Elba is the central of the northern tier of towns. It is bounded on the north by Barre, Orleans county; on the east by Byron, on the south by Stafford and Batavia, and on the west by Oakfleld. The surface of the town is undulating, with gently rising slopes, and the soil is extremely productive. Fruit and grain are the chief crops. Underneath the soil is a stratum of limestone. The principal stream is Oak Orchard creek, which has numerous tributaries flowing into it from the south. The chief source of this stream is a never failing spring called the "Hackley spring," located near Dunham's Corners. Oak Orchard creek flows northeast through the centre of the town to the northeast corner, and thence in a westerly direction a short distance south of the northern boundary. Its tributaries flow in the same general direction, Spring creek rises in the southeast corner and flows northeasterly into the town of Byron. These streams furnish ample water power. The "Scott spring," which is strongly impregnated with sulphur, in the southeast corner, is the source of a small creek flowing through "The Transit," which for many years has furnished power for the Transit mills on the east line of the town. The West Shore Railroad runs through the town east and west, a short distance south of the centre.

The first permanent settler in Elba was John Young, who, on July 11, 1803, purchased of the Holland Land Company a farm a short distance south of Elba village. In 1.804 John Roraback located on the site of Elba village (then called "Pine Hill"). He was the first weaver in town, and many of the pioneers wore clothing cut from cloth made by him. Thomas Turner, Ephraim Husted, Bannan Clark, Orlando Town and Ephraim Wortman were also early settlers. The first school was taught by Chester Scott; Comfort Smith conducted the first grist mill, Solomon Smith the first carding works and distillery, Horace Gibbs the first saw mill, Stephen Harmon the first tavern, in 1815; Samuel Laing the first store, in 1819. Dr. Daniel Wood was the pioneer physician. The first religious society was that of the Quaker denomination, established about 1820.

Elba was erected from Batavia March 14, 1820. The town of Oakfield was set off April 11, 1842. The first town meeting was held March 14, when these officers were elected:
Supervisor, Lemuel Foster; town clerk and collector, Mason Turner; assessors, George Mills, Charles Woodworth and John Underhill; overseers of the poor, Erastus Wolcott and Isaac Benedict; commissioners of highways, Jeremiah Wilford, Mark Turner and Dudley Sawyer; commissioners of schools, Lemuel Foster, Jeremiah Wilford and Isaac Higley; constables, Eleazur D. Davis, Ichabod Hinckley, Jr., and Jessamin Drake; school inspectors, Eleazur D. Davis, Samuel White and Martin Wilson; ponndmaster, Nehemiah Ingersoll; number of votes cast, 166.

The list of supervisors in existence dates from 1831. It is as follows:
1831-1833, Daniel Woodward; 1834-1835. Charles Woodworth; 1836-1837, Asa Badcock; 1838-1847, Robinson Smiley; 1848, James Fuller, Jr.; 1849-1851, Nelson Parker; 1852-1854, Henry Monell; 1855-1856, Anson Higley; 1857, Henry Monell; 1858, Anson Higley; 1859-1861, Alva U. Willis; 1862-1865, William C. Raymond; 1866-1867, Alonzo J. Hulett; 1868-1869, Eli Taylor; 1870-1871, William C. Raymond; 1872-1873, Harlow E. Parker; 1874-1875, William H. Raymond; 1876-1877. Alva U. Willis; 1878-1879, Samuel Parker; 1880, Job A. Staples; 1881, Orlando Town, Jr.; 1882, Job A. Staples; 1883-1884, Lanckton Harris; 1885. Edwin Parker; 1886. William F. Robe; 1887. Edwin Parker; 1888-1889, William F. Robe: 1890, Isaac A. Higley; 1891-1892, Joseph N. Parker; 1893-1895, John H. Dorman; 1896-1898, William H. Parker.

Elba is the principal village. It is located on the West Shore Railroad near the centre of the town, and was formerly known as Pine Hill, or the Pinery. The village has a population of about six hundred, has four churches-Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist Protestant and German Evangelical; a public s.hool, private school, several stores, a hotel, two stave and heading factories, saw mills and grist mills.

Lanckton's Corners is a small place north of the centre of the town.

East Elba, a hamlet in the southeast corner, has a church and school.

Davis's Corners, on the southern boundary, is a very small hamlet.

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