History of Newburg, NY
From: The History of Orange County, New York
Edited by: Russel Headley
Published by: Van Deusen and Elms
Middletown, New York, 1908


NEWBURGH, the chief city of Orange County, with a population of nearly 27,000, is also the largest commercial city on the Hudson between New York and Albany. It is located on the side hill of a bay, 57 miles from the river's mouth, has a deep and spacious harbor, with good docks, and its scenic views and contiguous territory are peculiarly attractive, The inviting bay and river are in front, and the mountains southward and westward have been characterized as "Nature's arm thrown lovingly about us." In the landward distance mountains are visible in several directions from the upper town, and adjacent are fruit and dairy farms on undulating fields, with a ten-mile plain known as Highland Terrace," A recent local pamphlet says of the City of Newburgh: "As a home-city there is little to he desired. It is metropolitan and suburban, It has broad thoroughfares, good streets, and provision is now perfected for having $100,000 expended annually in new pavements, There are numerous breathing spots, One of the most magnificent views obtainable anywhere in the Hudson Valley is from Downing Park, where from the observatory the city appears to be almost beneath your feet, The Hudson River presents an unobstructed view for .miles. and a half dozen ranges of mountains appear to view, The Catskills at the north, Fishkill and the Beacons on the east, Storm King and Crow Nest on the south, Schunemunck at the southwest, and the Shawangunk range far to the west. At the north end of the city is LeRoy Place, one of the coziest and most inviting of the city's little parks. It is especially referred to as a resting place for those who find it convenient to take a walk to the famed 'Balm of Gilead' tree, one of the oldest monarchs of its class to be found for many miles around."

The near suburban villages tributary to the city have a population of nearly 50,000, as follows: Fishkill and Matteawan. 1 mile, 13,016: Cornwall, 1 mile, 4.258; Marlborough, 6 miles, 3,478: Milton to miles. 1,500: Walden, 10 miles, 5,939 Highland Falls, 10 miles, 4,519: Cold Spring, 8 miles, 2,067; New Hamburgh, 10 miles, 500; Washingtonville. 10 miles. 1,118; New Windsor. 3 miles. 2,392: Newburgh Town, 3 miles. 4,246, The little hamlets in the vicinity probably have a population of 5,000 more.


The territory embraced in the town and city was a part of the lands purchased from the Indians by Governor Dongan in 1864, and conveyed by him to Captain John Evans in 1694. The conveying patent was annulled in 1699, and the district was afterward conveyed in small tracts at different periods, of which ten were included in the precinct of Newburgh as it was constituted in 1762, These were: No. 1, German patent, 2,190 acres, issued December 18, 1719, No. 2, Alexander Baird & Co., 6,000 acres; February 28, 1719; No. 3, Jacobus Kip & Co,, 7000 acres; October 17, 1720; No, 4, Ricard Bradley and William Jamison, 1,800 acres, May 17, 1729; No. 5, James Wallace, 2,000 acres, January 25, 1732; No. 6, Bradley children, 817 acres, March 26, 1739; No, 7, Francis Harrison & Co., 5,000 acres, July To, 1714; No. 8, John Spratt & Co., 1,000 acres, April 12, 1728; No, 9, Melchior Gulch 300 acres, October 8, 1719; No, to, Peter Johnson, 300 acres, October 8, 1719.

The original settlement was in 1709 by a party of Germans from the Palatinate - a strip of German territory along the middle Rhine. In 1708 Louis XIV gave warning to the people of the Palatinate that it was to be devastated in order to cripple the enemies of France, and this caused a company of twelve families and two bachelors-fifty-three persons in all -to flee to London, Here Queen Anne interested herself in their welfare, and sent them to New York, with a guaranty of 9 pence each for twelve months, and of a grant of land on which to settle, From New York they were moved in the spring to "Quassaick Creek and Thanshammer." Of the heads of families there were seven husbandmen a minister, a stocking maker, a smith, a carpenter and a cloth weaver, One of the bachelors was a clerk and the other a husbandman. They were Protestants and of "good character," as certified by officials in the villages where they had lived. Their promised land patent was not issued until 1719, when it granted to each of the different families from too to 300 acres, with 500 acres set apart for the support of the minister, The settlement was generally called "The German Patent," but its official title was "The Glebe," The lands for each family extended from the Hudson River west one mile. No. I was bounded on the south by Ouassaick Creek, and covered the present site of Newburgh.

