History of Harmony, NY
FROM: History of Chautauqua County, New York and its people
John P. Downs - Editor-in-Charge.
Fenwick Y. Hedley Editor-in-Chief.
Published By American Historical Society, Inc. 1921

Harmony- Harmony was taken from Chautauqua, February 14, 1816. It contains about eighty-six square miles of territory, and comprises townships 1 and 2, of range 13, together with two tiers of lots in townships 1 and 2, range 12, from the State line to Chautauqua Lake, and two additional lots in township 2, range 12, south of the lake, including Ashville Village. April 16, 1823, a portion of its territory was added to Busti. Its surface is somewhat hilly; its highest summits are 1,400 feet above tidewater. The principal streams are Brokenstraw creek, which flows south; Goose creek, which passes through Ashville, and Prendergast creek. The last two flow into Chautauqua Lake. The soil is a clay and gravelly loam. Sandstone of fine quality is found in some localities. "Panama Rocks" is one of the most remarkable geological curiosities of the county.

The first saw mill was built in Ashville by Reuben Slayton, Jr., an original purchaser on lot 43, township 2, range 12, in 1809, and a grist mill was added. The mills were on the Ashyule site. The first stones used were borrowed, but a rock was soon found on lot 45, from which stones were made, which were used until 1872. Israel Carpenter, Oliver Pier and Stephen Groom, built about 1828 a sawmill and a log gristmill at Blockville. In 1840 a large mill was built of pine logs. The millstones came from France as ballast, and cost, it is said, delivered at Blockville, $350; this mill burned in 1893. A sawmill was built about 1825, by Francis W. Mather, three miles south of Panama. Isaac Carpenter built a sawmill about 1828, a mile below Blockville; it was rebuilt by Abner L. Carpenter, and later was owned by Daniel Williams. Another was built by Samuel Huribut about 1830, between the last two mentioned, and in 1875 was owned by Samuel J. Green. A sawmill was built by Harvey and Theron S. Bly about 1847, near the mouth of Goose creek. A steam sawmill was built about 1870 by Messrs. Allen near Grant's Station. A sawmill was built by George Brightman about 1835. A steam sawmill was built about 1870 by William W. Ball, near the mouth of Bemus creek. Theron Bly and Daniel Sherman erected a carding mill in 1822 or 1823; cloth-dressing machinery was introduced later by Hiram Benedict. The establishment was burned about 1826; another was built by Hiram Benedict and Samuel Brown less than a mile below; several years after this was owned by Theron Bly and Henry Lovejoy, who sold in 1844 to Harvey and Henry H. Bly. Another was built at Panama about 1830, where John Ward and David Moore operated for years.

Harmony was first settled by Thomas Bemus, son of William Bemus, who took up land in January, 1806. Thomas, then a bachelor, built his log cabin on this land, lot 54, township 2, range 12, opposite Bemus Point, and occupied it several years. The first family to locate was that of Jonathan Cheney, whose wile was Amy Cole, of Pittstown. He bought land on the east side of the lake in May, 1806, brought his family here the next year, but located on the west side of the lake, where some of his descendants still reside. His children were: Nathan, Betsey, Clarissa, Calvin, Amy, Daniel, Alfred, Unisa (Mrs. James Green), and Polly. Myron Bly settled on lot 47, township 2, range 12, northerly from Ashville in 1809, on land entered by his father, Asa Bly. In 1808 and 1809 Reuben and Thomas Slayton bought land at Ashville, settled there, before 1810 had sawmills in operation. In 1810-11 the Matteson family came; first Thomas, then William and his brother Estys; their father, William Matteson, came in 1811. He was a Revolutionary pensioner and died in 1858 in his ninety-nineth year. The Carpenter family were early owners and settlers. In 1808 Josiah Carpenter, from Rensselaer county, bought lots 55, 56 and 64 in township 1, range 12, southwest of Ashville, about 1,000 acres. In 1809 his son James, with his young wife settled on lot 56.

