VIENNA was formed from Camden, April 3, 1807. Its original name was "Orange" but was changed to "Bengal,"
April 6, 1808, and to Vienna, April 12, 1816. A part of Annsville was taken off in 1823. it lies upon the west
border of the County, north of the center. Its surface in the western part is comparatively level, in the south
it rises gradually from Oneida Lake and spreads out into a rolling plateau. The north part is hilly. Wood Creek
and Oneida Lake form the south boundary. Fish Creek forms most of the east boundary and unites with Wood Creek
before it enters Oneida Lake. The west branch of Fish Creek forms part of the north boundary. The soil in the north
part is a light, sandy loam; in the south-east, along the Creek, it is alluvium. Good building stone is quarried
in the eastern part, and bog iron ore is found in large quantitjes in the marshes near the Lake. A large bed of
Fuller's Earth is situated in the town. A company has been formed and is now engaged in mining and preparing this
earth for market, a large amount being used for manufacturing purposes.
Vienna, (p. v.) in the eastern part of the town, contains a church (Methodist), a hotel, two stores, a wagon shop,
a tannery, a saw mill, a carding machine and about thirty houses.
North Bay, (p. v.) situated in the southern part, on the shore of Dneida Lake, contains two churches, viz., Baptist
and Methodist, a school house, two hotels, two stores, two potteries, a grist mill, two saw mills, several mechanic
shops and about 300 inhabitants. The site of the village slopes gradually towards the lake, and the main street,
extending about half a mile north-westerly from the lake, is nicely shaded, and terminates at the residence of
James Roe, Esq., a beautiful cottage with grounds adorned with shrubbery, and from which there is a fine view of
the lake and the surrounding country. Boat building is extensively carried on. The planing mill and lath factory
of Mr. Luce is doing a good business. The Fair Ground lies a short distance west of the village, and the society
is noted for the success which attends their annual Fairs. Near North Bay, on the land of Daniel Muiholland, is
a Roman Catholic Church, surrounded by a flourishing grove of maples. A. beautiful row of maples extends along
the road (or about fifty rods. McConnellsville, (p. v.) in the north part, on the line of Annsville, contains a
church, a hotel, two stores, a saw mill, a vegetable oil distillery and about twenty-five dwellings.
Fish Creek Landing, in the south-east part, contains a store, several mechanic shops and about twenty houses.
West Vienna, (p. v.) on the lake shore, about three miles from North Bay, contains two stores, a hotel, a saw mill,
a grist mill, a cigar factory and about twenty-five dwellings. Boat building is carried on to some extent. Mr.
T. G. Cole carries on boat building quite extensively, on the lake shore, about two and a half miles west of West
Vienna. He employs about thirty hands.
Elpis, in the north-west part of the town, contains a church, two saw mills, a blacksmith shop and about a dozen
dwellings. On the farm of Samuel Holmes, about half a mile from Elpis, is a beaver dam, and the tract known as
Beaver Meadows, and evidently caused by this dam, contains a large amount of valuable peat.
Pine is a hamlet in the north-east part.
The first settlement of this town was made in 1798, by Ephrairn Church, on land now owned by Alanson Bailey. Timothy
Halstead, Peter Gibbons, Alex. and Jonathan Graves, Eliakim Stoddard, Allen Nichols, David Stone, Isaac Cook and
Robert Humaston, settled in the town about the year 1798-9. Elijah Graves, son of Jonathan Graves, came into the
town in 1800. He was then in his eighteenth year, is now the oldest settler residing in the town, and retains to
a remarkable degree his mental and physical powers. The first saw mill was built in 1801, where the MeConnellsville
mill now stands, by Jones & Hamil, and the first grist mill, by Wm. Smith, near the same place, about 1804.
Timothy Haistead was the first settler at this place. Henry N., his son, was at that time three or four years old,
and with the exception of Elijah Graves, is now the oldest settler in town.
The first birth in town was Polly Blakesley, in 1803; she died in 1865. The first death was that of Alexander Graves,
killed in a saw mill. Lyman Mathers taught the first school, and. Wm. Smith kept the first inn, in 1801.
The first bridge across Fish Creek was built in 1802, on the direct road to Rome, and was engineered by Mr. Hamil.
Elijah Graves was one of the workmen upon the bridge and gives an interesting account of the structure. It was
built upon trestles, the posts of which were twenty-two feet long and 18 inches square; the cap pieces were 18
feet long, and the same size as the posts, all of which were solid oak. They were unable to raise it with the force
that could be collected and resorted to machinery and teams, with which the work was accomplished. The practice
of building substattial bridges has been continued to the present time. During the last year, Mr. Lyman L. Stedman,
commissioner of highways, has caused two bridges to be erected across the west branch of Fish Creek, which reflect
credit upon the commissioner and the people of the town. Three other substantial bridges have been erected within
the last four years, costing $11,500. The bridges are all constructed with substantial stone butments, making Vienna
the best bridged town in this region.
Dr. Chatfield has been a practicing physician in Vienna for 45 years.
The population in 1865 was 3,408, and the area 37,589 acres.
There are twenty school districts, employing twenty teachers. The whole numher of scholars is 1,134; the average
attendance 417, and the amount expended for school purposes the last year was $4,103.20.