The immigrants erected a church, cultivated portions of their lands and maintained their settlement several years. Then sales were made to newcomers, and there were changes in ownership and population. After twenty or thirty years the later Dutch and English corners were largely in the majority, and in 1747 elected trustees of the Glebe, closed the church to the Lutheran minister, and in 1752 obtained from the governor and council a new charter whereby the revenues might be applied to the support of a minister of the Church of England, with the title of "Palatine Parish of Quassaick" changed to "The Parish of Newburgh." At this time there were forty-three real estate lease holders in the settlement. Ruttenber characterizes as prominent among them the following: Alexander Colden, son of Lieutenant-Governor Bolden; Duncan Alexander, brother of William Alexander, the Lord Sterling of the Revolution James Demon, son of Daniel Denton, the first historian of New York; Jonathan Hasbrouck. from the Huguenot settlement of New Paltz. Colden, Denton and Hasbrouck erected grist mills, and in 1743 Colden obtained a charter for the Newburgh ferry. "The names of Hasbrouck and Colden have never been absent from the list of inhabitants since 175o," says Ruttenher.

The trustees elected in 1747 were Alexander Colden and Richard Albertson. When the first service was held after the Church of England was substituted, the Lutheran minister and his flock made public protest at the door, and afterward went away and had service in a private house, Tradition says that the Lutherans attempted a forcible entry, and there was a fight in which the church door was torn from its hinges and one Lutheran was killed. This was after the election of trustees in 1847, and previous to the receipt of the new charter.

The new trustees, Colden and Albertson, established a public landing, started agricultural fairs, took temporal charge of the church, erected a parsonage, a residence and school-house combined for the schoolmaster, and did much other work which contributed to the growth of the settlement.

In 1762 Newburgh was set off from the precinct of the Highlands and made a precinct by itself. In 1767 a petition was granted for licenses for more taverns, as being necessary "to accommodate the country people, travelers and passengers," In 1769 a petition asking for a charter of lands for the Newburgh mission, signed by missionary, vestrymen and wardens, was granted. In 1770 another petition to the governor for "a royal charter of incorporation of St. George's Church" was granted.

The old patent of the Highlands, after serving its purpose 50 years, had given way in 1762 to the precincts of Newburgh and New Windsor, the latter being constituted nearly as now, and the former embracing the towns of Marlborough and Plattekill in Ulster County as well as the present town and city of Newburgh.

In 1776 the Glebe hamlet comprised about a score of houses, and three boats owned in town made trips between it and New York.


Passing to the events just preceding the War of the Revolution, when the bold and significant non-importation agreement was adopted by the Continental Congress, and a pledge of association in its support was opened in every town and precinct, supervised by committees, Wolvert Acker was chairman of the committee for the precinct of Newburgh, When the signing was finished he made return of 195 signatures and names of thirty-nine who had refused to sign. The names of the signers follow:

Non-Importation Pledge Signers of 1776.

Richard Albertson
Stephen Albertson
William Albertson
Joseph Albertson
Daniel Aldridge
Isaac Brown, M.D.
Isaac Brown, Jr.
Joseph Brown
Abel Belknap
Isaac Belknap
Isaac Belknap, Jr.
Wm. Bowdish
John Becket
Solomon Buckingham
Richard Buckingham
Benjamin Birdsall
Daniel Birdsall
James Burns
Benj, Coffin
Caleb Coffin
Wm, Collard
Nathaniel Coleman
Henry Cropsey
Wm, Carskadden
Caleb Chase
Daniel Denton
Daniel Denton, Jr.
Nehemiah Denton
Samuel Denton
Nathaniel Denton
Peter Donelly
Benj. Darby
John Donaghey
Isaac Demott
Hugh Ferguson
Wm. Ferguson
Elnathan Foster

