

"Central New Yorker- By H. H. DeWolf. Six column folio. Weekly. Established April, 1865. Continued nine months.

"Temperance Union- By Park & Cheal. Four column quarto. Monthly. Devoted to teniperance. Established in the spring of 1866. After a few numbers were issued it was removed to Jordan and published as the Pearly Fountain, May 30th, 1866.

"Union Springs Advertiser- By James B. Hoff. Four colunin folio. Weekly. Established June 14th, 1866. Has since been continued by the same proprietor, and is now a seven column folio."

MANUFACTURES- The Cayuga Plaster company represents the most important manufacturing interest of the village. It is composed of C. T. Backus, James Fitch, R. B. Howland, B. Robinson and R. B. Robinson, and was organized January 1st, 1874, for the purpose of mining, grinding and disposing of plaster rock. Its formation unified the plaster interests which were hitherto conducted by individuals and firms. The company, operate the R. B. Howland and C. T. Backus quarries and buy the product of the Yawger, Richardson, Thompson and Fitch quarries, all of which, except the last two, which are one mile to the east, are upon the shore of the lake. They also own three plaster quarries in the north-central part of the town. They lease the Howland, Robinson & Co.,Backusand Fitch plaster-mills; and give employment to some fifty men in the quarries and mills about two-thirds of the year. The beds have already furnished hundreds of thousands of tons of plaster, and the supply seems to be inexhaustible. The product varies from 20,000 to 40,000 tonS annually.

BANKS.- The First National Bank of Union Springs, was organized February 4th, 1864, and commenced business in April of that year. with a capital of $50,000, which was increased to $100,000, January 16th, 1865. The first directors were Daniel Yawger, William H. Chase, John C. Yawger, John J. Thomas, Albert Beardsley, William Clarke, Henry Yawger, Jr., Joseph B. Clarke and Byron Brown. The first officers were, John C. Yawger, President; Albert Beardsleg, Vice-President; and Benj. Howland, cashier, Yawger was president till January 8th, 1867, and was succeeded by C. T. Backus, who still holds the office. Beardsley was vice-president till February 22d, 1864. and was succeeded April 11th, 1864, by John J. Thomas, who held the office till January 11th, 1870, when Philip H. Yawger was elected and still retains the office. Howland resigned the cashiership February 22d, 1864, when Albert Beardsley was appointed to that office and held it till January 8th, 1867, when he was succeeded by John C. Yawger, who held it till January 11th, 1870, when Beardsley was reappointed. He resigned December 2d, 1873, and was succeeded by George W. Winegar, who held it till February 2d, 1875, when M. F. Backus, the present incumbent, was appointed. The dividends paid to stockholders have averaged eight per cent.
The following is a copy of the June, 1878, statement of the bank:
RESOURCES.
Loans and discounts $113,320 91
Overdrafts 3,916 82
U. S. Bonds to secure circulation__ 100,000.00
Other stocks, bonds and mortgages- 12,196.41
Due from reserve agents 1,617.040
Due from other National Banks___ 2,063.47
Current expenses and taxe paid_ 1,758.33
Checks and other cash items 1,601.94
Bills of other banks 5,379.00
Fractional currency (including nickels and cents) 190.69
Specie 512.00
Legal tender notes 4,500.00
Redemption fund with U. S. Treasurer 3,700.00
Interest account 195.24
Total $250,952.21

LIABILITIES.
Capital stock $100,000.00
Surplus fund 20,000.00
Undivided profits 11,195.11
Circulation outstanding 89,800.00
Dividends unpaid 676.00
Individual deposits 28,134.27
Due to other National Banks 1,146.83
Total $250,952.21

