History of Gloversville, NY (Part 2)
From: History of Fulton County
Revised and Edited by: Washington Frothingham
Published by: D. Mason & Co. Syracuse, NY 1892

By Rev. Isaac O. Rankin, of Peekskill, former pastor of the Kingsboro Presbyterian Church.

Note: This is still being worked on and will be about 8-12 large pages when completed. The first two pages are mostely prior to the incorporation of villages in 1847. Part 3 and following pages will be for the most part after that date.

After the hard won triumph of the revolution there was a brief period of uncertainty and exhaustion; and then began that movement of the population westward, which is the wonder of our history. Like the blind instinct of the bees in swarming time, men in the older states, and especially in New England, felt an unconquerable impulse to leave home and bear the hardships of the wilderness, and the uncertainties of travel through an unmapped land, in order to make their fortunes on the newer soil. There was a great faith in the future of the country behind those moving wagons, a faith which was too much a matter of course to need expression in words, but which sustained men in the loneliness of the woods

In New England "the west" at that time meant the Mohawk valley, and also what we now call Western New York, and the journey took as long as the present trip to California. The Mohawk valley was then, as now, the natural path of western travel, but an eddy of the stream turned aside to settle in Johnstown and on the deserted Kingsborough lands.

This immigration was largely of Anglo Saxon elements. The Dutch and Germans of the Mohawk valley were already dwelling upon richer lands, and there was room enough and work enough for all their sons at home. The New Englander, however, had seen little of the actual fighting in the last years of the war; his land at home was poor and stony; he was naturally restless, and behind him was the ceaseless current pouring into the Atlantic ports from the old world.

Broadalbin was rehabilitated first, the settlers being chiefly from Scotland; then Mayfield, and then the confiscated lands of Kingsborough. The tradition of the household removal is preserved in more than one of the older families of Gloversville. The breaking up of the old home, the loaded wagon, the farewells at the departure for what was deemed a lifelong separation, the slow progress over the hills and through the valleys, the nooning while the cattle rested, the camping out from night to night, the fording of the upper Hudson, the log house, put in repair or built anew, and the slow progress of the settlement. It may all seem dim to the present generation, but little more than a century has passed since out of that school of hardship strong characters were developed whose influence we feel toddy. Rugged endurance and steady thrift alone made success possible in the new conditions. There were idlers and drunkards then as now, but they were not numerous enough to change the character of the settlement.

It must not be imagined, however, that the new holders of the Kingsborough farms constituted in any sense a model community. It impressed a conscientious spectator of that time as being much above the the average of the frontier towns (as we shall have occasion to show presently), but it also impressed him as much below the mark in morality. Perhaps he was too severe a critic, but there is evidence to show that there was wickedness enough to have awakened fears in any thoughtful man, for with elements which promised grand success, the community suffered from the demoralization which always follows war, and also from the recklessness which seems inseparable from frontier life. There were men who would rather live from hand to mouth as hunters and fishermen, than grow rich by steady industry. Hard drinking was common, and met but little rebuke. Rum and cider were still counted friends of man. The feeble remnant of the Mohawks hung about the settlements, and intermarried with the negro slaves. The license of the army had corrupted some, as its discipline and high patriotic spirit had uplifted others, and yet the puritan spirit, although thus hindered and repressed, was still in the ascendant, as is shown by the religious tendencies which soon appeared.

Land speculation was also one of the public dangers. A few men bought and controlled large tracts in the very centre of the settlement, and their tenacious grip for long years hindered its growth. They laid the foundation of private fortunes, but diverted business from Kingsborough to the lower ground, where it still has its center.

Among the early settlers the Connecticut influence seems to have been strongest. A large element of the population came from the neighborhood of Hartford, and especially from West Hartford. They brought their Congregationalism with them; and it is to them that we owe the gift of ground which makes the church park at the head of Kingborough avenue. They possessed the Yankee energy and thrift, -or rather, one is tempted to say these two qualities possessed them. It was the Connecticut men who were the tinsmiths, and whose trading wagons later on brought the raw supplies of buckskin to the earliest tanners and glovers.