Jonathan Hasbrouck
Cornelius Hasbrouck
Moses Higby, M.D.
James Harris
John Nathan Hutchins
George Harding
Thomas Ireland
George Jackson
Wm. Lawrence
Benjamin Lawrence
Aaron Linn
Solomon Lane
George Leonard
Silas Leonard
Robert Morison, M.D.
John Morrel
Thomas Palmer
Thomas Patterson
Harmanus Rikeman
Thomas Rhodes
Albertson Smith
Benjamin Smith
Henry Smith
Leonard Smith
Leonard Smith, Jr.
Thomas Smith
Thaddeus Smith
Samuel Sands
Hugh Stevenson
Stephen Stephenson
Weigand Martin
Weigand Monson
Ward Richard Ward
William Ward
Timothy Wood
Jeremiah Wood

The "old town" was at this time a forlorn looking place, and the side hill was mostly covered by orchards. A tavern built in this year of 1776 by Adolph De Grove, on the southwest corner of Water and Third streets became Lafayette's headquarters.

When the war became Afterinty the control of Hudson River navigation became important, and to this end Forts Montgomery, Clinton and Constitution were built. Two out of every five of the male population became militiamen, were almost constantly in service, and levies en masse were frequent. In 1779 Washington established his headquarters at New Windsor in the William Ellison house, and here they remained until the movement which resulted in the siege of Yorktown in 1781. After its surrender his army returned to the Highlands, and Washington then made the Hasbrouck house in Newburgh his headquarters , retaining them as such until August, 1783.

Before the beginning of hostilities in the Revolution two companies were organized in Newburgh for a regiment formed in the southerncaptain,ct of Ulster County, of which Jonathan Hasbrouck, of Newburgh, was colonel, and Arthur Smith and Samuel Clark captains of the companies. In the next December a regiment of minute men was organized, of which Thomas Palmer, of Newburg, was the colonel. In the summer of 1776 a convention directed the general committee to organize three companies (201 men) of rangers to guard against and fight Indians. Of one of these Isaac Belknap, of Newburgh, was captain. At this time the aged and those who ordinarily would be regarded as exempts were passed into the service. In 1778 the people were asked to form companies to repel invasions and suppress insurrections, and a company of this kind was formed, with Samuel Edmonds as captain. Figures show that the militia of Newburgh was not sleeping during the Revolution, for in 1776 they were called out on alarms twenty seven days, and between that time and April, 1788, 305 days. Newburgh was made a general rendezvous for troops, and frequently the soldiers were billeted on the inhabitants. Although the precinct escaped direct devastation, many of the men were killed or taken prisoners in defense of the Highland forts.

When the British sailed up the river in 1777, and burnt Kingston, after capturing the Highland forts, the Newburgh women hid their valuables in the woods, nearly all the men having gone to the defense of the forts.

While Washington's headquarters were at New Windsor his main army was in and near the Hudson River forts, and in 1782, after the surrender of Yorktown, was again encamped along the Hudson, numbering about 8,000 men. Washington at Newburgh, meanwhile, during the progress of peace negotiations, kept careful watch of Sir Henry Clinton's movements. Many interesting stories have been told about Washington during his long stay at New Windsor and Newburgh. At Newburgh he battled with discontent, and even mutiny, in the army, and here he proclaimed the cessation of hostilities. This was on April 19, 1783, eight years after the beginning of the war, when general rejoicing followed. The first battalion marched southward June 5th, and the last June 23d. On July 12th Washington went up the Hudson to Albany, where he was joined by Governor Clinton and a small party. On August 17th he issued the last general orders from army headquarters, announcing his intention to depart and meet Congress at Princeton, and left West Point the next day. July 4, 1850, the ancient house that had been his headquarters in Newburgh was dedicated as a monument of the events of the war. General Winfield Scott was present to raise the flag, and Judge Monell made an address. The building is owned by the State and controlled by trustees appointed by the Governor.

For some time after the war the Newburgh people were almost poverty stricken. Their Continental money was almost worthless; they lacked means for the cultivation of their lands, and business was at a standstill, in 1785 they petitioned the Legislature for relief, giving as reasons the supplies they had provided for the war, their many losses caused by the war, their large personal service, and the depreciation of the paper currency, all of which rendered it impossible for them to cultivate their farms or pay their just debts, while many families were reduced to want for the necessities of life.