In 1811 Josiah Carpenter with his sons Daniel B., Isaac, Josiah, Jr., and Timothy came, Mr. Carpenter locating on lot 64, where he raised his log cabin; his sons selected their future homes also on their father's land. One of his daughters married Oliver Pier, son of Levi Pier, of Busti, who lived most of his life in Harmony. It is said that Mr. Pier paid for his land in Harmony with the bounty he received on wolf scalps. He was a great hunter, the "leather stocking" of Chautauqua county, and said "he had killed 1,322 deer with one gun, which had required three new stocks and hammers." He became totally blind in his old age and removed to Corry, Pa. Isaiah Rexford, from Pennsylvania, came in 1816, located near Blockville; in 1824 settled two miles north of Panama. His sons attaining maturity were Everett, Myron, and Lyman. Calvin Manley settled on lot 41, township 2, north of Panama; he purchased his land in 1821 and resided there nearly fifty years. John Steward, Sr., in 1821 located on lot 24. His son John was an early merchant at Panama and was in trade for a long period. Sardius Steward, son of John, Sr., at one time conducted the most extensive farming business in the county.

Obediah Morley settled in the northeast part on lot 24 in 1810; John Morton about 1818, on lot 15, township 2, range 13; Edmund Wells on lot 7, purchased in 1826; Charles Saxton on lot 4, purchased in 1826, he later resided on lot 13; Edwin Gleason, a Massachusetts man, on lot 14, about the same time; Clinton Marcy about 1822 on lot 22; his son on lot 15, near him. Peleg Gifford many years later located on lot 23. In the north part on lot 32, where Homer Pringle settled in 1828, his sons erected a cheese factory. Orson Whitford came about 1817. Samuel P. Durham settled on lot 56, bought in 1822. James and Peter Bloss came in 1830. Eleazer Daniels bought on lot 39, near Panama, in 1821. Samuel L. Paddock settled on lot 55, where William G Cook subsequently took up his residence. The Wiltsie family in 1821 settled on lots 48 and 49. Reuben Randolph settled near the center. Rufus, Elijah and Joseph Button located on lots 30 and 31. A descendant, Joseph H. Button, enlisted as private in Company F, 112th Regiment, New York Volunteers, was promoted corporal March 1, 1864, and killed at Ft. Fisher, January 15, 1865. John Knapp settled in 1821, on lot 49, township 2, and his son Noah on lot 41, adjoining; two other sons, Darius and Levi, also made their homes in this town.

In the east part near Blockville, many set- tlers came from 1816 to 1820. Among them were Zaccheus and Samuel Huribut, brothers, and Nathaniel, son of Zaccheus; they bought land in 1816 and 1817 and located here. Timothy Jenner, from Vermont, settled on lot 63, township 1, range 12. He purchased portions of this lot in 1817 and 1819. His son, Timothy G., settled near Blockville. Daniel Loomis, a Methodist local preacher, made his home one and one-half miles west of Ashville. His Sons were Eli, Francis, Levi, David and George. Simeon Powers, the first pastor of the first (Baptist) religious organization in the town, a native of Vermont, located in 1816 near Blockville, but in 1823 made his home on lot 33, township 2, one mile north of Panama, where he resided until his death in 1842. He has many descendants in the town. William Scofield, John Deming, Wanton Morley, Levi Rexford, Joseph Tichnor and John H. Matteson were other early settlers in this section.