SPRING MILLS, fiouring, grist and plaster, are operated by Robert B. Howland, Dr. Benedict Robinson and R. B. Robinson, under the name of Howland, Robinson & Co. The grist-mill, which is constructed of stone, and is 65 by 84 feet, with four stories and basement, was built in 1840, by Geo. Howland of New Bedford, Mass., who, a few years previously, had purchased a large amount of property in and about the village, and who, by his enterprise and libera]ity, contributed largely to its prosperity. A plastermill was built at the same time, and both were operated under his direction, by his Sons Charles and Augustus. After the death of George Howland, in 1852, the property was rented to J. & N. C. Simons, who run the mills five years. Simons & Robinson afterwards run them two years, when they came into the possession of the present proprietors. The original plaster-mill is now used as a store-house, a saw-mill built contiguous to it in 1842, having been converted into the present plaster-mill. The grist-mill contains five run of stones, one of them a feed run. The works are located at the north or larger springs, which furnishes the motive power, with the exception of about four months in the year, when the water supply is scarce, and power is furnished by a fifty horse-power engine.

UNION SPRINGS MILLS, flouring, grist and saw, are owned and operated by Anthony & Co., (Gaylord Anthony and J. W. Perrine,) the former of whom bought them of E. C. Bowen and Manson Backus October 1st, 1877, and admitted the latter March 1st, 1878. The grist-mill was built in 1836, by Philip Winegar, for a woolen factory, and was used as such till 1854, when it was changed into a grist-mill by the Beardsley Bros. It is a stone structure, with three stories and basement, and contains three run of stones, two for flour and one for feed. The motive power is furnished by water and steam, which are used in connection, the former being supplied by the south spring, near which the mill is located, and the latter, by a thirty horse-power engine. In May, 1878, machinery was introduced for the manufacture of flour by the new process.

UNION SPRINGS AGRICULTURAL WORKS are owned by J. O. Spencer, who is engaged in the manufacture of the "Wide-awake" thrashers, separators and steam engines, horse-powers and agricultural implements, in which forty men are employed. The building was erected some twenty years ago by Wm., Henry and Lewis McFarland, who carried on the business some five years, when Lewis' interest was bought by his brothers, who contin ued the business till the death of Henry, in August, 1869, after which it was carried on by Wrn. till his death in May, 1874, when it was conducted by the administrator of the estate till the spring of 1875, at which time J. 0. Spencer bought the property. In 1878 he built ten thrashing machines and twenty-five engines, the manufacture of engines having been commenced in 1878.

N. Y. CENTRAL PLANING MILL AND HUB WORKS are operated by Courtney Bros., (John F. and Charles E.,) who are also carpenters and builders and dealers in sash, doors, blinds and moldings. They commenced business March 1st, 1874, as builders, and added the other branches of their business March 1st, 1876. They occupy a wooden building erected by them in 1874, and are enlarging their facilities by the erection of a new building 50 by 80 feet, the foundation for the main part of which is already laid. They give employment to ten men on an average, and make 5,000 to 6,ooo sets of hubs and spokes per annum.

THE BRICK AND TILE WORKS owned by Dr. Benjamin Hoxie of Auburn, give employment to twelve men in the summer season, when in full operation, and have facilities for making 400,000 brick, or 350,000 tile per annum. The capacity of the kiln is 70,000 at one burning.

SCHOOLS.- Oakwood Seminary is situated on the high ground immediately above the village, and commands an extensive view of the lake and surrounding scenery. It was established in 1858, and incorporated by the Regents in i66o. It is conducted under the auspices of the New York Yearly Meeting of (Orthodox) Friends. It has recently been much enlarged and improved, and is now capable of affording comfortable accommodations for over a hundred boarders. Its original corporate title was Friends' Academy. Its present name, adopted since the recent improvements were made, is derived from the large oak grove forming a part of the several acres belonging to the institution. Since its origin several additions have been made to the buildings, all of which are of brick, mostly three stories high, and they are now treble their original size. Their entire length is about i6o feet. The young ladies' department is at one end, the young men's at the other, with lecture room, recitation rooms, cabinet and laboratory between; and with kitchen and dining room in the basement. The library comprises several hundred volumes; the chemical, philosophical and optical apparatus, including an astronomical telescope costing $500, is valued at $2,000.