It was really as much an age of household industry as the present, for the spinning wheel and the hand loom held the place now occupied by the sewing machine. In 1824 48,952 yards of cloth were woven in the town of Johnstown, and every yard of it was done at home. At first the roads were few. Supplies were brought from Schenectady by the boats on the Mohawk, or on the state road which crossed the town. The linen and the wool were home grown, home spun, home woven, and home made, and were, it may be added, chiefly worn at home, travel being at that time a laborious effort, not to be undertaken without serious thought and careful preparation, while the excursion trains which carry the present inhabitants of the city to Niagara or the seashore would have seemed as much a fable as Aladdin's lamp. Self dependence is still the law for the farmer, but it was then the absolute law of a successful existence. Money was scarce, and specie most of all, and the continental paper with which the soldiers had been paid was nearly worthless. It was a time of barter, rather than of sale; of hard work with imperfect tools; of waiting for great results; of laying foundations for the success of a later generation.

We have, fortunately, a census of the population by the most competent and careful of observers, Elisha Yale, not indeed at the first settlement, but in 1803. This was soon enough, however, to give us the oriiinal society after the restless element has moved on, leaving a permanent character to the place. Early in May of that year, after six weeks study of the locality with a view to settlement as pastor of the church, he thus describes it: "Kingsborough is a pleasant society, five by seven miles in extent, about fifty miles from Albany, nine north of the Mohawk, containing 233 families, and about 1,400 souls. Of the families, 191 are of English descent, twenty three Scotch, fourteen Dutch, and five Irish. There are in this church about twenty male members; in the society fifteen Methodist families; seven Baptist, and five families of Friends."

Fortunately Mr. Yale's choice of a home did not rest upon his experience of six weeks' residence alone. He determined to "go West" before deciding, and spent some weeks in visiting what he calls the "Whitestown country," now Oneida county. He traveled as far as Fort Stanwix (Rome), and remarks of that and the neighboring towns that "the state of society is very wretched in them all," so that he was evidently glad to return to his friendly Kingsborough people.

Of the families of English descent in the above census, much the larger share, as has been already said, came from New England. Most of them, indeed, were from Connecticut, and all acquainted with the history of that state will recognize such names as Ward, Burr, Mills, Beach, Wells, Judson, Giles, Case, Cheadel, Churchill, Gillett, Hosmer, Leonard, Potter, Parsons, Steele, Thomas and others. It was indeed through the correspondence of the West Hartford people with their former pastor, Mr. Strong, that Elisha Yale first came to Kingsborough.

Others of English descent were chiefly from the counties on the Hudson and other places in the state, including the southern part of Montgomery county. The names of Burton, Heacock, Peake, Place, and Smith will occur to every one as representatives.

The Scotch came partly from the Perth and Broadalbin settlements, and partly direct from the "land o' cakes." The names of Livingston, Miller, and Robertson occur in the early records.

These are but a few out of the many which have come down to us, for an exhaustive list is far beyond the scope of an introductory sketch of the history of Gloversville.

The intellectual life of the young community centered for long years in its churches, whose story will be told in its appropriate place. It was a time of controversy, and the tone of polemics now seems unnecessarily severe; but it showed at least that men held their beliefs as matters of more importance than mere opinion, and also that they were willing to defend them at the expense of friendship. House to house instruction was then more common than now; the ministry was held in more unquestioning reverence, the school houses were in constant use for preaching, and revival after revival brought converts into the church, and changed the face of society. There was certainly less distraction, and more depth of thought. If the opinions of men seem less liberal in this retrospect, they were at least not less sincere.