Soon, however, the vigorous population recuperated, was increased by newcomers, and the period of prolonged prosperity began in earnest. From the position of the lowest in 1780 the precinct passed to the fourth in 1790, with a population of 2,365, and in a quarter of a century to the first rank in population.


The charter of 1752 of the Glebe was complied with down to 1793. From 1793 to 1815 there was only a temporary church organization, and no regular minister. Then a legislative enactment was obtained dividing the income from the Glebe between the Newburgh Academy and such other schools as existed or might exist in the territory. It is remarkable that the early academy instituted by the Glebe served the community educationally for nearly a century.

The "old town," situated on a plot opened by Cadwallader Colden before 1730, was located between present Front street and Broadway, and named Newburgh. This was extended by Benjamin Smith in 1782, who laid out streets and lots from a part of his farm lying east of Montgomery street and between First and South streets. After the disbandment of the army in 1783 Newburgh's population increased somewhat rapidly by the settlement there of some of the soldiers of the dissolved army and of families who had fled from New York City when it was captured by the British. But up to 1790 it was a disjointed settlement, the three township plots of which it was composed having no connection except through Libery street and a few cross lot roads. None of the lateral streets intersected each other, and in 1790 other highway commissioners formally connected them. The general legislative act of 1788 changed the name "precinct" to "town."

Newburgh quickly became the first shipping point of importance on the west bank of the Hudson north of New York, because of its fine harbor, and of being the natural outlet for the trade of a vast section of country previous to the advent of the canals and railroads. South of the Highlands the Palisades and other mountain ranges were a barrier to easy access to the river. Therefore in the early days transportation became the most important business of Newburgh. The lumber business was especially heavy, and large quantities of ship timber, planks and staves were forwarded to New York. Shipbuilding was also carried on, and Newburgh ships entered into the Liverpool and West Indies trade. Ruttenber mentions many mills that were erected in Newburgh and vicinity after the war, and says: "Besides mills and hamlets there were many well cultivated farms, and substantial dwellings which had supplanted rude log cabins."

The early millers and boatmen of Newburgh kept goods of various kinds to sell to the farmers. The first regular store was opened by Benjamin and David Birdsall, and the second, immediately after the Revolution, by John McAuley. Hugh Walsh opened a store about the same time. The other principal merchants up to 1801 were Wm. Seymour, Leonard Carpenter, John Anderson, Cooper & Son, George Gardner, James Hamilton, James Burns, Robert Gourley, Robert Gardiner, George Monell, Robert W. Jones, Denniston & Abercombie, Wm. W. Sackett, Alexander Falls, John Shaw and John Brown. A considerable number of these were connected with the forwarding business, among them John Anderson, John Anderson, Jr., Hugh Walsh, Benjamin Case, Jr., Jacob and Thomas Powell, Jacob and Leonard Carpenter and George Gardner. Trade on the river was conducted by sloops until 1830, when the first steamer, the Baltimore, was purchased and started on regular trips by Christopher Reeve.

Before the war Great Britain would not allow the colonists to engage in much manufacturing, requiring them to import or supply themselves by domestic substitutes. Therefore, there was much spinning and weaving by wives and daughters, and making soap from refuse fats, and dipping for candles, while the farmer made his own sleds and carts and generally constructed his own dwelling and outhouses. These practices were continued to some extent long after the war for economical reasons.

Some of the first men to start things in Newburgh are here named:

