History of LeRay, NY
FROM OUR COUNTY AND ITS PEOPLE
A DESCRIPTIVE WORK ON JEFFERSON COUNTY
NEW YORK
EDITED BY: EDGAR C. EMERSON
THE BOSTON HISTORY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 1898


CHAPTER XXXI.
THE TOWN OF LE RAY.

Aboriginal.- As a proper prelude to the civil history of this interesting town, a brief allusion to and description of the aboriginal occupancy as indicated by traces now quite indistinct, is appropriate. The site of an Indian work or village was found in this town near Sandford's Corners. It was situated on the bank of a small stream which is the source of Cowan's creek, Of this work little can be learned, except that it was nearly a circular inclosure, and consisted of a mound or ridge of earth and exterior ditch with gateways at intervals along its lines. When first seen the bank measured from the bottom of the ditch was six feet high. Some of the largest pines of the forest grew upon and within the banks. The neighboring fields formerly yielded the usual variety of fragments of pottery and pipes, some of which were of good workmanship and fair finish, and also rude implements of bone and flint. Several skeletons buried in a sitting position have been here exhumed.

This work is illustrated in the accompanying diagram which was made in 1849. Only a small portion of the embankment was then visible, and the dotted lines show the original outlines according to the recollection of those acquainted with it before it was disturbed It was located about a quarter of a mile from the railroad station on the Antwerp highway leading to the Union church (which crosses its eastern margin) and was on the southeast bank of Cowan's creek, mainly on land where Byron Dillenback's house and blacksmith shop now stand, and also on land of Mrs. Abigail Jabes.

Another work of interest was found on Black river (Kamehargo) in Le Ray, half a mile below Black River village, where the banks are very high and quite inaccessible. The work was on the land of Aaron Poor and is fully shown in the diagram which was made in 1849 and represents it as it then appeared. The ends of the embankment extended a short distance down the slope of the river bank, and there curved slightly inward, as though designed to prevent the flank being turned by an enemy. The lines, where they cross the road were then very distinct, and the embankment was about three or four feet high. The rest of the work could be traced without much difficulty, although it had been long under cultivation. Upon the wall, at the point indicated by letter "c," stood a pine stump, over three feet in diameter, and was probably more than 100 years old. The usual relics were found within the area of this enclosure, and in the natural bank at "d," a number of decayed skeletons were plowed out, all of which were in the position found elsewhere in Indian burial places. No traces of this fortification now remain, yet its general outline can be determined by a darker earth deposit and a richer and darker hue to vegetation.

About one mile north of the last work, and six northeast of Watertown, stood a fort or fortified encampment on a small sandy elevation, situate in the midst of low grounds. It was described in 1849 as being lozenge shaped, and very regular in outline. The accompanying diagram made at that time fairly represented the work as it then appeared. Where the lines are intercepted on the north the ground was considerably elevated and subsides abruptly, precluding the necessity of an embankment for defensive purposes. The sites of the ancient lodges indicated by heaps of burnt stones, calcined shells, fragments of pottery, etc., could then be traced, notwithstanding the land had for a considerable time been under cultivation near this work. Skeletons have been frequently exhumed at this place. This work was near the source of West creek and was on a plain a little elevated above a flat that was once flowed by a beaver dam, the remains of which may still be traced. Several other fortified places were found, one of which was near Felts' mills, but unfortunately no descriptions have been preserved and all traces have long since been obliterated. Enough remains, however, to show that this town was doubtless in early days the theatre of a sanguinary strife that was waged among the Indians in northern New York in their efforts for the mastery of these grounds, which were then unsurpassed for the purpose of hunting and fishing, and were, therefore, an ideal place for Indian occupancy.

Civil History.- Within its present limits the town of Le Ray contains 40,823 acres of improved land; as originally established in 1806 it included substantially the eastern half of great lot number four of the Macomb purchase, also, in whole or in part, the territory of six present towns of the county. As is fully narrated in a preceding chapter, the Antwerp company became possessed of great lot number four, the consideration paid for which was 300,000 forms, equal to $125,356. On January 2, 1800, Gouverneur Morris as agent for the company received a deed for 220,000 acres of the tract, or one-half its area, as then estimated. On the following day the remaining half was deeded by the company to James Donatianus Le Ray de Chaumont (more commonly mentioned in this work as James Le Ray) the consideration for which was $46,315.12.

Proprietors Morris and Le Ray then established a division line between their possessions, beginning at the northeast corner of Penet's square and running on a line parallel with the county line (Oneida county at that time) to the south line of great lot number four, coin monly called the Chassanis line. Morris took all the territory northeast of this line, and Le Ray all on the southwest side. However, August 15, 1802, the proprietors established a new division line, beginfling at the southeast corner of Penet's square, "and running thence to the south corner of lot 512; thence to the west corner of the town of Antwerp; thence along the southwest line of that town to the south corner of lot 337," and thence to the Chassanis line.

In his representative capacity as agent for the Antwerp company, Gouverneur Morris was succeeded by Moss Kent, and the latter, after a short period of service, was superseded by Mr. Le Ray, who was the owner of about 126 shares of the company's stock. Le Ray took from the company a deed for all their unsold lands, to the extent of about 145,000 acres, while he owned in his own right about 220,000 acres more on lot number four (except such portions as had been sold by him), together with the Chassanis tract, which he had acquired by sundry purchases. It will be seen from this brief mention that the land titles in this town were descended from Mr. Le Ray, but it is not deemed necessary to further pursue the subject in this chapter.

As originally created by act of the legislature passed February 17, 1806, the town of Le Ray included all that part of the county north of Black river and east of the east boundary of Penet's square extended from the Black river to the St. Lawrence; excepting, however, a portion of the town of Wilna which was annexed from Lewis county in 1813. The town now comprises about seven or eight thousand acres of the Chassanis tract and something like thirty-two thousand acres of great lot number four of the Macomb tract. Portions of Alexandria and Wilna and all of Theresa, Antwerp and Philadelphia were originally a part of Le Ray.

Le Ray occupies a central position in the county, and is regarded as one of its most important civil divisions in every point of view. The land surface is level, or gently rolling, and the soil is chiefly a clayey loam. The principal stream is Black river, which forms the southern boundary, while Indian river enters the town from Philadelphia, flows a few miles southwest, then abruptly turns north, crosses the western extremity of Philadelphia and enters Theresa. Pleasant creek is the greatest auxiliary stream, and has its course chiefly within the town. The excellent water privileges of this creek induced pioneer Benjamin Brown to make the first settlement and improvements in this locality. In the southern part, along Black river, is an extensive sand barren containing about 13,000 acres, which has not been occupied and improved for general agricultural purposes. Originally this tract was covered with a splendid growth of timber, but the forests were cut away early in the century, and have since been replaced with a second growth now almost fit for the woodman's axe. Many years ago, after having been stripped of its timber, this vast tract was in part abandoned by its owners, and several enterprising farmers extended their enclosures so as to include about 5,000 acres, which is utilized as grazing and pasture lands. The town authorities have noticed with some degree of interest this unopposed encroachment, and the assessors have taxed this part of the tract to these occupants; the remaining 8,000 acres is taxed to various owners but is not regarded as of any particular value.