In the southeast part Charles and Isaac Hoag settled on lot 53, township 1, range 12. The Hoag family is a prominent one in New Hampshire and are Quakers. Elijah B. Burt, whose Sons were Ethan and Barrett B., removed from Busti, where he first settled, to lot 51, township 1, range 12. About 1830 Emanuel Smith, father of Cyrus, settled on lot 49. John Badgley, of Busti, bought part of lots 57 and 58 and his sons, Asa and Nathan, occupied the old place. George Hawkins came in 1825, bought on lot 50 and made his home there. He had five sons, George, James, Francis, Orrin and Albert. Nathan Hawkins and Marvin Pardee settled near him on lot 51, Joshua Rich on lot 57, Cyrus Ranson on lot 37 in 1825, and was a lifelong resident. His sons were Cyrus. Samuel, Willard, Asa, Elisha and Thomas. George W. Wescott bought and located in 1826 on lot 27, later removed to lot 28, where his sons, Jerry and Abraham, have lived. Benjamin T. Holbrook bought on lot 27 in 1827 and lived his life there. His sons, John and Henry, were later residents on the homestead; Benjamin T., Jr., lived on lot 29. Ezra Abbott located in 1829 on lot 43. Francis W. Mather settled on the Little Brokenstraw. Amos W. Muzzy, about 1830, made his home on lot 34. William Kelso, a native of Westford, Otsego county, born in 1805, came to Harmony in 1834, and carried on blacksmithing and wagon-making for over fifty years, and was one of the industrious factors in the furthering of the prosperity of the community. He served as assessor and school inspector. William S. Kelso conducted merchandising for many years. Palmer Cross, a native of Vermont, came from New York State in 1827, settled north of Panama on lot 41, township 2, range 13, and was a resident here until his death; he was the second pastor of the Baptist church. John Lewis, a local Methodist preacher for over sixty years, came from Vermont, settled in 1817 about two miles east of Panama on lot 24, township 1, range 13. "There was nothing but a footpath from his place west to the State line." His son Abner was a lawyer, practiced at Panama and at Jamestown; a deputy, sheriff, first judge of the county, a member of Assembly two years, and a member of Congress two terms. Levi, another son, resided in Panama. "Judge Lewis did more for the cause of temperance than any man that ever lived in the county." John H. Pray, of Vermont, came to Panama in 1831, was in trade until 1855, and studied law with Hon. Abner Lewis. He commenced law practice in 1836, continued until about 1870, and is said to have been Panama's first lawyer.

Ashville took its name from the circumstance that at one time there were four asheries in operation in the place. Alvin Williams, who established a store in the fall of 1822, built the first ashery; Adolphus Fletcher, also engaged in trade here, built an ashery soon after, and later Ephraim Berry built an ashery, and another person was also in the same trade. In 1821-22 Titus Kellogg, Alvin Williams and Adoiphus Fletcher had established stores here, and in 1824 James McClellan erected a dwelling which was afterwards used as a tavern. In 1826 a tannery was built by Daniel and Joseph, brothers of Alvin Williams. Dr. Elderkin was the first physician. His successors were Hiram Alden, Stephen Eaton, Simeon Buzzell, Dr. Dorr, John S. King, Dr. Parker. In 1870 there were 350 inhabitants who sustained Baptist, Congregational and Methodist churches, and one school. They were an industrious community as their three stores, grist mill, sawmill, two shoe shops, two wagon shops, two blacksmith shops, a harness shop, a cabinet shop and a hotel were all in "working order." Ashville is a station of the Erie railway.

Dr. Williams was a native of New England, born in 1806, and came to Ashville in 1824. He was of great use to this little community, as he carried on several pursuits-tanner, shoemaker, merchant and farmer, was much in town affairs. He took an active part in originating and constructing the Atlantic & Great Western and the Crosscut railroads. His children were: Oscar F., Addis E., Adelaide E., Earl P. and Alton L. Joseph Hoyt commenced merchandising in Ashville in 1836, removed to Panama about 1844, and continued in business. In connection with farming he attended to much public business. Morris Norton, a native of Otsego county, settled at Ashville in July, 1833. He was justice of the peace and did much conveyaricing, etc.; he was supervisor of Harmony, and county superintendent of the poor. He married Olivia Kent, of Rome, New York, and had six daughters:

Panama was incorporated as a village in 1861 and was formerly the chief business place of the town. It now has about four hundred population, is the center of butter and cheese factories, has one hotel, churches, a steam mill, and a few business houses. The milisite at the upper village has been used ever since Jesse Smith and Horatio Dix built a saw and gristmill there in 1824. From this ancient milisite the lovely village stretches down the beautiful valley for half a mile, its principal street being a graceful avenue overshadowed by magnificent trees.

The first schoolhouse in Panama was of logs, built in 1823, and located near the center of East Cemetery. This was destroyed by fire in January, 1825; the loss of the books was a great misfortune as they could not be easily replaced. Jesse Smith was the teacher, and school was continued in a log hut. A second schoolhouse was built on the rocks near the hotel site. John Steward was settled in 1821, two miles east of Panama, was a teacher there in 1828-29. The third was the "old red schoolhouse" on the hill.