John Haines, hat manufacturer, 1795; Richard and Joseph Albertson, shoe making, before the Revolution; Cooper, tailor, at the close of the war; Joseph Reeves, watchmaker, 1798, took up whip making in 1804. and was followed in watch making by George Gorden and Ebenezer Ayres; Hugh Spier, cabinet maker and undertaker, 1798; Selah Reeve, earthenware manufacturer, 1799; James Patterson, tin plate worker and coppersmith, 1797; Mrs. DeGrove, baking, 1791, and succeeded by John and Joseph Hoffman; Peter Barmen, soap and candle making, 1804, preceded by Abel Belknap; Matthew DuBois, tobacconist, 1799; Tames Renwick distiller, 1790; John Cooper, father of the famous Peter Cooper, ale brewer, 1794; Benjamin Roe, saddle and harness maker, before 1804; Phineas Howell. tanner, before 1800; Sylvester Roe, painting and glazing; 1804; Henry B. Carpenter, iron and brass foundry, 1821; Richard B. Phillips, brush manufacturer, 1831, preceded by Daniel Berrian; Henry B. Ames, fancy and family soaps, 1852; stock company, with Hiram Bennett, president, cotton goods manufactory, 1844; George Gardner, Jason Rogers, William Seymour, Richard Hill, earliest ship builders, and Walter Burling, Daniel Bailey, Wm. Holmes, Samuel Wright, earliest ship carpenters; Drs. Isaac Brown and Robert Morrison, regular physicians, in 1776; Phineas Bowman, first lawyer, settled in Newburgh at close of Revolution, and his contemporary lawyers were Thomas Cooper, Solomon Slight and Jonathan Fisk; Lucius Carey; first newspaper, Newburgh Packet, 1775, bought by David Denniston, and name changed to Mirror; E. W. Gray, first daily, News, 1856; Hezekiah Watkins, schoolmaster, 1752; John Nathan, teacher during Revolution and founder of "Hutchin's Family Almanac"; Rev. Jonathan Freeman and Silvenus Haight, private school, 1801.

When the second war with England came, Newburgh was paying nearly one fourth of the taxes of the county. Again she was prominent in zeal for the national cause. A convention was held in which it was resolved to resist "the attacks Of domestic enemies and the insolent aggressions of foreign powers." Local military companies were ordered on duty at Staten Island, and later Newburgh was made temporarily the rendezvous for grenadiers, light infantry and riflemen of the 34th Brigade. Its citizens celebrated Perry's victory on Lake Erie with enthusiasm. The embargo act detained Newburgh vessels, among others, in foreign ports, and Newburgh merchantmen were captured and confined in Dartmour prison.

Colden's first dock was built in 1730. Isaac Belknap sailed a sloop from Newburgh before the Revolution which made trips to the West Indies. William Harding, Richard Buckingham and Lewis Clark also sailed sloops before the war, and later conveyed troops on them for the Revolutionists. As early as 1798 there were four lines of sloops from Newburgh.

In the 'thirties Newburgh's river and land trade was very large. The streets were frequently blocked for hours with farmers' loaded wagons. The completion of the Erie canal diverted the most of this trade, and later the Delaware and Hudson canal cut off another source of wealth. Then the construction of the Erie Railroad from Goshen to Piermont, and its subsequent extension in other directions, finished the old transportation business of Newburgh, and it has taken many years to bring about the present prosperity, with railroads extending from many directions, large and varied manufactures, superior public institutions and other conditions to correspond.


The village of Newburgh was incorporated March 25, 1800, by an Act of the Legislature, and in May seven trustees, three assessors, three fire wardens, a collector and a treasurer, were elected. John Anderson was chosen president of the board of trustees. In 1801, the Newburgh and Colchester turnpike was incorporated, with a capital of $125,000. "Both measures," says Ruttenber, "were largely instrumental in influencing the prosperity of the village." The latter, by opening a new route of travel westward, brought a trade which in the main had previously reached the Hudson by way of New Windsor, as up to that time nearly all the wagon roads led to this place. The turnpike so reversed conditions, by giving to the western part of Orange County and Sullivan County a better and shorter route of travel, that Newburgh came up and New Windsor went down. and the merchants of the latter place moved their stocks of goods to Newburgh. Other turnpikes followed, and the village grew rapidly. From the close of the Revolutionary War to 1825 its population increased 1,100 in each decade, and its commerce was proportionately extended. Connecting turnpikes stretched to Canandaigua Lake, and were traversed by lines of stages, and a steamer on Cayuga Lake facilitated travel. Subsequently connections with Buffalo permitted a trip of sixty five hours between that place and New York, and this was advertised as "the shortest and most expeditious route from the Hudson River to the western country."


The city of Newburgh was incorporated in 1865. Of its patriotic celebrations two were of surpassing enthusiasm and interest. These were the Centennial celebration of 1876 and the Centennial celebrating the close of the Revolutionary War, of October 18, 1883. In the former there was a great nocturnal parade, and the noise and commotion were unprecedented in Newburgh from cannon firing, engine whistling, fireworks, band playing, songs and shouts. At Washington's headquarters the procession paused awhile and sang, "My Country 'tis of Thee."