There were at first three principal sources of religious influence which can be traced upon the records of the infant community. One was the Congregationalism of New England, a novelty in that neighborhood, and yet holding from the first a commanding position and even a leadership. Another was the Presbyterianism which had gained such influence in the middle states by its self sacrificing support of the patriotic cause. This element had from the beginning the sympathy and support of the old church in Johnstown, and also of the Dutch Reformed church in Mayfield The Scotch, the Dutch, and the immigrants from the valley of the Hudson were its natural supporters. A third was Methodism, whose enthusiam had been kindled in New York a little while before, and had spread like wildfire through the settlements. There was soon a "class," and later on a camp meeting within the circle of the Kingsborough farms, and though the fire burned low for a season, it never died. The Methodism of that time was more puritan than even the Puritans. Its sources of strength were in its self sacrificing zeal for evangelism, and also its genuine democracy. Incidentally it gained adherents as a protest against the rigid and excessive Galvanism which tinctured much of the current theology. The camp meeting (which it borrowed from the Presbyterian evangelists of the south), became a powerful influence, while its circuit preachers penetrated everywhere, and did much to turn the tide against the prevalent French infidelity which came in during the revolution.

We hear no more of the "Friends" whom Pastor Yale found at the beginning of the century, but the Baptists increased and have borne a large share in the religious life and labors of the community. With the growth of the population other elements came in, organized; and have also had their share in leavening the public with religious activity, and the history of each of these will be found in its appropriate place.

Among the Congregationalists Elisha Yale was for half a century the commanding figure, and no description of the inception of religion in the town would be complete without special reference to his work and character. Although deficient in liberal education, he had the instinct of scholarship, and a passionate devotion to learning. He made up in hard work what he had missed in opportunity and thus became an admirable instructor of many pupils. He was so ignorant of every other system of church government than the Congregational, that when he first came to Kingsborough the Dutch Reformed methods filled him with wonder, and yet he became himself a Presbyterian. This openness of mind, full as much as the depth of conviction which showed itself to every one who knew him, was the secret of his power. His genuine reverence, his moral earnestness, his fearless expression of strong beliefs, his unrivalled method in the business of the ministry, together with a wide range of interest in all the movements of the day, and a willingness to learn from all, won for him at first respect, and then an almost reverent obedience.

Education was from the first a leading part of the duty of these New England people and their like minded neighbors. The district schoolhouse, we are told by Horace Sprague in his "Model Village," was "a small wooden structure, built in the year 1800, and stood about a quarter of a mile west of the Fulton street bridge. The second schoolhouse, a commodious brick building, was erected in 1814, on the northwest corner of Main and Fulton streets. The third, a two story wooden building, was erected on the north side of Fulton street, near the Cayadutta." The earliest of the present buildings, constituting the Union Seminary of that day, was built in 1854. Since that time there have been constant additions and improvements as the city increased. What was then the Central school house, at Kingsborough, was probably built some years before the earliest school house of "Stump City," or soon after 1786; and, at the beginning of the century, we discover the whole district system in good working order. In the spring of 1803 we find the record in Yale's journal of meetings regularly held in at least three school buildings in different parts of the neighborhood, of which the structure referred to above (as erected in 1800), was probably that which he calls "the South school house."

Opportunities for higher education were meagre at first, depending entirely upon the energy and charity of the young pastor. A year after his arrival he had a young man studying with him, and afterward, for thirty years, he was constantly a teacher, and his home was a school. It added something to his slender income, but it greatly increased his cares. He had an enthusiasm for education, and especially for classical study, and delighted to share his own hard won attainments. Union College, which had been founded in Schenectady in 1795, and which enjoyed the presidency of Eliphalet Nott for sixty years after 1804, was the natural alma mater of the Kingsborough students, and graduated then (as now) many from the neighborhood who have made their mark. In this way also the people were kept in sympathy with the larger thought beyond their hills and valleys. After the lapse of a quarter century the work of higher education had evidently grown beyond the power of one busy man, and the financial ability of the people had grown in a corresponding degree. Pastor Yale then planned a school which should better do his work, and, in 1831, the academy was founded and an edifice erected which (with enlargements) is still used by the Kingsborough Avenue school. Of the record of this institution the community may well be proud. It enlarged w hat the pastor had been doing by personal effort. It educated the wives and mothers of the people as well as the sons, and its surviving graduates may be found all over the land, many of them indeed holding honored places in public service. The names of Calvin Yale and Horace Sprague, its teachers, are still remembered with grateful pleasure by the scattered pupils, and also by many of our own citizens. After nearly half a century of usefulness the academy was merged into the public school system as a Union Free School, and its higher work is now carried on in the High School of the city.