The following is the present value of the property of the institution, as reported to the Regents:
Value of buildings $24,240
Value of grounds 6,000
Value of library, apparatus and furniture, 4,200 Among the instructors at the present time (1878) are Prof. E. Cook, Prof. J. L. Barton, Miss Irena L. Pope, Miss Theodosia G. Chaplin, and Miss M. E. Carpenter. J. J. Thomas, A. M., lectures on the natural sciences, and gives instuction in elocution.

HOWLAND SCHOOL.- This school was established in 1863, and maintained during the first two years by the individual enterprise of R. B. Howland, who bought of Slocum Howland, for $6,000, the Philip Winegar homestead, and in the summer of that year built the east wing and the wooden addition on the south, the latter of which is used as a gymnasium and public ball. The school was opened in November, 1873. At the expiration of the two years, it was taken in charge by the trustees of the school fund left at his death by George Howland, father of R. B. Howland, of New Bedford, Mass., for the purpose of establishing a school in Cayuga County, and amounting to $50,000. About 1872, a four story brick addition was built, thus giving it a capacity to accommodate fifty boarders. The school is supported by the income from this fund and tuitions from the pupils, and has been kept open continuously till the fall of 1878, when it was temporarily closed. Until 1876, Mr. R. B. Howland had the immediate supervision of the school as agent for the board of trustees. In that year Dr. Henry Hartshorne, of Philadelphia, undertook its management. The school has had full collegiate courses, mathematics, the classics and the languages. The apparatus is valued at $1,500; and the library, which contains about 1,000 volumes, including a French Government work of sixteen folio volumes, Containing copies of the historical paintings in the art gallery at Versailles, at $2,000. The school is confined exclusively to ladies. It was first conducted under the name of the Young Ladies' Institute, which was changed when it came under the management of the trustees of the Howland school fund. It has attained a high degree of excellence and enjoys a good reputation for thorough work; but it languishes for want of proper support and patronage.

The UNION SPRINGS UNION SCHOOL was organized under the general school law in 1860, by merging the two district schools then existing in the village. The building, a fine two-story brick structure, located on Green street, was erected in 1866, at a cost of $10,000. It will accommodate 250 pupils. The apparatus connected with the school is valued at $200; and the library, which contains 500 volumes, at $500. The present teachers are Prof. J. F. Stewart, principal; Miss Carrie Lawrence, principal of primary department; Miss Ellen Spickerman, assistant in senior department; Miss Josephine Howland and Miss May Hoagland, assistants in primary department.

The FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF SPRINGPORT was formed September 7th, 1801, at the house of Ichabod Wilkinson, in the present town of Fleming, which house is still standing on what is known as the Culver farm, on the Poplar Ridge road. The house was then used as a tavern, and indeed the meetings were held for several years in taverns, which were the only houses large enough to accommodate the numbers who attended. The original members were: Samuel Culver, from Eyremont, Mass.; Gilbert Weed and his wife Abigail, from Greenfield, Saratoga Co.; Josiah Mix and his wife Rebecca, from Granville, Washington Co.; and Jacob Shaw, from Norton, Mass.; all of whom brought letters from the churches with which they had respectively been connected, and were organized as the First Church in Aurelius, of which this town was then a part, by Rev. Jacob Cram, a missionary sent to Western New York by the Massachusetts society. The first deacons were Gilbert Weed and Joseph Thayer, who were elected December 17th, 1802.