The celebration of 1883 was less noisy, but more imposing. The memorial monument or "T***Bower of Victory," at Washington's headquarters, had been completed at a cost of $67,000, and the event was of national and State as well as local significance. Congress had appropriated $25,000, the State Legislature $15,000, the Common Council of Newburgh $7,500, and the citizens of Newburgh had subscribed $5,000. Many thousands of people came from far and near on railroads, steamboats and wagons. The river front was lined with steamers. The procession of the military, firemen, and societies was three miles long, and included quite forty brass bands and a score of drum corps. It was headed by a company of New York City police, and within it rode Peter Ward, mayor of Newburgh; Joel T. Headley. president of the Washington Headquarters Commission: Thomas Bayard, president of the day: William M. Evarts, orator. and William Bruce, poet. The inscription on the monument gives the sufficient reason for the parade and accompanying ceremonies:

"This monument was erected under the authority of the Congress of the United States and the State of New York, in commemoration of the disbandment under proclamation of the Continental Congress of October 18, 1783, of the armies by whose patriotic and military virtue our national independence and sovereignty were established."

Another noteworthy celebration was the unveiling of the statute of General George Clinton, October 6, 1896. The exercises consisted of a military and civic parade. The presentation address was delivered by Rev. William K. Hall, D.D. and Mayor Odell, in behalf of the city, made the address of acceptance. The statue stands in Clinton Gore. at the junction of Water andl Colden Streets. It shows General Clinton resting on his sword, which he holds in his right hand. It was modeled by the late eminent sculptor, Henry K. Brown, and his nephew. Mr. Bush Brown, had the statue cast and the pedestal carved. The cost to the people of Newburgh was only $3,000, raised by subscriptions undertaken by the local Historical Society, and finished by Mayor Odell. Upon the granite pedestal is this inscription:


Member of Continental Congress, 1775-1777. Brigadier General Continental Army, 1777. Governor of the State of New York, 1777-1795, 1801-1804. Vice President of the United States, 1804-1812. Cara Patria Canine Libertas.

The Newburgh Municipal Centennial was fittingly observed May 9, 1900. The parade, in which about twenty eight hundred persons took part, marched through the city's principal thoroughfares, after which the people assembled at Washington's Headquarters, and Mayor Wilson called the gathering to order. The Rev. W. K. Hall, D.D., eloquently reviewed the events of a century in this village and city. Benediction was pronounced by Rev. Father Salley.

Another event of unusual interest was the visit of Lafayette, in 1824, to Newburgh, the place of his headquarters in the Revolution. He was given a great reception. Francis Crawford, president of the village, presented him to the corporation in a brief address, and he was afterwards received with Masonic honors by Hiram Lodge. F. & A. M., where he replied eloquently to an address by Rev. Dr. John Brown. He was banqueted at the Crawford Hotel, with about 100 citizens at the table.

Newburgh growth has been steady and healthy in recent years, in consequence of civic enterprise and better knowledge of the advantages and attractions of her location. Her compact buildings, mostly of brick, her charming suburbs, with fine country seats, the good and:delightful roads extending into the country for carriage drives and automobiles, her excellent harbor and easy access to the Metropolis by rail and steamer, her good schools and churches and her busy manufactories, are enticements which are drawing many new residents. Apart from its population it is the centre of trade for many thousands of people.


The following is a partial list of leading industries:

Newburgh Bleacher, bleachers and finishers of fine cotton fabrics; Sweet, Orr & Co., overalls and workingmen's garments; Coldwell Lawn Mower Co.; Coldwell Wilcox Co., iron founders and machinists; T. S. Marvel & Co., iron shipbuilding and engineering works; Newburgh Steam Boiler Works; Fabrikoid Company, imitation leathers; Newburgh Ice Machine and Engine Co.; Newburgh Lumber Co.; Newburgh Planing Mill Co.; Belknap & McCann, soap; Lackey Manufacturing Co., lace curtains; Harrison & Gore Silk Co.; Hudson River Woolen Mills; Staples & Hanford, wire goods; Newburgh Reed Co., reed chairs; Stroock Plush Co.; Stroock Felt Co.; Little Falls Paper Co.; Granite City Soap Co.; Newburgh Steam Mills, cotton goods; John Turl's Sons, iron works; Cleveland & Whitehill, overalls; Ferry, Weber & Co., hats; Abendroth & Root, spiral pipe, etc., automobiles; Muchattoes Lake Ice Co.; Higginson Manufacturing Co., cement; Newburgh Light, Heat & Power Co.; Pennsylvania Coal Co.