Settlement and development in this town was begun and accomplished under the proprietary of James D. Le Ray and his agents. He sold the land in parcels suited to the wants and means of his purchasers, and gave them sufficient time to complete their payments, but reasonably asked that each make a proper beginning by building a log house and clearing a certain amount of land annually; and instances are not wanting in which the worthy proprietor extended to his settlers additional time and even advanced them money and assistance when needed. Indeed, in all the vast Macomb tract there was no proprietor more generous and more respected than Mr. Le Ray, but his liberality and enterprise eventually told against him and contributed to his financial downfall. But his fortune was not entirely swept away by this disaster, and he continued to live in the town until its resources were developed, gaining the admiration and esteem of the county's entire people.

The pioneer of Le Lay was Benjamin Brown, brother to General Jacob Brown1 the latter the first permanent settler in the county north of Black river. Both came to the region and made their respective improvements while the territory formed a part of Oneida county. In the fall of 1801 Benjamin Brown visited this town in quest of a suitable site whereupon to erect a mill, and after casting about for a time selected a location on Pleasant creek, about on the site of the hamlet of Le Raysyule. He made a clearing and prepared timber for a dam across the stream, but the severity of winter compelled his party to return to Brownville. Early in the following spring work was resumed by cutting a road from Brownville to the mill site, General Brown going in advance of the party with his surveying implements, marking the course, while they followed with the work of construction. After many incidents and some misfortunes and hardships, the road was built to Le Raysville and work on the improvement was renewed. In due time the dam and mill were completed, and if local tradition be true the "raising" was a notable event in the annals of the town. A log house was also built for the accommodation of the workmen, and to this humble abode in July following Benjamin Brown brought his bride, the pioneer woman of the town, with whom he had just married at Brownville.

The erection of the mill on Pleasant creek was a fortunate event in the early history of the town, and had the effect to induce settlement by families from the east and elsewhere, who were anxious to come to the region, as it assured them they were to locate in an inhabited country, where the means of living were provided. At this time, too, the proprietary was advertising the land in Albany and elsewhare and otherwise using every endeavor to dispose of and settle them. Settlement during the year 1802 appears to have been limited to Benjamin Brown and members of his household, but the year 1803 witnessed the arrival of several families, among whom were men of prominence and. who afterward had an active share in both county and town history, and made for Le Ray a prominent place among the towns in the region. Prominent among the settlers in 1803 were Joseph Child and his three sons, Daniel, Samuel and Moses, all of whom came from Pennsylvania and were associated with many early events. Their surname has ever since been known and respected in the county. Thomas Ward, Daniel Coffeen, William Cooper, John Petty and Robert Sixbury also caine in this year.

This Child family located between pioneer Brown's mill and the settlement at Watertown, while Thomas Ward bought and settled on land between Le Raysville and Evans' mills, as afterward known. In 1804 Samuel Child and Mr. Ward made the first clearing in the present town of Philadelphia, working for Cadwallader Child. Daniel Coffeen was one of a prominent family bearing that name who were identified with the early history of at least half. a dozen towns. His improvement was southeast of Evans' mills, but in 1804 he settled on land near Sterlingville. Robert Sixbury had become acquainted with this region while with a surveying party, and in 1804, with John Hoover, bought the Coffeen improvement below Byans' mills. Later on he removed to a farm in the north part of the town, and while he was an industrious pioneer he also gained much prominence as a hunter and a man of great physical strength. His life was passed in the town, and he died in 1875 at the advanced age, it is claimed, of 112 years. John Petty lived in the town only one year, then removed to Philadelphia, where he was also a pioneer. William Cooper was a Frenchman, whose correct name was Guillaume Coupart, but to the settlers he was best known as "French Cooper." He was a refugee from his native place (Normandy, France,) and experienced many vicissitudes in life before he found freedom in Connecticut, from whence he came to the Black river country in 1798, locating first in Pamelia. In 1803 he settled between Le Rayville and Ingerson's corners, and ultimately became a large land owner and a man of influence and worth In the town. Some of his descendants are still in the county.

Roswell Woodruff and Benjamin Kirkbride are known to have settied in the town in 1804, and while others undoubtedly came during the year, neither record nor tradition gives us any information as to who they were or where they settled. Indeed, it is hardly possible that a town in which settlement was so auspiciously begun by pioneers of the best type should have but two arrivals during its second year of history. Roswell Woodruff located at the place called Jewett's Corners (now Sanford's Corners) in later years, and so called in allusion to Captain Ezekiel Jewett, who bought the Woodruff improvement. Mr. Woodruff then removed to Oneida county. Mr. Kirkbride settled about a mile southeast of Evans' mills, where afterward lived Ezekiel Steinhilber, an early resident.

Thus have we recalled the names and something of the works of the pioneers of Le Ray within its present boundaries. They came to the region when nothing had been done in the way of improvement other than was necessary to provide for actual needs. They came to face dangers and hardships incident to pioneer life, and were provided with few elements of comfort, and none of luxury. They laid the foundation on which the town was afterward built up, and prepared the way for later corners who suffered less from trials and privations. Several of them came with families, but nearly all such had previously visited the region and arranged for a place of abode.

However, for the purpose of preserving the names of as many as possible of the early settlers in Le Ray, recourse is had to early town records, to old and time-worn papers and documents, and frequently to the memory of old residents of the locality, whose days of toil have passed but whose recollection of early events is clear and distinct. From all these sources we may learn the names of the early families, but their lives and individual works are reserved for another department of this volume. Collating the information, gathered from the sources mentioned, it is found that among the first settlers were

James Anthony, Michael Coffeen, Ruell Kimball, Alfred Commins, Captain Richardson Avery, William Barber, Ethni Evans (founder of Evans' Mills), Sylvanus Evans, Eli Davis, S. Brownell, Amos Broughton, David Burhans (who settled in 1809 purchased a farm from Le Ray, and from whom descended a large family), Joseph Corey, Perley and Oliver Fuller, Peter Hoover, Thomas Huston, John and William Huston, Ezra and Isaac Ingerson, Lee Woodward, Silas Ward, Joseph Taggart, Francis Trevaller, Reuben Treat, Elisha Steele, Elisha and Alvah Scofield, Abiel sheurtliff, Solomon and Amaziah Parker, Barnhart and Elias Minick, Alanson Lyon and Arnold Miller. Several of these names are not now known in the town.