Meetings had previously been held in this section for some years by missionaries. As early as 1795, Rev. David Thatcher, of the Presbytery of Orange, passed through this section seeking out families and preaching as he had opportunity. In 1798, Rev. Asa Hillyer of the same Presbytery, passed through and labored here. About the same time Rev. Aaron Condit, pastor at Hammond, N. J., and his elder, Silas Ball, made a missionary tour on horseback by way of Owego, and visited this section. After him came Rev. Dr. Perrine from the Presbytery of New Brunswick, threading his way through a Continuous forest by means of blazed trees. In 1798 also the General Association of Connecticut sent out Rev. Seth Williston, and in 1799, Revs. Jedediah Bushnell and Solomon King. After this passing missionaries labored occasionally until the summer of 1801, when Rev. David Higgins, pastor at North Lyme, Conn., visited this section and labored with so much satisfaction to the church that they gave him a call in 1802. In the summer of that year Mr. Higgins moved in with his family of seven children and a favorite house servant, stopping first at Cayuga. The journey was made in a covered wagon, over logways, through streams, and most of the way through an unbroken forest.

The society was incorporated as the First Congregational Society of Aurelius, May 21st, 1802, at a meeting held at the house of Henry Moore, the old tavern stand one mile south of the Half Acre. The first trustees were, Thomas Mumford, Henry Moore, Josiah Taylor, Hezekiah Goodwin, Moses Lyon, Jesse Davis, Joseph Grover, John Grover and William Bostwick. The oldest member at present is the widow of William VanSickle, whose membership covers a period of fifty-seven years.

This was one of the Churches which united in forming the Middle Association; and on the dissolution of that body it became an integral part of the Presbytery of Cayuga. In October, 1822, it forsook all the features of a Congregational Church, and elected the following elders at its first session: Ebenezer Higgins, George McFarland, Alexander Thompson and Henry H. Higgins, who were ordained the 3d of November following, except Alexander Thompson, who declined. Ebenezer Higgins and George McFarland were duly set apart as deacons. At its organization this Church accommodated a territory which to-day contains not less than eleven Presbyterian Churches, with an aggregate of 2,176 members, viz: the Churches of Springport, Sennett, Scipio, Cayuga, Port Byron, Scipioville, Weedsport and the First, Second, Central and Calvary Churches of Auburn. Meetings were accordingly held once in four weeks at four different places, viz: at Hardenbergh's Corners, Cayuga, Grover's Settlement and at Henry Moore's south of the Half Acre. In July, 1806, Isaac Treat, Timothy Hatch, Moses Treat, Ebenezer Hamlin, Abel B. Munro, Huldah Hamlin, Mahala Treat, Darius Treat, Matilda Munroe and Welty Carrier withdrew to form the present Church of Sennett. In July, 1811, Silas Hawley and wife, Daniel Herring, Rachel Parker, Anna Cogswell, Betsey Tyler, Eunice Higgins and Sarah Gilbert were dismissed to form the First Church at Auburn. in June, 1819, Thomas Mumford, Mary G. Mumford, Lovisa Willard, Roxilla Richardson, Molly Shaw and Sally Hallock withdrew to form the First Presbyterian Church of Cayuga.

The first church edifice erected and finished for use was the stone meeting-house about two miles north of Union Springs, near Thompson's plaster-mills. This was built in 1816. The first recorded meeting held in it was July 29th, 1817. It was used by the Church till the present house was erected in 1840. A house had been partially built at the Half Acre 1809, but it was not finished, and although a few meetings were held in it, it was soon abandoned and sold to Hezekiah Goodwin, who moved it to his place west of the Half Acre and used it as a barn.

The following named clergymen have preached in this church for stated periods: Rev. David Higgins, whose installation October 6th, 1802, "was," says Hotchkin, "the first instance of such an occurrence on the Military Tract," Joshua Lane, Reuben Porter, Medad Pomeroy, Enoch Boughton, H. Carlisle, L. D. Howell, Timothy Stiliman, Richard Williams, John Clark. L. D. Howell, S. Raymond, Page, J. Hopkins, T. B. Hudson, N. A. Prince, Charles Anderson, Myron. Adams, A. F. Lyle, R. L. Backman, J. C. Long, E. B. Cobb. The Church has received since its organization 500 members, and has at present 92. Rev. E. B. Cobb is a temporary supply. The elders are, E. Curry, A. Walker, Wm. H. VanSickle, J. B. Pierson and H.Yawger; deacons, D. Everett and A. W. Allen, to the latter of whom, who is also the clerk, we are indebted for the history of this Church.