About 1827 a few people commenced to build frame houses; Benjamin Smith erected one near the site of Frank Hill's shop. The first hotel in the village was opened in 1827, and not long after, one Smith built a hotel. The first hotel on the flat was kept in a building moved from the hill. Jesse Smith built a tavern where the brick hotel stands; this corner has been used as a hotel site since.

A hamlet of log houses preceded the building of the mill at the upper village. In 1824 also, Moses Cushman Marsh (father of Mrs. J. H. Clark) from Massachusetts, who had been a wealthy Cuban trader, and by the dishonesty of Southern customers had been brought to failure, came to this new country to repair his fortunes. He located at the lower village, built the first frame house in the vicinity, opened the first store of the place, to which he gave the name of Panama, and was made postmaster, March 22, 1826, and was very prominent in affairs until his death in 1833. "His wife was a woman of great strength of character and it is said possessed the gift of oratory to a remarkable degree." The first birth at Panama was that of Eaton, son of Benjamin Smith; the second that of Mary L., daughter of Mr. Marsh. Both occurred in 1827.

The Cooks of various families were among the early settlers. Stephen Cook, son of Warham and Mary (Bushnell) Cook, born in Oneida county, October 6, 1805, came in February, 1827, selected a home, returned to Oneida county, and the next spring returned 'with his young half-brother, William, and they both became life residents of Harmony. Stephen located first on lot 32, township one, and later on lot 51 on the Goshen road. His nearest neighbor at first was three miles away through an unbroken forest. Having made a clearing and put up a log house he again went east and married Ruth Anthony. They lived on this homestead thirty-two years; by industry and thrift brought a large and productive farm into being, and here their six children were born. In 1864 Mr. Cook removed to Panama. Mrs. Cook died in February, 1886, and Mr. Cook, April 23, 1894. H. H. Cook, son of Stephen, was born August 23, 1840, and lived on the farm until March, 1862, when he went to Illinois. He enlisted July 18, 1862, in Company E, 91st Regiment Illinois Infantry, was taken prisoner at Elizabethtown, Kentucky, December 28, 1862, by Morgan's cavalry, was paroled and sent to Benton Barracks, Missouri, July 1, 1863; he was exchanged and sent to the Department of the Gulf, where he served until the close of the war, then returned to Panama. William G. Cook, son of Warham and Olive (Gay) Cook, born in Oneida county, January 14, 1808, came in 1828, bought a part of lot 51, and after ten years labor removed to the vicinity of Panama. In 1832 he married Amy Benton, who died in 1892. Mr. and Mrs. Cook united with the Baptist church in Panama in 1834. About 1831 Mr. Cook lost his right arm, but performed all kinds of farm work, and even cleared land for others by the acre. He died April 12, 1894. Elisha Cook settled a short distance from the village of Panama. H. J. Cook, a farmer, is the representative of another branch of the Cook family. Hon. Ebenezer G. Cook, born in Oneida county in 1808, settled on lot 50, township 1, range 13, and developed a fine farm where he lived over 40 years, and reared a large family. He served in offices of trust, and was a member of Assembly. Ten of his eleven children attained maturity. Philander and DeForest located at Panama, where the latter conducted merchandising for years. Elihu Cook, a brother of E. G. Cook, was a physician, resided here for some years, and later lived in Fredonia.

The Pringle family are of Scotch descent. Homer Pringle, Sr., came to this county from Otsego county with his family in the spring of 1828. He bought of the Holland Land Company the west half of lot 32 in township 2, range 13, in Harmony. Homer Pringle, Sr., was accompanied by his brother, James H., who bought a piece of land on lot 40, same township and range as his brother. James H. soon sold his farm, went to Jamestown and, after a few years, went south, then to Buffalo, and subsequently to Michigan, where he went into the lumber business. He died about 1883, leaving a widow and one daughter. Benjamin Pringle, another brother, came west as far as Batavia, New York. He was a lawyer and held various offices of trust. He was a judge of Genesee county, a member of Assembly, a member of Congress, and was sent, under the Lincoln administration to Cape Town, South Africa, as judge of a mixed court; he died about 1886 in Minnesota, leaving a son and daughter. Homer Pringle, Sr., died in 1878, having lived fifty years on the same farm. He brought up a family of ten children.