Other settlers of about the same period were Lyman and Ivah Holbrook, Elijah Corey, Thomas and Joel Hulbert, while still others, possibly at a little later date, were Dr. Horatio Orvis (the first physician of the town), Willard Barrett, the Bellingers (Frederick H., Adam P. and Peter) Asa Barnes, Levi Butterfield, Jotham Goodale, Alfred Vebber, David M. Caidwell, Alvin Herrick, Solomon Hawkins, John Ingerson, Fayette Herrick, Ansel Winslow, Jesse Sawyer, Gilbert Taylor. Stephen D. Sloan, Peter Slack, Samuel Stewart, Edwin Hungerford, Patrick S. and John V. Stewart, William and Isaac Palmer, Levi Reed, Josiah J. Petrie. Oliver Pierce, Jenison Clark, Ezekiel and Abraham Jewett, James J. Murphy, Heman Millard, John and Stephen Macomber, Samuel C. Kanady, Sylvester Kelsey, Beni Henry, Olsey and Andrew Roberts, Nathan and Stephen Ingerson, Elon Henry, Christopher Poor, Dr. Ira Smith, and still others whose names have been lost with the lapse of years.

Much of the early settlement was accomplished under the agency of Jacob Brown, acting for the Le Ray proprietary. The worthy proprietor first came to his possessions in the region in 1802, two years after making the purchase, but in 1804 he returned to France. In 1806 he sent a Dr. Baudry, a physician "of considerable experience and ability, whom he had engaged for several years to reside with him on his lands," to select a favorite site for a permanent residence. The spot finally selected was in this town, just outside the hamlet of Le Raysyule, where a large and commodious dwelling was built. In 1825 it was replaced with a mansion still more pretentious, which stands to the present day, although many of the once attractive surroundings are gone to decay, while others have been removed by more recent occupants of the place. The building, however, is well preserved and is still used for residence purposes. The accompanying portrait accurately represents it as it now appears.

J. Le Ray de Chaumont was born at Chaumont, on the Loire, France, Nov. 13, 1760, and first became acquainted with affairs in America during the revolution, his father being an earnest sympathizer with the cause for which the colonists were contending, and in close relationship with La Fayette. He made large advances of money to the cause, and also sent supplies to the American army. In 1785 young Le Ray came to this country to settle the accounts of his father, which he succeeded in doing in 1790, with the aid of Benjamin Franklin. He also made the acquaintance of Count de La Forest and Gouverneur Morris, and was by them persuaded to invest in lands in this state. He first bought a small tract in Otsego county, in company with Judge Cooper, father of the famed novelist, and built one of the first saw mills in that region. During this time he had become a citizen. In 1790 he married the daughter of Charles Coxe, of New Jersey, and soon afterward sailed for France, returning to the United States in 1799. In the next year he made the extensive purchase of lands in what afterward became Jefferson county, and in 1802 visited the region. As has been elsewhere stated, Mr. Le Ray was a generous proprietor and gave with lavish hand to every enterprise which had for its end the welfare and comfort of his settlers. He authorized his agents to do all that was necessary in the way of improvements, but when he was present everything was under his personal direction. He came to live at his villa in 1808, but in 1810 returned to France (leaving his affairs here in the hands of Moss Kent) and was instrumental in inducing settlement in this region by scions of some of the best families in France, and others, as well, who sought to better their condition in the new country as America was even then called. Indeed, some of the most thrifty and progressive settlers in this county were brought to the region through the agency of Mr. Le Ray and the French company.

Mr. Le Ray was not a continuous dweller in the town, but came and went as his business interests demanded. He was regarded as a resident, however, and his influence and presence were always felt in the county. Says Dr. Hough: "He greatly improved the breed of sheep by bringing Merinos from his flock in France. He also gave great attention to improving the breed of horses, and labored to diffuse a taste for the rearing of ornamental plants, to promote the culture of the yine in gardens, and of hemp and the mulberry. The care which he bestowed in the selection and adorning of his villa at Le Raysville, which for many years was the seat of refined hospitality bespeaking the affluent and accomplished French gentleman, prove him to have possessed on these matters a judicious and correct taste. His household, including agents, clerks, surveyors and employees, formed of itself a small community." In 1832 Mr. Le Ray returned to France, leaving his business in the hands of his son, Vincent, who also left in the next year. At this time Patrick Somerville Stewart, who for many years had been in the Le Ray employ, was agent. In 1835 he removed the land office to Carthage, where it was kept until the estate was finally settled. James D. Le Ray. the proprietor, died December 31, 1840.

Organization.- Under the agencies referred to in the preceding paragraphs the early development of this town was accomplished. In 1802 Benjamin Brown and his little party of workmen made the first beginfling; in 1803 six families were added to the number, while in the next year, so far as is now known, only two families came. But, notwithstanding this, in the territory comprising the town in 1807 were 153 legal voters, and three years later the total number of inhabitants was 1,150. It is not surprising therefore, that the inhabitants of this part of Brownville were desirous to have a new town created.

The erecting act was passed February 17, 1806, and by it all that part of the county north of the Black river and east of the east line of Penet's square was created a body politic and corporate and named Le Ray, in honor of James Le Ray, the proprietor, who was then building his villa within the limits of the town. By another act of the legislatufe, passed April 4, 1806, a part of Leyden was annexed to Le Ray. The territory of the town has been reduced by the erection of Antwerp, April 5, 1810; a part of Wilna, April 2, 1813; a portion of Alexandria (including Theresa) and all of Philadelphia, April 3, 1821.

The first town meeting was held at the dwelling of Abiel Shurtliff, March 3, 1807, at which time these officers were elected: James Shurtliff, supervisor; Thomas Ward, town clerk; Rue! Kimball, John B. Bossuot, Richardson Avery, assessors; Daniel Child, Daniel Sterling, Lyman Holbrook, commissioners of highways ; Thomas Thurston, constable and collector.