A natural result of these efforts for education was the beginning of the library system. While Pastor Yale, with the help of his people, was attempting to supply the needs of the destitute regions to the north, the wants of his own flock were by no means neglected. Circulating libraries of well selected books were formed, and the pastor acted as librarian, It was before the age of light reading, and religious works formed a large proportion, but history and general information were by no means omitted. Many of the books survive, and the printed labels, with their code of rules show the careful method with which they were managed. In the "Farmer's Library" there was a list of fines and penalties for misuse which would delight the modern librarian's heart if he could enforce them, as, for instance, "For lending it," (the book), "ten cents, and suspension one month. For every letter, figure or mark with a pen, two cents; a grease spot, six cents; every leaf through which it penetrates after the first, two cents; a spot made with ink, or something similar, five cents; a leaf turned down, two cents; a leaf torn, ten cents; a leaf torn off, but not lost, twent five cents; other damages in proportion." Considering the fact that all the mending was to be done by the pastor, personally or by deputy, and taking into account the cost of books at that day and the value of time to so busy a man, it must be conceded that the tariff on grease spots and dogears was not unreasonable. Even the children were not forgotten, as books belonging to the "Juvenilian Library" prove. With the founding of the academy a broad foundation for a larger collection was laid, and the carefully selected volumes, containing the best works in history, travel, and physical science of that day remained in the schoolhouse until the consolidation of the educational system of the city. These beginnings of instruction for the people were a part of the foundation for the future city: not unworthy forerunners (considering the limited opportunities of that day) of the present well equipped and well patronized Free Library of the city, whose story will be told in its own place.

The original centre of population of Gloversville, as distinguished from Kingsborough, was on the west branch of the Cayadutta, and along the line of Fulton street. This is indicated by the position of the early school houses already referred to, as the direction of growth is shown by their change to the eastward at each new rebuilding. From the present site of the railroad station to the locality now known as Berkshire there were only two houses, one of them occupied by William Ward, sr., who owned most of the land on which the present business centre of the city now stands.

Horace Sprague, to whose researches we are indebted for the preservation of so much information in regard to the early history of the town, gives a partial list of the original inhabitants in these two localities, derived no doubt from those who had been personally acquainted with them. "The names of some of the heads of families at the mills," he says, "were as follows: James Lard, a magistrate and a person of some note; Job Heacock, ancestor of the Heacocks of Kingsborough; Jehial Griswold; Benjamin Crosset, a loyalist of the Revolution; Robert, Charles and John Wilson, brothers, with whom lived their mother, the widow Wilson and their grandmother, the widow Greig, whose oldest son, Captain Greig, was an officer in the American army, whose capture by the Indians, as narrated in the story of 'Faithful American Dog,' was familiar to every school boy, thirty years ago; Thomas Mann, father of William and John Mann, afterwards favorably known in the community; Asa Jones, grandfather of Colonel Harvey Jones; Rev. John Lindley, 'minister'" (from 1797 until about the beginning of the century), "of the church at Kingsborough Center "; Samuel Giles, and William C. Mills. Of those living at the four corners, on the hill, the more conspicuous were as follows: Daniel Bedford, keeper of a store and tavern; Rev. George Throop, a Presbyterian minister, and George B. Throop, an adopted son; Colonel Josiah Throop, his brother, and Rev. William Throop (who preached to a Baptist congregation in West Kingsborough); and Stephen Hartshorn. "Most of the above named families" he adds, "passed away, leaving no trace behind them; but Samuel Giles, William C. Mills, William Ward, and at a later period, James Burr, with their immediate descendants, on account of their enterprise, energy and success, are generally considered to have been the founders of Gloversville." To these must be added, of course, the Kingsborough names which Sprague leaves wholly out of this enumeration, but which must be considered in any view of the general advance of the community; and also many others, who came in and bore part in the new life and progress of the place.