William T. Morse, an early settler, born in Stoughton, Mass., in 1805, removed with his father to Onondaga county in 1819. In 1826 he came to Chautauqua county, bought 121 acres of wild land in Harmony, and in 1829 took possession, cleared and cultivated the land and has since occupied the farm. He married Amelia, daughter of Rufus Anthony, of Scott, Cortland county.

Francis Starkweather, a pensioner of the War of the Rebellion, was born in Skaneateles, Onondaga county, in 1836. Francis married Matilda, daughter of Nathan and Lucinda Eggleston, of Harmony, and settled at Panama and engaged in the manufacture of wagons. The Eggleston family were of the pioneer settlers at Panama. In 1862 Mr. Starkweather enlisted in Company F, 112th Regiment, New York Volunteers, and was with the army until mustered out.

Physicians-Charles Parker, M. D., youngest son of Benjamin and Mary Parker, was born at Burlington, April 6, 1812. He followed the practice of his profession, that of a homceopathic physician, until the spring of 1870, when he retired to farm life near Panama, where he died December 26, 1892. He married (first) Orlinda, daughter of Samuel Sinclear, of Sinclairville. They had five sons; two died in infancy, three in the military service of their country in the Civil War. Doctor Parker was an able physician. He was one of the founders of the Chautauqua Society of History and Natural Science.

Dr. Johnson was an early physician. He was soon followed by Doctor Hood; who, however, attended more to his store than his profession. Dr. Stephen Peck, a well educated physician, and careful and conscientious practitioner, located on the hill. His practice was a large and useful one. He lived to a ripe old age. Dr. Cornelius Ormes practiced from 1833 to 1863, when he removed to Jamestown.

Edson E. Boyd, M. D., of Ashville, was a native of Carroll, born in December, 1832. He studied medicine, and was graduated from the University of the City of New York in 1854. He commenced practice in Jamestown and removed to Ashville in 1856. At the formation of the 112th New York Volunteers, he was commissioned first assistant surgeon, and was honorably discharged November 9, 1863, on account of physical disability.

Dr. A. B. Rice, born in Harmony, October 22, 1841, practiced here for twenty years, and removed to Jamestown, where he died.

Dr. John C. Lewis, son of Marshall L. Lewis, was born in Ellery, August 6, 1848. He was educated at Westfield Academy and received his degree of Doctor of Medicine, February 24, 1874, at Buffalo University, and established himself for practice at Panama in December, 1874.

The First Baptist Church was organized at Blockville (where the first religious services in the town were held by Rev. Simeon Powers), May 15, 1817. The primary meeting for organization was held April 5. The members were Rev. Simeon Powers and Polly Powers, Tiomthy and Ruth Jenner, Orange and Jemima Phelps, Samuel and Susan Hurlbut, Oliver and Betsey Pier, Israel and Hannah Carpenter, Caleb and Phebe Beals, Moses Jenner and Aurilla Groom. The field was divided into sections. The "east" was Blockville; in the "middle" section, services were held some years at a school house north of Panama; in the "west" section, meetings were held at a school house one-half mile west of Panama. In 1834-35, through the liberality of some Presbyterians of Panama, a site for a church was obtained at that place, and a church was built. In 1828 the new church at Ashville received several members from this church, and in 1834 thirty-seven were dismissed, mostly to form the North Harmony Church. The first church built was burned December 25, 1859, and one costing $4,000 was built in 1860. The church very early commenced Sabbath school work. It ever took strong grounds against all secret, oath-bound societies. When slavery divided church and brotherhoods, this old church of Harmony ever lifted its voice and recorded its vote in favor of freedom; in the Civil War it offered its sons as warriors. Its membership for many years averaged 200.

The Congregational church at Ashville was organized with nine members, June 10, 1820, by Rev. John Spencer; he was its first pastor. A house of worship was erected in 1834.

The Methodist Episcopal church at Blockville originated in a class formed in 1818. In January, 1822, it was organized with six members by Rev. Mr. Hill, first pastor. Their church edifice was built in 1849.