FRIENDS- Among the early settlers in this locality were many who belonged to the Society of Friends. They commenced to hold meetings as early as 1803 or '4, and in 1816 erected the meeting-house now used by the Hicksite Friends in the east part of the village. Among the earliest assocIates of this society were Elisha Southwick, James Barker, Elihu Eldredge, Samuel Jenney, Wm. Burling, Arnold Conistock, ____, Rowley, John Fish, Laban Hoskins, Eseck Mosher, James S. Allen, Wm. Knowles and Wm. Taber. At the time of the great separation which took place in the society in 1828, the members of this society accepted the doctrines of Elias Hicks, of Long Island, and have since borne the distinctive name of Hicksite Friends. Their present membership is about forty. Their house is a quaint old building, very suggestive of the rigid customs which characterized this society at an earlier day.

At a later period several persons known as Orthodox Friends moved into the place, and about 1844, established a society of that denomination, the name being used to denote those who reject the doctrines of Elias Hicks in contradistinction from those who accept them. Among the persons earliest connected with this society were Charles W. Howland and family, Phebe Field, who was then the minister of the society, David Anthony and family, and Henry Robinson. Their meetings were held in a private house four or five years, until their first house of worship was erected on the site of the present Episcopal Church. Their present house was erected twenty to twenty-two years ago. It is a wooden structure, with stone basement, situated on Cayuga street, in the lower part of the village, and is valued at $3,500. The present number of members is about thirty. The ministers are R. B. Howland and Mary H. Thomas, both residents of the village. Connected with it is a small Sabbath School, with some dozen children in attendance.

"The chief points of difference in these two organizations, was," says Mr. J. J. Thomas, "that, while the Orthodox adopted, as a requirement, the belief similar in its main points, to that of other 'evangelical' denominations, the Hicksites mostly adopted the sentiments of the Unitarians or Universalists;" or as Mr. Edward Eldredge, a prominent member of the Hicksite Society, more specifically expresses it, the Orthodox believe in the trinity and the efficacy of vicarious atonement, while the Hicksites believe in the unity of the deity and disbelieve in vicarious atonement.

THE BAPTIST CHURCH OF UNION SPRINGS was founded as the Second Baptist Church in Aurelius. A few members connected with the First Baptist Church in Aurelius, (now Fleming,) and some from the United Scipo Church met at the house of John Nutt for deliberation November 4th, 1813. Gilbert Weed was chosen moderator and Henry Crane, clerk. They adopted articles of faith and covenant and voted to invite a council of sister churches to meet with them on the 18th of the same month. This council was composed of delegates from the churches of Aurelius, Mentz, Scipio and United Scipio, and met at the school-house about two and one-half miles northeast of the village. Elder John Jeffries was chosen moderator, and Samuel Taylor, clerk. After examination, the hand of fellowship was extended to the new church, which consisted of eight males and sixteen females. At a church meeting held the 27th of the same month, they resolved to hold meetings every Sabbath, and to engage Elder Abner Wakely to labor with them for one year. Ichabod Clark and Gilbert Weed were chosen deacons, and Henry Crane, clerk. Elder Wakely soon commenced his labors, and, although the engagement was not renewed, he continued to supply them a part of the time after the expiration of the year. During his connection with them he baptized fourteen and received sixteen by letter, and left them with fifty members.

In September, 1814, they joined the Association. In the summer of that year they commenced the erection of a meeting-house two miles north-east of the village, which was not completed till the summer of 1818. In February, 1816, Elder Warner Lake, of Harpersfield, Delaware county, became the pastor, and in the summer following seventeen were added by baptism. In 1819, sixty-six members were added.

Elder Lake closed his ministry with this church in the spring of 1830. He was highly esteemed. He did not receive a full support from the church; but labored upon his farm a portion of the time, from which he accumulated a competency.