Of the industries which have been listed, some should be more fully noticed. The Newburgh Ice Machine and Engine Company was known at the time of its establishment, in 1824, as the Newburgh Steam Engine Works. The present company was organized in 1890 with a capital of $500,000 to manufacture Whitehill Corliss engines and ice making and refrigerating machines. Extensive shops were completed that year, to which additions have recently been made. Mr. Edgar Penney is vice president and general manager.

The Muchattoes Lake Ice Company's business was started in the winter of 1859-1860 by James R. Dickson, and was bought in 1863 by Benjamin E. Odell, when he organized the company named. The officers are: B. B. Odell. president: B. B. Odell, Jr., secretary and treasurer; H. B. Odell, superintendent.

Sweet, Orr & Co. are the pioneers and most extensive manufacturers in the country of overalls and other workingmen's garments. In 1876 their weekly product was about a thousand dozen pairs at their Wappinger's Falls factory, where they kept 250 employees busy. Seeking increased quarters they started another factory in Newburgh in 1880. The factory has a frontage of 150 feet on Broadway and 275 feet on Concord street. In 1882 they opened a factory in Chicago, and in two another at Joliet, Ill. Sixty traveling salesmen cover the entire United States with their product. Mr. Clayton E. Sweet, head of this concern, resides in Newburgh.

To Captain Thomas S. Marvel is due the success of the immense shipyard of the T. S. Marvel Shipbuilding Company. Soon after the failure of Ward, Stanton & Co., Captain Marvel, who had been their superintendent, began business on his own account. The shipyard has been enlarged from time to time, and building after building erected for their business. Over 200 men are employed in the building and repairing of "iron and wooden steamboats and other water craft. Among their notable products are the steamers Homer Ramsdell, Hendrick Hudson. numerous ferryboats, and fireboats for the New York Fire Department.

The Higginson Manufacturing Company have a very extensive plant for the production of plaster, gypsum, etc., with steamers and barges to transport it to New York and other points. The business was begun by William R. Brown in 1868. Mr. Henry C. Higginson has been proprietor of the plant for many years.

The Newburgh Bleachery is owned and managed by Joseph Chadwick & Sons. It is one of the largest and best equipped manufactories of its kind. The Chadwicks in 1871 purchased the present site, and combined with it a factory which they owned in Rutherford, N. J., concentrating their whole business in the Newburgh establishment. They employ about 300 hands in bleaching and finishing various kinds of cotton goods.

The Fabrikoid Company's industry was moved to Newburgh in 1902. The plant covers about fifteen acres, and consists of twenty eight buildings. The product is chiefly an imitation leather and the manufactory has a capacity of over 6,000 yards a day. Mr. John Aspinwall is president, and Mr. George H. May. secretary and treasurer.

Coldwell Lawn Mower Company, manufacturers of hand, horse and motor lawn mowers, is the largest concern in the world devoted exclusively to the production of these machines. The firm is composed of William H. Coldwell, president and general manager; E. C. Ross, treasurer; H. T. Coidwell, assistant treasurer, and A. W. Mapes, secretary. Mr. Thomas Coldwell, the parent of this industry, organized the company in 1891. and the plant was built on the most modern principles. Their annual output, shipped to all parts of the globe, exceeds one hundred thousand mowers, which is over one fifth of the entire production in the country.