After 1808 the farm lands, which William Ward, sr., had held in the center of the present city, came gradually into market, and the growth of population to the eastward began, but in the beginning what is now Fulton street was the main street of the village. The first store was built on Main street, in 1818, and was followed by a tavern (The Temperance House in 1835), by which time the business supremacy of this location was fixed. After 1855 came a sudden expansion and growth, which added 114 houses to the village in the space of three years. This was checked at once by that sudden panic which blighted the hopes of the whole country in 1857; but it must have added nearly a third to the size of the place, which in 1858 had only 500 dwellings, and 3,000 inhabitants.

That growth which seemed so phenomenal to Horace Sprague in 1858, has continued since then with accelerated speed. The land values which he announces with an air of wondering satisfaction, have some of them, increased tenfold; while the population has increased to 15,000 in 1892. Since 1825 there never has been a doubt that there would be a thriving center of population and of trade at these upper forks of the Cayadutta: but the lad who left the struggling but ambitious hamlet of that time would be astonished when returning, while yet in a green old age, to find that there had grown up a large, and still enlarging, city on the site he knew so well.

The neighborhood was patriotic from the beginning. Some of the original settlers, both of Kingsborough and of the lower mills, had been soldiers of the revolution, and were object lessons of patriotism to the growing children of the community. Bunker Hill and Saratoga, Valley Forge and Monmouth, the execution of Andre, and the surrender of Yorktown, would seem very real events as they talked with men like Giles, and Beach, and Cheadle. A few from the neighborhood joined the levies of 1812, but most of them saw only barrack service, or sentry duty on the American side of the St. Lawrence.

When the great struggle for the Union began, it awoke a full response. Public meetings were held, and many volunteered, so that Gloversville was represented on the field through the whole war. Some left their bones on the battlefield, or died in southern prisons. Some returned to keep alive the spirit of patriotic devotion by stories of camp life and hard fighting. The thinned ranks of the veterans stood about the memorial of the dead, which was erected in the beautiful cemetery on the hill in 1890, and year by year they awaken again the gratitude and sympathy of the community as they march together to lay flowers on the graves of their honored comrades.

Political excitement ran high in the earlier as it does in the later days of the community, and the keen discussions, in public meetings and private talk of each campaign, helped the education of the people. For many years the Albany Journal, then the oracle of Thurlow Weed, was the most widely circulated newspaper, and the weekly arrival of that and the opposition sheets were important events. In 1855 the first home newspaper, the Standard, was begun, and twelve years later the Intelligencer appeared.

The political history of the locality is lost at first in that of the town at large. At the opening of the record this region was included within the limits of Albany county, until, in 1772, Sir William Johnson obtained a division and organization of Tryon county, with its county seat at his new village of Johnstown. After the revolution its name was changed to Montgomery in honor of the hero of Quebec; and finally, Fulton county was set off from Montgomery in April, 1838.

The town of Caughnawaga was organized March 7, 1788. Five years later it was divided into the four towns of Amsterdam, Mayfield, Broadalbin, and Johnstown. The post village of Gloversville was incorporated in April, 1853, and its territory was set off as a separate road district by act of the legislature in the following year. After swift growth, whose story is told in the following chapters, and can only be sketched in the barest outline here, it absorbed its former rival, Kingsborough, first into its postal territory with free delivery system, in 1887, and then into full union, when it became a city, February 19, 1890.

What the life and occupation of the people was in the old Kingsborough days, we can only tell by gathering up such hints and traditions as have come down to us on record, or tradition. We know that from the first there was a steady and continuous home industry, the loom and wheel giving place directly to the sewing machine. We know that the Connecticut men were tinsmiths and obtained support from the outer world by diligence in business. We find Ezekiel Case in 1803 as far west as Cincinnati, bringing home the secret of the Indian tan for dressing leather. A few years later we hear that William C. Mills is making trips across the state road to the Holland patent, bringing home flour and raw leather for the tanners. It was not long before the peddling wagons, which at first brought home leather taken in trade, began to take out gloves and mittens along with the ware; finding a market everywhere among men who were familiar with the ax and plow; and making wider and wider circuits, until, in 1825, a wagon load was sent as far as Boston.