Elder Jacob Fisk took the pastoral charge of this church in the spring of 1830, and closed his labors with them in the winter of 1832, from which time they had no settled pastor until March, 1834, when Elder Samuel Wood settled with them, and remained till August, 1837. In the summer of 1838, the services of Elder Chas. E. Wilson were engaged for six months. Elder O. B. Call became the pastor in February, 1839, and remained three years. Elder E. Marshall succeeded Elder Call, and continued his pastorate about two and a half years. Brother Justus Ask labored with them in the ministry one year, and Brother R. Persons another. Elder 0. Montague became the pastor in April, 1847, and continued with them three years. During the first year of his ministry their meeting-house, which was old and uncomfortable, was repaired and fitted up in a neat and convenient manner; and during the second year the congregation was much increased.

In July, 1850, Elder Thomas H. Greene became the pastor, and closed his labors in the fall of 1852. He was succeeded by B. C. Crandall, who continued till November, 1854. The church seems to have been without a pastor from that time until the first Sunday in May, 1857, when S. S. St. John commenced his labors. He remained till March 12th, 1859, when Elder S. Adsit took the pastoral charge, and continued till April 1st, 1861. Edgar Smith became the pastor April 7th, 1860, and, having served them "very acceptably," closed his labors with them, in consequence of ill and failing health, April 13th, 1867. He joined the church in Auburn, and died there September 28th, 1878. During the first year of his pastorate, in 1861, their church edifice was removed from its original location, near the residence of Curtis Coe, to the village. It was remodeled at an expense of $1,500 to $2,000, and rededicated August 7th of that year.

From the time that Elder Smith left till September following the pulpit was supplied by casual comers, for a few weeks during -the latter part of the time by Ezra Clark. B. B. Gibbs assumed their pastoral care November 10th, 1867, and labored with them till April 22d, 1871. December, 1871, A. C. Ferguson commenced his labors with them, and continued until their church was burned, April 13th, 1873, since which time they have had no pastor. The church numbers at present thirty-three members.

The FIRST CHRISTIAN SOCIETY OF SPRINGPORT, at Union Springs, was incorporated February 4th, 1839. The first trustees were Elisha Valiance, Abram Burlew, Charles E. Hoagland, George W. Truesdell, Preserved Tripp, Noah P. Blanding and Porter B. Bristol. The land for their house of worship, which was erected in 1839, was bought of William Smith and Abby B., his wife, and George P. Morgan, May 4th, 1839, for $200. An organization seems to have existed and regular meetings to have been held before the incorporation was effected, but the records furnish no means of determining definitely in regard to them. The first settled pastor was Melancy Wade, but when he began or closed his labors does not appear. Meetings were held then in the house now owned and occupied by Alanson Beam, on the corner of Cayuga and Homer streets. Mr. Wade was succeeded in the pastorate by John W. Guthrie, during whose ministry the legal organization was perfected and the church built. He was succeeded by J. C. Burgdorf and Edson J. Reynolds, the latter of whose pastorate continued till about 1851. He died here September 24th, 1857, aged fifty. A. S. Dean was the pastor from 1851 to '53. He was succeeded by A. Coburn, who remained as late as February 12th, 1856. William O. Cushing, the next pastor, remained till the spring of 1860. Rev. Mr. Fenton next labored with them about two years, and was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Bailey, who continued his labors until about 1867, after which the church was closed for two years, owing to a division growing out of a difference of opinion respecting a contemplated change of name. John W. Guthrie was the first pastor after the opening of the church. He commenced his labors with them about 1871 and continued with them some two years. John Carr became the pastor in the spring of 1874, and remained one year, when he was succeeded by J. C. Burgdorf, the present pastor. The church was repaired in the summer of 1876, at a cost of $600; and a pipe organ was put in the previous year at an equal cost. The present membership does not exceed a half dozen.