The Baptist church at Ashville was organized in July, 1828, by Rev. Jarius Handy, with these members: Hiram Alden, Chas. D. Slayton, James McClellan, Sr. and Jr., Nath. H. Stow, Anson Phelps, Heber Cowden, Daniel Higley, Albert Partridge, John Weliman, John Rugg, Geo. L. Case, Peter L. Phelps, John Morton, Ephraim Case, and seventeen females. Ephraim Case was chosen the first deacon; James McClellan, clerk. Their church edifice was erected in 1836.

The First Congregational Church was organized November 28, 1830, by Rev. Justin Marsh, assisted by Revs. Samuel Leonard and Isaac Jones. After several years it became the First Presbyterian Church of Panama. Of the early members were Orrin Matthews and wife, Isahel Clark and wife, Margaret Morgan, Mary Nichols, Benjamin and Eunice D. Smith, Emiline M. Smith, Dr. Stephen Peck, Dr. Cornelius Ormes, John H. and Esther Pray, Matilda Chase, Samantha Dix, Deacon Josiah Holbrook and wife, Nehemiah Sperry and wife, Mrs. Sarah Dix, Reuben Davis and wife, Noah Harrington and wife. The first pastor was Rev. Alfred W. Gray; other early pastors were Aaron Van Wormer, Abner D. Olds, O. D. Hibbard, A. Worthington, Charles Merwin. For many years their place of worship was in the tannery, which had been fitted up for that purpose. Their church edifice was erected in 1846. Rev. Chalon Burgess was pastor from February, 1861, until the last of November, 1875. The next pastor was Rev. James Phillips; he was succeeded by the Rev. I. I. St. John, then for several years this church was supplied occasionally by theological students. In 1886 or 1887 Rev. I. Brodnal commenced a pastorate which continued five years. The church has had no settled minister.

The Free Baptist Church of Harmony was organized at Nathaniel Clark's, Kings Corners, December 4, 1830; Elders Harmon Jenkins and Thomas Grinold, officiating. The members were Timothy Walkley, David Lucas, Nathaniel Clark, David Clark, James Alexander, Asa Wait, Ebenezer Thayer, Samuel Reed, Phineas Chamberlain and many of their wives; Isaac Phelps, Freeman Williams, Sarah Burham, Rhoda Keith and Pamelia Baldwin. Asa Wait was chosen clerk. The first deacon was David Lucas, chosen January, 1834, and who held the office till his death, September 4, 1872. The church was subsequently moved south to the town line and took the name of Clymer and Harmony Church.

Harmony contains 54,734 acres, which in 1918 (superviSor's report) was valued at $2,353,826, with an assessed value of $1,846,746. The population in 1915 (State census) was 3,049 citizens and 26 aliens. The villages of the town are: Panama, Ashville, Blockville, Stedman, Victoria, Stow, Open Meadows, Watts Flats, Brokenstraw, Grant and Kings Corners, some of these but small settlements. Panama is an incorporated village having a population of 352 in 1915. The village has good schools, churches and all that goes to make up a modern rural community, except railroad facilities. Panama Rocks, a remarkable geological formation, is the chief scenic attraction and is visited by many scientists and tourists during the open season.

The supervisors of the town follow: 1816-23, Palmer Phillips; 1824, Reuben Stayton; 182531, Theron Bly; 1832, Henry Hill; 1833-34, Theon Bly; 1835-36, Zael Ward; 1837-38, Theron Bly; 1839-41, Robert Hewes; 1842, Daniel Williams; 1843-47, John Steward; 1848-49, Theron S. Bly; 1850-52, John Steward; 1853, Morris Norton; 1854, John Steward; 1855, Albert Gleason; 1856-57, Ebenezer G. Cook; 1858-60, Sardius Steward; 1861, Reuben F. Randolph; 1862, John Steward; 1863-64, Walter L. Sessions; 1865-70, Loren B. Sessions; 1871-72, Frank G. Steward; 1873-89, Loren B. Sessions; 1890-95, Jared Hewes; 1896-99, J. Samuel Fowler; 1900-01, James Hawkins; 1902-03, Edwin W. Connelly; 1904-06, Leon E. Button; 1907, Ambrose Cross; 1908-11, Edwin W. Connelly; 1912-15, Leon E. Button; 1916-17, James Pringle; 1918-19, Harry B. Bouton; 1920, Leon B. Button.

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