At first the men dressed the leather, and the women made the gloves. It was a woman, it is said, who cut out the first pair, and for a long time the sex had a monopoly. The leather was stretched on a table, the shape of the glove marked out, as children mark out patterns with a flat block and a pencil, and the leather was cut with sheep shears. With the coming in of Fairbank's invention of the cutting die, greater strength was needed, and the men took the place of the women, who found ample compensation, however, in the use of the sewing machine, which was introduced in 1852.

An interesting glimpse of the neighborhood in 1824 is afforded by Spafford's Gazetteer of the State of New York. At this time, we learn, there was no post office either in Kingsboro or "Stump City," the nearest established office being at Johnstown, four miles away. Speaking of the township, the writer says, "The present inhabitants are a a mixture, rather than a compound, of Yankees, Scotch, Dutch, German, and other immigrants and their descendants, remarkably sociable and polite in their manners, and seem to be very industrious and intent on keeping pace, in every improvement, with the progress of things around them. At Kingsborough, four miles north of Johnstown village, there are two meeting houses, one for Methodists, and one for Presbyterians, and extensive manufactories of tin ware, and leather gloves and mittens; of the latter, in 1821, there were made here 4,000 dozen pair."

In 1848 Mather and Crockett write of the two villages in their Geographical History of the State of New York, as follows: "Kingsboro' is another village in the same township, famous for the manufacture of deerskin gloves and mittens. It has an academy of some note. Population 400. Gloversville, in the same township, is also celebrated for the manufacture of mittens, gloves, and moccasins of buckskin. Population 400."

This date, then, marks the point of equality between the two villages, but Gloversville passed rapidly ahead. The enterprise of the neighborhood found in that village land which could be purchased at a reasonable price; while the owners on the hill had so serene a faith in the future that they were unwilling to sell; they found water for tanning, the stumps had decayed, and a body of citizens had been drawn together who were ready to welcome innovations if they promised to advance their common or their individual interests. Kingsborough slept on through the years, letting its opportunities pass unimproved, and found itself, first outgrown, then overshadowed, and at last absorbed, by the new city.

It is in 1816 that the younger of the two villages first appears upon the scene, emerging into the clear light of history out of the shadow of its elder sister, Kingsborough. It was then content to be called "Stump City," from the abundant stumps left by the woodman's ax, among which were a few scattered dwellings. By 1828 there were fourteen houses amid the stumps, and the place was thought worthy a post office, for which Jennison Giles and Henry Churchill suggested the name of Gloversville.

The Baptists and Methodists organized in 1838, the Congregationalists swarmed from the Kingsborough church and made a home for themselves in 1852. A colony of Presbyterians from the same prolific hive followed in 1858; and later on came the organization of the other churches of the city, Protestant and Methodist Episcopal, Roman Catholic, and Lutheran, whose story is told in its appropriate place.

The Fulton County Bank was organized in 1852, and the Manufacturers' and Merchants' in 1887. In 1854 the Cemetery Association was incorporated, and its beautiful grounds purchased and dedicated. The library was founded by public subscription, aided by the generous gift of Levi Parsons, in 1880. The Kasson Opera House, or Memorial Hall, was opened to public use in 1881. The Young Men's Christian Association was organized in 1882, and the Board of Trade in 1890.

The means of transportation gradually improved. Indian trails gave place to roads, and wagons took the place of pack horses. In 1825 the Erie canal was opened, and became the highway of travel, its packet boats being a great advantage in speed and comfort over the lines of stages which they occasionally superseded. Soon afterward public meetings were held and serious efforts were made toward the building of a canal from the Mohawk to the Sacandaga, which would have traversed the valley of the Cayadutta, and anticipated many of the advantages of the railroad. The plank road, making the way to the canal easily passable for loaded teams at all seasons, was another step in advance. Then came the Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville railroad, and penetrated at last the southern gateway of the Adirondacks, having been opened as far as Gloversville in 1870.

In all these years there were vicissitudes in business, seasons of general prosperity, and also years which threatened decadence. Commercial panics in the great centres were naturally felt by the merchants and manufacturers of Gloversville. The war for the Union brought its trials and its triumphs. Many strong arms and warm hearts were missed from shop and fireside; but the work was doubled for those who remained, and the needs of the army gave a great enlargement to the trade. There were losses and failures, as there are eddies on the surface of the river; but the course of the stream has been in the main unchecked, carrying on its bosom an ever increasing prosperity, and still having room for more.