The FIRST SOCIETY OF THE M. E. CHURCH IN UNION SPRINGS, was organized about 1843, with Henry Dills and wife, Austin Whittlesy and wife, Brayton and William B. Barber, Wadsworth Hanchett and Justus P. Burger as members. The society was incorporated February roth, 1846, with Henry Dills, John Maurice, John Robinson, William B. Barber and Justus P. Burger as trustees. Their house of worship, a wooden structure, was erected in 1846, at a cost of about $1,600, exclusive of the lot, and has since been enlarged to a seating capacity of 400, and a value of $4,000, including lot. Occasional meetings were held some years before the organization by preachers who happened in this locality. The first settled pastors were Aaron Cross and Benoni I. Ives, who came in 1844, and staid, the former three years and the latter two. Their circuit included Fleming, Bolt's Corners, Aurora and Union Springs. Elias Hall succeeded Ives and remained two years. Dennis Tryon followed Cross, at least these were the pastors up to 1850. Samuel B. Porter was the pastor in 1850-'2; A. Benjamin in 1852-'4; B. R. Kenyon, 1854-'5; William M. Spickerman, 1855-'6; D. Lamkin, 1856-'8; ____ Mason, in 1858; Albert Ensign, 1858-'60; Elias Hoxie, 1874-'5; J. S. Lemon, 1875-'6; William N. Henry, 1876-'8. Wesley Mason, the present pastor, commenced his labors with this church in the fail of 1878. The present number of members is 118; the attendance at Sabbath School, 40 to 50.

GRACE CHURCH, (Episcopal.)-The first regular services by a clergyman of this denomination were conducted by Rev. Wm. Wirt Raymond, in the fall of 1866. Previous to that time only occasional services had been held. Until the fall of 1876, this parish was united either with that at Cayuga, or that at Aurora, under the charge of one clergyman. Grace church was incorporated in 1867, and was admitted to union with the Convention of the Diocese of Western New York the following year, passing, however, in the fall of the same year into the new Diocese of Central New York. The names of the first church officers were, in addition to the pastor in charge, George Fritts and George W. Bustin, Wardens, and Silas Ludlow, Justus P. Burgher, Lorenzo N. Burgher, Philander Comstock, Benedict Robinson, Daniel A. Robinson, Jr., Etsel Wood and John A. Shrader, Vestryman. The clergymen who have succeeded Rev. Mr. Raymond are, Revs. Alfred Brown, B. A., James A. Brown, J. O. Drumm, W. H. Casey, B. A. and Wm. Schouler, the present rector. The church edifice, which is very neat and attractive, was finished in 1870, and consecrated in the fall of 1872. A legacy of $10,000 left the church by the late Mrs. Phebe M. Hussey, makes it selfsupporting; and since September, 1876, when Rev. Mr. Schouler took charge, it has thus been enabled to enjoy the undivided ministrations of a resident rector. The church numbers about forty communicants, and has a Sunday school, with about the same number of scholars. It is in possession, besides the fine edifice and the endowment referred to, of the rectory adjoining the church. The present vestry consists of Lorenzo N. Burgher and Daniel D. Anthony, Wardens; and Dr. G. R. Parry, D. P. Mersereau, Philip O. Yawger, Henry Eldridge and Horace T. Durkee, Vestrymen,

SOCIETIES.- Warren Lodge No. 147, F & A. M, was chartered June 8th, 1850, and held its first meeting in Odd Fellows Hall, April 9th, 1851. The charter officers were, John Barrett, Jr., W. M.; David Titus, S. W.; John Morse, W. The first elected officers were Daniel Lombard, M.; John Barrett, S. W.; David S. Titus, J. W.; John H. Davids, Sccrctaiy; John Morse, Treasurer; A. S. Cummins, S. D.; C. L. Candee, D. The present officers are, E. F. Rosecrants, M.; W. J. Winegar, S. W.; M. F. Backus, E.; W. H. Cozzens, Secretary; G. P. Schenck, Treasurer; N. S. Collins, S. D.; W. Schenck, D. The present number of members is 95. Meetings are held in Masonic Hall the first and third Tuesdays of each month.