The first settlers of Le Ray formed a mixed population of Yankees and Frenchmen, the former perhaps prevailing in point of numbers, and while their habits and customs were wholly unlike they worked in perfect unison and no unfriendliness existed; all being imbued with the same spirit of enterprise and progress. Each began his life work here by first building a log cabin, then clearing a piece of land for grain and crops, building up gradually, and everything "from the stump." If a family became distressed Mr. Le Ray relieved them; if impoverished, he helped them. He built roads through the settled portions and extended them as necessity required. Cadwallader Child was an important factor in this work, and surveyed road No. 1 in 1806, extending from Evans' Mills to the highway leading from Benjamin Brown's to the bend in Black river. Road No. 2 was run by him in May of that year, and extended from the bend in the river to Philadelphia. Indeed, the records show that the principal business of the highway commissioners for several years related to road construction for the accommodation of constantly increasing settlement. Occasionally a dangerous animal would create havoc among the cattle, but the common interests, stimnulated by a modest bounty offer, soon exterminated the evil. Fences were unknown, and animals running at large were subject to detention by the "poundmaster" until the penalty was paid. The area of the town was large, the inhabitants much scattered, yet on "town meeting days," and for regular Sabbath worship the settlers were assembled together. As early as 1812 two schools were maintained.

Thus the foundation for subsequent prosperity was laid in this town as in others in the county. The beginnings were humble, but the results were grand, and early in its history Le Ray was one of the first t wns in the region; a reputation worthily maintained to this time.

As further evidences of its prosperity reference may be made to the census reports, from which we learn that in 1810 the inhabitants numbered 1,150. while the industries included seven saw mills, one grist mill, a carding mill and two stores. From the same source we may note the changes in population, beginning with the year 1810 and ending in 1892. In 1810, 1,150; 1820, 2,944; 1830, 3,430; 1840, 3,721; 1850, 3,654; 1860, 3,156; 1870, 2,862; 1880, 2,660; 1890; 2,565; 1892, 2,583.

However, the greatest population was reached in 1845. the number then being 3,853, or nearly 1,300 more than at the present time. This reduction is readily accounted for, being due to the causes which have depreciated the population in nearly all the purely agricultural towns jU tile state, the development of the unlimited farming interests of the west and the tendency of the youth to abandon the farm for the less arduous pursuits found in the city and village life, together with their attendant pleasures. The result is that agricultural pursuits are not highly profitable unless under the most favorable conditions.

In its history few events have disturbed the progress of affairs. The enforcement of the embargo laws caused much distress for the time, but the period soon passed and the attention of the inhabitants was diverted to the second war with Great Britain. The young men and many of the older were enrolled in General Brown's militia, and were frequently on the frontier or at Sackets Harbor ready to meet the attack of the enemy. After the close of the war local affairs resumed their natural channels, settlement rapidly increased, and peace and prosperity prevailed on every hand. The forests gradually gave way to farms of fertility; small but flourishing villages appeared in convenient parts of the town, stores were opened, churches and schools were established, and all interests were fostered and benefited. Then came the patriot war, but it had no effect on the town's people except as the events furnished a subject for amusing discussionat the accustomed resorts and at the fireside. In 1854 a line of railroad was built through the town from the county seat extending northward, affording a ready market for the agricultural and manufacturing products of the locality, adding much to the value of property along its route, and establishing Evans' Mills as a shipping point of importance; and when in 1872 the Carthage, Watertown and Sackets Harbor railroad was completed, although on the south side of the river, the town was much benefited by it in the substantial industries which were erected. on the Le Ray side.

During the period of its history Le Ray has produced and been the abiding place of some of the strongest men of the county; and while contrary to the plan of this work to mention them at length, we may with Propriety recall the names of Cleanthus P. Granger, Lorenzo Sawyer, George B. Hart, Lewis Palmer, William S. Phelps, W. W. and B. B. Taggart, Sidney and William S. Cooper, John W. Tamblin, Moss Kent, judge Joseph Boyer, Samuel C. Kannady, Matthew Poor, Drs. Jones, Orvis and Smith, judge Jonathan Miller, Caleb Slocuni, Alexander Kannady, William M. Comstock and Wesley Rulison and a host of others, all of whom have in the past been identified with the best history of the town and contributed to its prosperity.

Le Raysville.- Among the several trading centers which have been established in the town for the accommodation of the inhabitants, the little hamlet called Le Raysville is the oldest. Here Benjamin Brown made the first improvement in 1802 when he built a mill on Pleasant creek. He kept the mill several years, but it eventually passed into the hands of Curtis Mann, succeeded by Mr. Kannady and W. S. Phelps in the order named. At that time and for several years afterward the hamlet had no name other than Brown's mill, and it was not until Dr. Baudry had completed the Le Ray villa and the proprietor came here to live that the name Le Raysville was applied. Settlement in the vicinity increased rapidly under the energetic action of Le Ray and his agents, and with the arrival of Dr. Horatio Orvis in 1808, and the opening of a public house in 1810, the place began to assume the proportions of a village. About the same time, too, Mr. Le Ray opened a stock of goods and placed it in charge of one of his employees, thus supplying the temporal wants of the inhabitants, for tradition says the stock was extensive and included not only staple articles of trade, but also a quantity of refreshing goods not now sold by the average dealer, though then common merchandise. Later managers of the store were Martin Hubbard and S. C. Kannady.

In 1818 a mail route was established between Wilna and Denmark, by way of Le Raysville, and in that year a post-office was established here, Samuel C. Kannady being postmaster. He held the office until his death in 1836, and was succeeded by Mr. Whipple. Previous to 1818 all mail for this locality came through the office at Champion, and was generally brought to the town by Mr. Le Ray or one of his employees. After Mr. Whipple's term the incumbents of the post-office were William Phelps, Ennis Mosher, Horace Grover, Albert Mosher and Wm. S. Phelps in the order named until the office became unimportant in local annals. About 1820 the village attained its greatest importance and size, and another tavern was opened on the opposite side of the creek.

After the departure of the proprietor for France, in 1832, and particularly after the removal of the land office to Carthage three years later, all interests in this historic hamlet began to decline; and after the construction of a railroad through the western part of the town local interests suffered seriously. Since that time (1854) Le Raysville has been an unimportant hamlet in the town, and while one or two small stores and a custom feed mill have been maintained here for the accommodation of neighboring farmers, other enterprises have been abandoned. At the present time the business interests are represented in the small stores of 0. S. Woolever and Orrin Fowler, and the mill owned by Mrs. Phelps. The local postmaster is M. J. Matty, The old "mill pond" on Pleasant creek, the capacity of which in times past has frequently been taxed in supplying power for the mill, is now used for other purposes.

Not far distant from the village are two church edifices, the older of which is an almost historic structure. It is of stone and was built by the society of Friends in 1816, that sect then being numerous in the town. Their meetings were regularly held for many years, but at length the membership became small, the interest declined and the society almost disappeared; but the old edifice still stands, a monument to its once devoted people and its own honorable record. In 1828 the society became divided on doctrinal questions, the dissentients withdrew and worshiped elsewhere. They became known as the Hicksite branch of the mother church, and in 1876 erected a small but neat frame meeting house on the border of the village. Here services are held regularly.