Of the history thus briefly sketched, it may be said that all changes brought prosperity, and that every year opened the door of a new opportunity. The business of the city still gives promise of enlargement. It already is world wide in its scope. Hunters in South and Central America, in Africa and India; in Europe, and in Australia, and also both east and west in our own land, supply the skins, while the fishermen of Labrador and Newfoundland send oils to dress them. The lady's dainty foot is clad in leather of our tanning, while her hands are protected by our kids. Yes, and at the same time the miner wields his pick, and the lumberman his ax, in mittens from Gloversville.

The town has already been in harmony with the progress of the world. It commands resources everywhere, and pushes its business over every line. It takes courage from the lessons and the triumphs of the past, and looks with great hopes to the future. Youngest among the cities of the Empire State, it does not propose to be least. The promise of the days to come is now, as always, in the personal qualities of its citizens. If they continue strong and reverent, as of old - if they labor with the enterprise and perseverance of the years gone by - who shall limit the triumphs which yet await them, in that great conflict through which man will master the reluctant world?

In the preceding portion of the present chapter the civil history of Kingsborough has been given in connection with its pioneer and social record. It never had a corporate existence except as it forms a part of the city of Gloversville. It had, however, a local water supply company, of which Daniel Potter was the originator and chief owner. The company is still in existence and furnishes water to the inhabitants in the noth part of the city. In 1825 a post office was established at Kingsboro, and four years later another about a mile further south, the latter called Gloversville. However the name Stump City was continued for several years thereafter, and was only dropped when the rival village on the south became of more importance than the pioneer hamlet.

Before leaving our record of old Kingsboro, which was eventually included within the corporate limits of the now progressive city, we may properly furnish the succession of postmasters at that place as follows: Abner Johnson, appointed February 12, 1825; Lucius F. Potter, April 1, 1834; Isaac P. Harvey, April 9, 1835; Daniel Potter, March 19, 1840; Isaac P. Harvey, December 17, 1847; Jonathan Wooster, June 6, 1849; Daniel Potter, July 22, 1853; Horace Hulett, May 13, 1858; William S. Wooster, June 20, 1861; George H. Wooster, April 4, 1870; Elihu F. Enos, March 2, 1877; James H. Foote, March 29, 188o; Charles W. Dennie, February 21, 1881; Daniel H. Cole, December 26, 1884; Edward G. Cole, October 11, 1086, and who served as postmaster until the office was discontinued.

It would indeed be difficult to accurately state just when Gloversville became the larger and more important village of the two now included within the same corporation, but so near as we can ascertain it had acquired a business advantage as early as 1835, for there were then in operation several fairly large manufacturing industries, and its population was rapidly increasing with each succeeding year. As early as 1830 several streets had been laid out and opened, and although not then named as at present, each had its principal industry and was generally designated by the proprietor's name. The present Kingsboro avenue was then known as the "Johnstown road," which was in fact one of the first highways in the region. West Fulton street was called the "Bennett's Corners road," as it led west to the hamlet of that name. West street was then the "Abram Pool road," and crossing it was a highway leading east to Lemuel Gillett's farm called the "Gillett road." East Fulton street was known as the "Fonda's Bush road," Cayadutta street the "Mill Pond road," North Main street the "Kingsboro road," South Main street the "Johnstown road," and the narrow lane leading west from James Burr's was likewise known as the "Philo Mills road." These were the principal thoroughfares of travel fifty and more years ago, and under other names they are still in use by the people of the locality. With succeeding years and the growth in population and business interests new streets were necessary, and twenty years later we find Gloversville an incorporated village.

Gloversville History

Part 1 - Early History.

Part 2 - Early Hisotry Continued.

Part 3 - Incorporation as a City - Schools.

Part 4 - Libraries. - Gloversville Water Works. - Opera House.

Part 5 - Fire Department- Board of Trade - Gas - Electric Lighting

Part 6 - Churches 1

Part 7 - Churches 2

Part 8 - YMCA, Secret Societies, Newspapers

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