CHARITY LODGE No. 93, A. O. U. W. was organized May 31st, 1877. The first officers were F. A. Carr, M. W; O. W. Smith, P. M. W.; H. Eldridge, C. F; E. Y. Robinson, O.; H. S. Anderson, Rec.; Geo. P. Schenck, Recor.; Wm. H. Cozzens, F.; Wm. H. Thomas, G.; James Stebbings, I. W.; John Coles, O. W. The only changes in the officers since the organization have been the substitution of Wm . Clark for E. Y. Robinson as O.; and C. A. Niles for James Stebbings as I. W. Meetings are held every Friday evening in Rechabite Hall.

UNION SPRINGS TENT No. 46, N. O. of I. R. was organized as No. 42, January 22d, 1875, with Elijah Cook, Jr., S.; E. Chapin, C R.; F. A. Carr, D. R.; David Everett, P. C. R.; Dana Rhodes, Secretary, J. B. Hoff, F. S.; J. W. Rosecrants, Treasurer; A. Chambers, Levite. The present officers are, John Coles, S.; E. Cook, Jr., C R.; W. J. Fessenden, D. R.; A. W. Allen, P. C R.; H. C. Carr, Secretary; David Everett, F S; W. H. Thomas, Treasurer. Meet Tuesday evenings in Rechabite Hall.

ONWARD CAMP No. 3, E. K. of R. was organized November 6th, 1875, with F. A. Carr, c., Geo. E. Carr, V. C; E. Cook, R.; John Coles, Treasurer; Alex. Chambers, Chaplain; Wm. Fessenden, M.; James Wright, Captain of Guard; Martin Myers, I. S.; L. N. Burgher, O. S.; Geo. W. Eidridge, P. C. The present officers are F. A. Carr, C.; J. L. Hammond, P. C.; Walter Schenck, V. C.; E. Cook, Jr., Chaplain; John Cole, Treasurer; D. Everett, Rec.; Wm. Fessenden, M.; Preserved Tripp, I. S.; Asa Mosher, O. S.

UNION SPRINGS CORNET BAND was organized in 1859. The original members were Albert Carr, Leader; E. Wood, Geo. E. Carr, Henry H. McFarland, H. C. Carr, Sr., Henry C. Carr, James R. Angell, Thomas Miles, A. W. Carr, Edward Gould. The present members are Geo. E. Carr, Leader; F. A. Carr, Musical Director; Eugene Carr, Treasurer; H. H. Carr, Sr., Secretary; N. S. Collins, Harvey Kellogg, Chas. N. Howland, Albert Carr, Edward C. Snow, Willard Carr, Edward Hoagland, Charles Eggleston, L. H. Chase, A. E. Bowen, and Charles Perrine. They play fifteen instruments.

VILLAGE OFFICERS FOR 1879.
President- S. Warren Rogers.
Trustees- Gaylord Anthony, John Quigley William H. Thomas.
Treasurer-David Everett.
Collector-William J. Smith.
Clerk-Frederick A. Carr.
Street commissioner- Horatio Day.
Police Constable-Charles A; Slocum.

HILLS BRANCH.

Hills Branch (post-office) is a railroad station in the north part of the town, and contains one store, kept by H. D. Hibbard, a district school and two plaster-mills, both of which are owned by J. W. Woodruff, of Auburn. They grind about 3,000 tons per annum.

MANUFACTURES.- One mile south of Union Springs is a brick yard owned by Henry Carr, which gives employment to six men in the manufacture of 400,000 bricks per annum.

On the farm of Stephen Patterson, near the center of the north line, is a plaster quarry from which 300 to 400 tons are being taken per annum. Messrs. Patterson & Scheuck have a plaster-mill in that locality.

[ Continued in Springport Boi's ]

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