Evans' Mills.- Ethni Evans, the founder of this pleasant and thrifty village, came from Hinsdale, N. R, in 1802, and was employed by General Brown in making the pioneer beginning at Brownville. In the course of his labors Mr. Evans visited the Brown settlement in what afterward became Le Ray, where it is said he also worked, but at the same time he looked about for a suitable place in which to begin life for himself. He was a millwright by trade, and naturally sought a desirable water-power location. This he found at the junction of Pleasant and West creeks, and in 1804 contracted with Le Ray's agent for the purchase of 192 acres of land at three dollars per acre. He at once made a clearing, built a log house and began the construction of a dam across the stream, but not before 1806 did he commence his mills. The mills led to the hamlet, and the latter to the village, in its palmy days one of the most enterprising municipalities in the county, for, being located in the center of a rich agricultural region, the lands were taken rapidly and fine farms replaced the primal forests. The early settlers here were thrifty and the building up of a trading center was a necessity. About 1808 Jenison Clark opened a store and also a tavern and blacksmith shop, and thus the hamlet was established. The store stood on the corner where was afterward built the "brick hotel." As early as 1812 the inhabitants numbered about one hundred, but beyond this it did not materially increase prior to the construction of the railroad. In 1812 the people became much alarmed through fear of an Indian invasion, and began the erection of a blockhouse for defensive purposes; but their fears were soon quieted and the structure was not completed (the mortar cannon standing conspicuously near the four corners has no relation to the blockhouse.)

However, within a period of twenty years from the time pioneer Evans made the first improvement the village grew into a place of considerable importance, and among the more prominent business interests may be noted the Evans mills, which were in successful operation, running both day and night under the direction of Pierce Macomber and Omrod Evans; the Stearns grist mill, also built before the war of 1812; a fulling and cloth mill, standing near the grist mill, operated by George Oaks; a tannery managed by John Macomber; two pot asheries owned by John Hoover and William Palmer; two distilleries, one of which was run by Ziba Henry, but originally built by Jesse Smith. Another distillery of about this period stood in the south end of the village. It was operated by William H. Granger and Captain Sanderson, and was sold to Millard & Palmer. Sacket Comstock and Sewell Hill were local blacksmiths and also made axes, hoes and other edged tools. Farrington Smith made spinning wheels and looms; Harry Weed was wagon maker, and Joseph Pryor, an earnest Quaker, had a cabinet shop. William Palmer kept store where now stands the brick hotel. Heman Millard also kept store but dealt more extensively in liquors. The village had two taverns, one (built in 1816) across the creek, kept by Adam and Peter Bellinger, and the other, the stone tavern, built about 1821, was run by John Hoover. This was a somewhat famous hostelry in its day, and was built from stone quarried in the north part of the town. Josiah Fuller laid the stone and William Delaware did the carpenter work. Landlords after Hoover were Daniel Thomas, George Oaks, Parker Rulison, Elisha Root, Alexander Lapon, Nelson Clarke, Benjamin Jackson. Then its use for hotel purposes was discontinued. The Bellinger hotel also had several landlords, among them Elias Holbrook, David Kilburn, Oliver Pierce, Edwin Hungerford, Henry Lawton and Jacob Davis. Dr. Ira A. Smith was the first village physician, whose partner in later years was Dr. Wrn. G. Comstock. Drs. Henry and Isaac Munson were students under Dr. Smith. Peter H. Ryther started a blacksmith shop about 1823, but about four years afterward enlarged his works for the manufacture of scythes, axes and hoes, using a trip hammer worked with water power. In 1822-23 Judge Evans rebuilt the saw mill, and it was kept in operation until about twenty years ago. The grist mill was rebuilt by him in 1823-24, though just below the dam, and is still in operation under Tozer& Davenport. The brick hotel, to which reference has been made, was begun in 1827 by Capt. John Hoover. When completed it was one of the most substantial buildings of the village, and has stood the wear of time to the
present day; and it is still called by the old name, "the brick hotel." Benjamin Collins also opened a hotel in 1827. The Railroad hotel was built after the road was finished and business was attracted to the station.

Evans' Mills became a post-office in 1824, William Palmer, postmaster. He held the position many years. In 1846 the name of the village was changed to Evansville, still preserving the name of the founder, but the new designation was thought to be more euphonious. However, in 1851 the old name was restored. In 1854 the railroad was opened for traffic and at once the village assumed a position of importance among the trading centers of the county. As a shipping point for agricultural products it has ranked well, although in more recent years the manufactures of the locality have materially declined. However, in the vicinity are several cheese factories, one at the village, owned by Daniel Walrath; the Crystal springs factory, north of the village, owned by A. E. & L. A. Helmer, and the Jefferson valley factory, operated by Wm. and Isaac Schell. These, with the interests previously mentioned, comprise the chief manufacturing enterprises of the vicinity.

The village was incorporated in 1874, including 720.44 acres of land and about 500 inhabitants. At the first election A. M. Cook was chosen president, and George Ivers, B. M. Strong and Bowen Root, trustees. The proposition to incorporate was carried by a vote of 54 against 49, and while the plan was fully carried out a strong opposition existed, and afterward was continued with final result in dissolving the corporation and a return to the former condition of municipal life. The village also contains two good district schools, comprising parts of town districts Nos. 3 and 7. In the fall of 1895 a number of public spirited citizens sought to consolidate these districts and establish a union free school, but the measure was lost when submitted to a vote of the proposed district.

The present mercantile and business interests of Evans' Mills may be mentioned about as follows: Wesley Rulison, general store; J. P. Steinhilber, general store; E. C. Delevan, dry goods and groceries; F. M. Peck, grocer; A. B. Foote and Frank Waits, harness shops; the "brick hotel," Peter Farmer, prop'r; Central house, L. G. Hawn; Whitney house, W. M. Whitney; postmaster, Burton M. Stratton; Evans' Mills cheese factory, Daniel Walrath; flour and grist mill, Tozer & Davenport; physicians, Drs. L.. E. Jones and Robt. A. Smith.

Pisgah lodge, No. 720, F. & A. M., was chartered June 13, 1872, with twenty-four original members, and Wesley Rulison, master. The present members number fifty-three. The officers are Burton M. Stratton, master; A. B. Foote, S. W.; S. N. Gould, J. W.; Eugene F. Spencer, S. D.; E. H. Cobb, J. D.; Nicholas Cocagne, secretary, and F. E. Croissant, treasurer.

Hermon lodge of free and accepted masons, of Evans' Mills, was instituted in the fall of 1826, but during the masonic excitement which followed soon afterward it suspended, and was not revived.