H. Powell Ramsdell, of Newburgh, is the proprietor of the Arlington Paper Mill at Salisbury's Mills, eight miles southwest of the city on Murderer's Creek and the Newburgh branch of the Erie. The mill is the principal industrial element of the hamlet. It is picturesquely situated on the edge of a rocky gorge. The oldest part of the mill was built about 1840, by Isaac K. Oakley. It forms but a small part of the present plant, the main building of which is 480 feet long and from one to three stories high, with capacity for the employment of 150 hands, and the production of over 24,000 pounds of paper daily. It is a progressive institution an up to date in its machinery and other equipment. There are several detached buildings in addition to a connected series of brick and stone buildings, and twenty or more cottages for the families of the employees. The Arlington Mill manufactures the best grades of book paper and French folios, white and colored. These go to the great publishing houses of New York and other American cities, and some of them to England and even to Australia.


Washington Heights, formerly the homestead of Captain Henry Robinson - a tract of nearly 100 acres in the southern part of the city - was made a valuable addition to the resident portion of the city by its purchase. from the heirs, division into streets and lots and their improvements started twenty years ago. The part of the plateau east of Lander street, about forty acres, was purchased by Henry T. McConn, and he arranged with Colonel Charles H. Weygant for its development. The macadam streets are broad and straight, the houses must set twelve feet back from the sidewalk, which is lined with shade trees. A little later, in October, 1887, William D. and Joseph M. Dickey purchased the part of the Robinson farm west of Lander street, forty two acres, and there inaugurated similar improvements. Many lots have been sold and houses erected on both plots.

The Newburgh Street Railway Company obtained a franchise early in 1886 to build a surface road from a point near the western end of the city to the Union depot, and then another to extend the line from the corner of Water and Third streets along Water street to near the northerly line of the city. On December 23d; of the same year, the road was formally opened between West Newburgh and the Union depot. Later the road was extended to Orange Lake, and the name was changed to the Orange County Traction Company. In 1906 it was purchased by Ex Governor Odell, and desirable improvements in equipment were made.

On recommendation of Mayor Odell, in his annual message of 1887, the people voted $30,000 for the purchase of additional lands to the former Smith estate, owned by the city, to be improved and laid out into the beautiful and sightly Downing Park, in honor of Andrew J. Downing.

Of buildings for public use the Newburgh Academy of Music is conspicuous. It was projected in 1886 by J. P. Andrews and E. S. Turner, and the construction was commenced in the spring of 1887. It has a frontage on Broadway of 85 feet and a depth of 140 feet. The auditorium is 8o feet long by 45 feet deep, 40 feet high, and will seat 1,300 people. The stage is 8o by 35 feet, and there are 12 dressing rooms, 2 balconies and 4 boxes. In all its appointments it is thoroughly modern.

Of school buildings two deserve particular notice. The Free Academy was erected in 1885-1886, and cost $67,000. The material is brick with stone trimmings. It is 112 by 68 feet, and three stories high, with basement. It has an assembly room 88 by 64 feet, which will seat 700 person, and 12 class rooms each 31 1/2 by 23 feet. There are 21 rooms in all. Without and within it is a good specimen of school architecture. Another is the Grammar School building, erected in 1891 at a cost of $30,000. This is 74 by 76 feet, with eight class rooms 28 by 23 feet each, and each containing desks for 40 pupils. The assembly room is in the third story.

Another noteworthy building is that of the Y. M. C. A., constructed in 1882-1883, and costing $24,000. It is 31 by 77 feet, three stories high, and has a seating capacity in its assembly room for 300 persons.

In 1896-1897 a handsome Government building was erected, Congress having appropriated $100.000 for this purpose, and this has since been the home of. the post office, the business of which has already almost outgrown it.

The water with which Newburgh is supplied is drawn from Washington Lake. three and a third miles from the Hudson and 275 feet above it. The lake is fed by internal springs and an artificial channel with Silver stream. Chemical analysis has shown that this water is so pure that it needs no filtering, and it is agreeably palatable, without any mineral flavors. It has been healthy Newburgh's drinking water for more than fifty years. The lake's area is about 140 acres, and it has a storage capacity of 300,000,000 gallons. Newburgh is now so thoroughly piped that the water is universally accessible to its citizens, and is an invaluable protection against fire as well as promoter of cleanliness, health and happiness.

[Continued in History of Newburg, NY, Part 2. Also see history of the town of Newburg, NY.]

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