History of Caroline, NY (Part 1 of 2)
From: Landmarks of Tompkins County, New York
Including a History of Cornell University
Edited By: John H. Selkreg
Publishers: D. Mason & Company 1894


ON the 4th of August, 1791, John W. Watkins, Royal Flint and their associates, mostly resident in and about New York city, filed with the secretary of state a proposal to purchase all the ungranted lands of the State lying between the military townships on the north and the township of Chemung on the south, the Owego River on the east, and the pre-emption line on the west. The pre-emption line was the east line of the lands granted to Massachusetts in settlement of a long dispute over State boundaries.

The offer was accepted by the commissioners of the Land Office, a board consisting of the principal State officers and of which Governor George Clinton was at that time president. A survey was directed to be made under the supervision of the surveyor general, whose return was filed April 7, 1794.

His arithmetic made the territory amount to 336,880 acres. Several reservations were made, but their area was not included in the above aggregate. A patent therefor was issued, dated June 25, 1794, to John W. Watkins, who very soon conveyed by deed to Royal Flint and associates their respective shares in the deal, as interest appeared. The names of Watkins and Flint having been first affixed to the formal proposal to purchase, the tract took the name of the Watkins and Flint purchase and comprised a tract thirty five miles in length by fifteen in width. The price paid by the syndicate was three shillings and four pence per acre.

Very soon after the deal had been consummated, two men named Johnson became the proprietors of a very large part of it, probably nearly or quite one third, and including most or all that part of it now in Tompkins county. They were Robert C. and Samuel W. Johnson, of Stratford, in Connecticut. The "Johnson Lands," as they were called, included, with some few reservations, the towns of Caroline, Danby and Newfield, or the southern tier of the county of Tompkins.

James Pumpelly, a surveyor from Connecticut, settled at Owego and became their resident agent and business manager in the laying out, subdivision and mapping of the territory for sale to actual settlers, and in some instances in considerable quantities to smaller speculators. Many large purchases were conducted in this manner, notably those of the Beers in Danby, and the Speeds, Boyers, Hydes and Patillos in Caroline, who thus bought in the aggregate a number of thousand acres.

The name of Samuel W. Johnson was borne on the annual tax rolls of one or more towns until some time in 1849-50, and Johnson was an occasional visitor to the region and would return east with a small drove. of live stock taken in payment for land, as the great majority of settlers bought by "article," so called. Of James Pumpelly, the celebrated land agent of this region in pioneer days, it may be said that he was of Italian descent. His dealings with the settlers were always honorable, courteous, and very methodical and exact. His land office in the stone building close beside the Susquehanna at Owego was a famous place in its day.

The town of Caroline occupies the southeast corner of Tompkins county and contains 34,523 acres.* Its surface is upland, broken by irregular ridges running northeast and southwest. The soil is gravelly and calcareous loam, the latter chiefly in the southern part, and is adapted to grazing and grain growing. The dairying interest in the town has been extensively and profitably developed in recent years.

* January 1, 1887, seven lots of 600 acres each were taken from Dryden and added to Caroline, making the area as above.

The streams are Six Mile Creek and Owego Creek, the latter forming the eastern boundary, and their branches. The deep valleys of these streams are generally bordered by lofty and steep hills.

This town was organized February 22, 1811,* when it was set off from Spencer, but did not become a part of Tompkins county until March 22, 1823. It received its name in honor of a daughter of Dr. Joseph Speed, one of the pioneers.

* In 1810, the year before the division, Spencer contained 3,128 inhabitants. In 1814, three years after the division of Spencer into five separate towns, the population of each was as follows: Caroline, 905; Danby, 1,200; Newfield, 982. These were set off to Tompkins county. Candor, 1,098; Spencer, 670; the last two remaining a part of Tioga county.

Settlement in Caroline was begun by Captain David Rich, originally from the western part of Massachusetts, but later from Vermont where he had kept a tavern, who came to the cast part of the town in 1795, by way of New Jersey (where he made a short stay), Apalachin (Tioga county), and thence up the Owego Creek. He purchased between 100 and 200 acres, and his deed is the first recorded to an actual settler in Caroline. He had been a tavern keeper before his removal to this town, and followed the same business here, first in a log house and later where his son, Orin P. Rich now lives. He held several town offices, and died, aged ninety two, in 1852.