The Presbyterian church of Le Ray was the outgrowth of a Congregational society formed January 13, 1814, at the house of Elisha Scofield, by Rev Nathaniel Dutton, of Champion. The original members were Elisha Scofield and wife, Ruel Kimball and wife, Gershom Mattoon and wife, Mrs. Cheeseman, Abner Cheeseman and Hannah Parker. The early meetings were informal and the church was without a pastoral head until 1820, when the accidental drowning of the son of Ruel Kimball inspired the father to enter the ministry and he became the first regular pastor. Previous to this time the society met for worship about two miles south of the village, but in 1818 removed to the settlement. The first house of worship was built in 1826, and was a plain stone building standing on the site of the present edifice, and was the contribution of Judge Evans. Elisha Scofleld, David Burhans, Samuel C. Kanady, Sylvester Kelsey, Sylvanus Evans and Mr. Le Ray were liberal contributors to the building fund. The old edifice was replaced with one larger and more commodious, built of frame, and dedicated in June, 1869. This church in 1825 became Presbyterian, and in 1841 united with the Ogdensburgh (old school) presbytery. Twenty years ago the members numbered seventy persons; in 1897 the number was twenty-four, but the congregations indicate a much larger membership, as the church now draws from the former Episcopal, Baptist and Universalist (the latter an informal organization), societies of the vicinity. Present pastor, Rev. 0. C. Barnes.

The Baptist church of Le Ray was organized in 1814 by elder Maitby, and held early meetings about two miles south of the village, but in 1818 removed to Evans' Mills. The society was incorporated in 1823, Ethni Evans, Asa Hall, Levi Read, John Macomber, Stephen D. Sloan and Chauncey Morse comprising the first board of trustees. In the same year a house of worship was begun, but before completion was partially destroyed by fire. The stone walls were unharmed, and with substantial aid from Mr. Le Ray the edifice was soon restored and completed. The earlier pastors of the church were Revs. Matthew Wilkie, John Blodget, Martin Cook, Sardis Lyttle, John F. Bishop and Thomas Warner, who were in course followed by others; but about five years ago the society discontinued meetings and its members went to other churches.

The first society of the Methodist Episcopal church in Le Ray was formed Nov. 20, 1824, with James Ward, Wilson Pennock, Elijah Smith, William Taggart, Patrick S. Stewart, Henry Churchill, Parker Chase, John Y. Stewart and Daniel Smith, trustees. The first church home was a stone building, built about that time, and stood on the highway between Evans' Mills and Le Raysville. In 1833 the building was sold, and another was erected in the village,; on a lot donated by Judge Evans. In point of membership this is the strongest society in the village, although during its history two reorganizations have been effected, and many members have withdrawn to unite with other M. E. churches. The present members number 92, with 26 probationers. Pastor, B. G. Sanforth.

St. Michael's church, Roman Catholic, dates back in its history to about 1840, when a mission was established and masses were said by visiting priests from Watertown. In 1847 a church edifice was built and the parish was established. The building is of stone and is in all respects a substantial structure. The congregations are drawn from the vicinity, and also from Lafargeville, Sterlingville, Theresa, Philadelphia, Black River, Felt's Mills and Great Bend. all being in the parish of St. Michaels's. The present priest in charge is Rev. Father A. L. Dufrasne.

St. Andrew's church, Protestant Episcopal, was organized as a mission in the early part of 1871, and as a parish in April, 1872. Then there were but three communicating members, but soon the church grew in strength until it compared with other denominations of the village. Its services were generally supplied from Antwerp, and occasionally from the county seat. The beautiful church edifice was erected in 1880, and was built with native gray and blue limestone. The church, however, has never been self-sustaining, and while at one time the communicants numbered about fifty they have since decreased to less than twenty; and now services are not regularly held, the members attending the Presbyterian service.

For burial purposes, in the early history of the village, Ethni Evans donated a plot of ground. This was directly in the line of Main street as afterward laid out, hence the bodies were removed to the cemetery opened in 1840, which was in this year deeded by Aaron Root to S. D. Sloan, Lybeus Hastings, William Palmer and Elisha Steele, jr., as trustees of Evans' Mill cemetery. The plot was afterward enlarged, and in 1869 a cemetery association was formed, of which the trustees were Adolphous M. Cook, Samuel S. Potter, Rezot Tozer, Alex. Kanady, Wayne Stewart and Randall Barnes. The old trustees also conveyed their land to the new association and the grounds were united. The Maple Grove cemetery was laid out later, and by these several organizations this part of the town is provided with suitable locations for burial purposes.

Slocumville is the name of a settlement less than two miles east of Evans' Mills. In local history it is of little importance, and it was only through the location there of a powder mill by one Desjardines, at the suggestion of Mr. Le Ray, that the settlement was founded. The mill was built in 1819, and about the same time a grist mill was also put in operation, both utilizing the waters of Pleasant creek for power. The powder works were not a profitable enterprise and were subsequently converted into a potato starch factory, also a short-lived industry. The grist mill still stands but is not operated. Here, too, was the Slocumville woolen mill, which for many years was one of the chief industries of the town. It was operated by Caleb Slocum, son of Samuel G. Slocum. The last proprietors were Slocum & Baldwin. The mill closed about 1884. The name Slocumville was applied in allusion to Samuel G. Slocum one of the early and prominent settlers of the locality.

Sanford's Corners.- In this locality, in the southwest part of the town, Roswell Woodruff was the first settler, having made his improvements in 1804. Later on pioneer Woodruff sold his property to Captain Ezekiel Jewett, and when the intersecting roads were opened the place became known as Jewett's Corners, and also as Jewett's school house, for here is said to have been built the first school house in the town. Mr. Sanford, for whom the place was finally named, erected a large stone building as a store which, however, was not opened as such. A brick tavern was built about the same time for the comfort of travelers along the highways, but the building was afterward used as a cheese factory. A post-office was established here in 1828, that being the only business of the place which has endured to the present time. In 1853 F. X. Baumert began the manufacture of limburger cheese at this point. in a small way but the enterprise soon developed into one of importance. He died in 1882, and the business was continued by his wife, and after her death by her sons. The factory was enlarged in 1887. The business is now carried on by F. X. Baumert & Co., the old firm style being preserved, for the product of the factory finds ready sale in the market, and the fame of the firm is well known to the trade. A railroad station was established here in 1855. The local merchant is H. B. Dunn, who also is postmaster.

The Union church at Sanford's Corners was built in 1853 at the joint expense of the Methodist Episcopal, Christian and Universalist denominations in the vicinity. Each had an organized society of fair membership, though neither at any time a resident pastor. M. E. preaching is supplied from Felt's Mills, and Universalist from Watertown, while the Christian sect is so small that their services are rarely held.

Joachim is the name of a locality on Indian river, in the extreme north part of the town, where Lucien Murat (in 1834) proposed to found a village in memory of his father, Joachim Murat, once king of Naples, and commander of cavalry under Napoleon. At this point Arnold Miller had built a saw mill in 1822, but was succeeded in ownership by Samuel Makepeace. Murat purchased the property, rebuilt the saw mill, built a grist mill, started a store, and began the erection of a large hotel. But his enterprise came to naught; creditors attached the stock and property, all of which was sold to persons not specially interested in the proprietor's memorial undertaking. The mills were continued for a time, but were eventually sold or abandoned.

Ingerson's Corners is the name of a locality ih which Isaac Ingerson settled when he came to Le Ray. Elisha Scofield located near the place. Early in the history of the town a village was contemplated for the cross roads, and Aaron Rose made the beginning by starting a blacksmith shop. In 1822 Job Anthony and Alvin Clark built a saw mill on the tributary of West creek, but further than this no hamlet improvements were established. The creek did not furnish sufficient water power, hence the mill was stopped, and with the removal of its interests the place became known by the undignified name of "Bedlam."

Great Bend is a small village in Champion, but on the Le Ray side of the river. King Potter built a hotel about 1833, and Henry G. Potter, who kept the hotel, also had a distillery. Daniel Potter started a store here in 1824. All these interests have passed away, except the hotel.

Felt's Mills is a hamlet on Black river, and was named in allusion to John Felt, its founder. Previous to 1844 the island was a part of Le Ray, but was then set off to Rutland. No substantial village improvements have been made on the north side of the river. The Taggart paper company operate the large mills on the island, without which the village on the Rutland side would now be of small account.

Black River Village.- On September 24, 1891, the inhabitants of the village of Black River held a special election and by a majority vote determined to incorporate under the provisions of the law of 1870. According to a survey previously made by W. A. Lyttle, the area of the village was 1,115½ acres, of which 635½ acres were taken from Rutland, 440 acres from Le Ray, while 40 acres were covered by waters of the river. The certificate of election was recorded in the county clerk's office Sept. 25, and on the 23d of October following the incorporation was made complete by the election of village officers.

In 1806 Isaac and Harvey Cleveland built a saw mill on the south side of the river, which was carried away by high water the next year. About 1815 Christopher Poor and Andrew Middleton built a mill below the village, but there were few evidences of a hamlet at that time. In 1826 the families in the vicinity were Thomas Scott, Beriah and Eli Penniman, Francis Butterfield and perhaps one or two others. In that year Butterfield built the first framed house, and about 1831 the first hotel. The first bridge across the river was built in 1828, chiefly at the expense of Mr. Butterfield and Mr. Poor, both of whom were largely interested in lands in the vicinity, and who were among the most enterprising men of their towns. The Butterfield brothers, Levi, Francis, William and Philander, opened their first store store and gave the place the appearance of a settlement. These were the beginnings which led to the village on the south side.

On the Le Ray side of the river Christopher Poor was one of the first settlers in the locality, and bought from the Chassanis proprietary a tract of 150 acres of land, including water privileges, for the pioneer was attracted to the place by the superior mill sites. Mr. Poor had previously lived in Rutland, and in 1829 removed to his new purchase on the Le Ray side, and was one of the chief factors in building up the hamlet, just as in more recent years his descendants have been instrumental in bringing about a prosperous condition of affairs in village life.

In 1831 a dam was built across the river and a saw mill was erected by Coburn & Hubbard, who run it about ten years and then sold to W. K. Butterfield. In 1836 the first grist mill was built by A. Horton, but this and the saw mill were burned about 1843. In 1845 they were replaced with more substantial buildings for the same use. The well known Lockport grist mill was begun in 1845 by Oliver A. Ferguson, but was soon afterward taken by Matthew Poor, R. G. Vaughn and Henry Chapman, who finished the building in 1849. The property afterward passed through various hands, and in 1890 was replaced by the plant of the Black river wood pulp company. This company was incorporated Nov. 17, 1891, with $15,000 capital, by Wooster 0. Ball, Henry M. Ball, Kate L. Ball, Eunice D. Ball and Joseph Atwell, jr. This property afterward passed into the hands of the H. Remington & Son pulp and paper company, and is now one of the substantial industries of the village. The company furnishes electric lights for the village.

In 1832 Robert Van Schoick opened a store and began trade. Mr. Thu rston succeeded to the business in 1848. The second store was started in 1852 by S. L. Mott, succeeded by Matthew Poor in 1866. In 1848 Peter Poor built a planing mill, being the same afterward owned by Andrew Poor. In 1860 Hinman & Middleton built a box factory and wood-working shop which they occupied. for a time. The building was used about a year some time during the 'sixties by D. Dexter & Son, after their plant on the Rutland side of the river had been burned. At a still later period the building was used as a place of meeting for the Free Methodist society, but eventually passed into the hands of 0. H. Scott & Son. It is now occupied by the H. C. Dexter chair company. This company was established about 1882 by Poor, Dexter & Co. The firm afterward became Dexter & Scott, and eventually H. C. Dexter chair company, as now known. The works, when running at f till, employ about 50 men.

The Black river bending company was established in 1860 for the manufacture of bent chair stock, and from the beginning has been a successful enterprise. In 1889 the company, was incorporated, with a capital of $20,000, and Matthew Poor, Clarence M. Woodward, Charles M. Wolfe, Myron W. Scofield, Byron N. Scott and Peron V. Poor as principal stockholders. The company employs, when running full time, about 50 men. On the site of the bending company's works a machine shop was built by Isaac Howe about 1840. It was run by him several years, but after he went out the buildings were idle for a long time. They were then sold to the bending company, and were so radically enlarged and remodeled as to entirely change in appearance.

Where Thomas Cliilds & Sons sash and door factory stands formerly stood a similar industry started many years ago by Wolcott Brothers.

The Empire wood pulp company, whose large plant stands on the lower island, was incorporated April 11, 1888, with a capital of $15,000. The active factors in the enterprise were Chandler C. Clark, Christopher Poor, Romaine D. Gibbs and Frank D. Gibbs. This, too, is a leading industry in the village. On this site many years ago stood a saw mill, which was carried away by high water, and was then replaced with Tamlin's sash and door factory. This was about 1875, but about two years later it became Poor & Dexter's plant, and still later the pulp mill.

The Jefferson paper company, whose large plant occupies a site on Poor's island, was incorporated July 26, 1887, with $20,000 capital, by Wm. P. Herring, Frank H. Munson, and James M. Hamlin, The purpose of the company was to manufacture lumber, wood pulp and paper.

David Dexter was the pioneer of the chair industry at Black river. He established the business in 1839 on the Rutland side of the river, and continued it until 1865, when he took his son Everett A. Dexter as partner, under the firm name of D. Dexter & Son. The plant of the company was enlarged and the business extended so that from forty to fifty men were employed. It was thus continued to the death of David Dexter, in 1880. Everett A. Dexter then took as partner his brother David E. Dexter, and under the firm style of D. Dexter's Sons the business was continued to 1893, when Everett A. Dexter died. Since that time the plant has been operated by David E. Dexter as surviving partner.

Both fire and flood have been destroying elements in the village, and several of the best industries and substantial bridges have thereby been swept away. But as often have they been replaced, and generally by better structures. The fire of February 20, 1890, was perhaps the most disastrous in the history of the village. About $50,000 worth of prop. erty, including some of the best business buildings of the village, were then destroyed. One good iron bridge was taken out by high water, and was replaced in 1875 by another of the same material. In 1891 the present bridge was built by the Springfield (Mass.) iron company.

From this it may be seen that the chief industries of the village have been established within the last fifteen years. Indeed, the construction of the railroad on the south side was a prominent factor in leading to these interests, while the splendid water power has been an important auxiliary. However, almost every plant has both steam and water power. The proposition to incorporate came from both sides of the river, chiefly from Le Ray, but while the subject was impending an element on the south side secured incorporation for that district to the exclusion of the north side; but it appears that there was some irreg ularity in the proceedings, hence the action was nullified by the county court. Then the people of both sides considered the matter together, and the result was a successful incorporation, as is noted on a preceding page.

The first village election was held Oct. 23, 1891, when George C. Hazelton was chosen president and George C. Gillespie, Josiah Burlington and M. A. Parkinson, trustees; Christopher Poor, treasurer, and Warren Croan, collector. The subsequent presidents have been A. W. Hadsall and J. Austin Hubbard, the latter being now in office. The trustees are M. M. McGruer, M. A. Parkinson and W. W. Goldthrite; clerk, Fred. E. Whipple; treasurer, C. J. Sweet. The village population is about 1,000.

Black River is one of the most pleasantly situated villages of the county, and from a business point of view is among the progressive places of the region. There is no distinct system of water supply, but the manufacturers have sought protection in establishing a system by laying pipes from some of the large factories, extending through the principal or business streets, power being furnished, in case of fire, from the pumps in the factory buildings. The system was established throtigh the public expenditures of village business men.

The village also comprised parts of school districts No. 14 of Rutland and No. 8 of Le Ray, each of which maintained a good school. However, in the interests of still better educational facilities, in May, 1893, the districts consolidated and formed the Black river union free school district; and while a school is maintained on each side of the river, both are under one control, and are admirably managed. The board of education comprises J. Austin Hubbard, H. T. McAfee, J. Poor, H. C. Dexter and G. E. Sylvester; principal, P. S. Slate.

Black River fire company No. 1 was incorporated Dec. 12, 1890, to be of service in connection with the pumping apparatus in case of fire. The equipment consists of a cart and 3,000 feet of good hose, all paid for by general subscription.

The Black River M. E. church was organized in 1833, and a church home was built in 1848; first pastor Rev. Lewis Whitcomb. The present edifice was erected in 1884, and is a substantial frame structure, with seating capacity for 500 persons. The members number 168, with 10 probationers; pastor, Rev. C. M. Smith. This church draws congregations from both Rutland and Le Ray.

The Free Methodist church of Black River was organized Dec. 11, 1871, with five members, and a house of worship was built soon afterward, on a lot donated by Matthew Poor. The first trustees were Josiah Johnson, David Dexter and J. C. Kennedy; pastor, Rev. Charles Southworth. The church has a large membership and the services are well attended. The present pastor is Rev. Mr. Labron.

Bethany lodge No. 821, F. & A. M., was chartered in December, 1896. The membership is fifty-five. F. D. Gibbs, master; E. E. Graves, S. W.; M. M. McGruer, J. W.; W. E. Brown, S. D.; B. H. Rouse, J. D.; A. W. Hadsall, secretary; G. B. Sylvester, treasurer.

Riverside lodge No. 334, I. O. O. F., was organized October 11, 1872. It is one of the strongest societies of the kind in the county, numbering 100 members. The officers are Fred. Matthews, N. G.; J. A. Hubbard, V. G.; C. J. Sweet, secretary; P. V. Poor, treasurer. The lodge owns a substantial block in the village.

Tradition says the first school in the town was located at Sanford's Corners, but when established or by whom taught is now unknown. The town records are very imperfect so far as relates to early schools, but at the annual meetings a sum of money was voted equal to the amount allowed by the state for educational purposes. Soon after 1813 the commissioners divided the town into districts, but made no permanent record of their action. At that time there were two schools in the town, and as the population increased other districts were organized, keeping step with growth in every direction. Indeed, the authorities have ever been mindful of the educational welfare of the town youth, and have made generous provision for the erection and maintenance of the schools. In 1850 the town contained 26 districts (entire and joint), and 1,186 children were under instruction. Then, however, the town was at its best, its population at its maximum, and all elements of in. dustry in full development. As now disposed the districts number 18, and the number of children in school is 571. During the last current year 22 teachers were employed, and public moneys were received to the amount of $2,528.97. The town raised by tax for school support $4,899.81. The value of school property was estimated at $11,220.

Supervisors.- James Shurtliff, 1807-15; Ruel Kimball, 1816; Ethni Evans, 1817; Alvin Herrick, 1818; Horatio Orvis, 1819-25; Wm. Palmer, 1826; John Macomber, 1827-29; Stephen D. Sloan, 1830; John Macomber, 1831; Stephen D. Sloan, 1832; Lybeus Hastings, 1833-35; Ira A. Smith, 1836; S. D. Sloan, 1837; Daniel D. Sloan, 1838; Joel Hawarth. 1839-40; Elisha Potter, 1841-42; Lybeus Hastings, 1843; Hezekiah L. Granger, 1844-45; Alfred Vebber, 1846-47; Joseph Boyer, 1848-49; William G. Comstock, 1850; Joseph Boyer, 1851; Alonzo M. Van Ostrand, 1852-53; Joseph Wager, 1854-55; William S. Phelps, 1856-58; Octave Blanc, 1859; Lewis Palmer, 1860; Octave Blanc, 1861; Samuel G. Slocum, 1862; Cleanthus P. Granger, 1863-64; Emor K. Gardner, 1865-68; Frederic Wacldingham, 1869-76: F. E. Croissant, 1877-95; J. Philip Steinhilber, 1896-97; John F. Emmons, 1898-99.

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