In 1795 Widow Earsley came into the town with her ten children, and at the same date with Captain David Rich. The maiden name of Mrs. Earsley was Maria Johnson. Her native country was Holland, from which she came to this country with her parents when twelve years of age. She married Francis Earsley, who was born in Ireland of English parents and was by trade a weaver. He lived at Roxbury, Essex county, N. J., after arriving in this country, and became a farmer. He served with one of his wife's brothers during the Revolutionary war, and died in 1790, leaving him surviving a widow and ten children, the youngest of whom were two twin girls only nine months old. In company with her brother and her eldest son she set out on horseback to find a new home in the summer of 1791. In her travels she met one Simmons Perkins, a surveyor who made a map of Township No. 11, of the Watkins and Flint purchase. In company with Perkins and six others, among whom were her son, her son in law, and her brother, Zacheus Johnson, she prospected for laud. They camped out in the woods nights. One day as they were crossing the little brook which still meanders through the fields, Mrs. Earsley said, "This is my home." She bought the land, 100 acres, at $3.00 per acre. They removed from New Jersey to Union, remained there four weeks, and went to Apalachin, where they lived till coming to this their new home. During this time the eldest daughter, Nelly, married Beniah Barney, In the fall the eldest son, John, came and built a cabin on the land. Mrs. Earsley traveled over the route between her new home in the forest and the old one in New Jersey twice. She rode in all over 500 miles on horseback. The family when it left New Jersey consisted of the mother and ten children, five boys and five girls, the eldest of whom married and remained at Apalachin. In the spring they came with oxen and sleigh, the snow being quite deep. They arrived on the ground March 4, 1795. Mr. Earsley was the first to locate and make preparation for a home, but Captain Rich was the first to arrive on the ground in the spring, which he did one week previously. His land joined hers on the east. The two settled in what was at that time the extreme northeast limit of the old township of Owego, in Tioga county.

The next settlers in the town were Thomas Tracy and his son Benjamin, who, in 1191, located near the site of the Charles P. Tobey dwelling. They were from Western Massachusetts originally, but came here from near the present village of Apalachin. After seven or eight years Thomas Tracy sold out to Samuel Rounsvell, who kept bachelor hall here many years, and Rounsvell sold to Walter J. Thomas about 1832 The son returned to their old home near Apalachin and reared a family. General B. F. Tracy, ex-secretary of the navy, is his son. A brother of Thomas Tracy, named Prince Tracy, also settled in Caroline a few years later than Thomas, but after the War of 181s sold out to the Sehoonmaker family and left the town.

The next settler in Caroline, and a member of a family who became very conspicuous, was John Cantine, jr., a son of General John Cantine, of Ulster county, N.Y. The Cantine family were from Marbletown, Ulster county, and of Huguenot descent. General Cantine gained his military title by honorable service in the militia of the Revolution. He also was at times member of the Assembly, of the State Senate and of Congress, and was associated with most of the eminent men of New York State of those stirring times. The last few years of his life were passed at the home of his son, John, and a married daughter (Mrs. Chambers) at Brookton (Mott's Corners), where he died April 30, 1808, He became as early as 1767 identified with the then wild lands of the province of New York. After the close of the Revolutionary War, many adventurous parties from Eastern New York penetrated the interior wilderness and settled along the Susquehanna, Chemung and Tioga Rivers in advance of all surveys and allotments of the lands. Many of them were entitled to military bounty lands, and some conflicts arose over titles. In 1781788e Legislature appointed commissioners to settle all these disputes in this region. General CanCantineeneral James Clinton and John Hathorn were named, and were known as the "Chemung Cemmmissioners." In laying out and surveying the lands of Chemung township (before Tioga county was formed), they made large selections of land in this and other localities for themselves and their friends. One of these selections was a tract of 3,200 acres, now in the town of Caroline, known locally as The Cantine Great and the "Cantine Little Locations." The law required that such selections of land should be made in square tracts, and General Cantine secured large sections in the valley of Six Mile Creek, without including much hill land, by laying out several squares adjoining each other along the valley. He made three separate "locations," two of 1,200 acres each and one of 800 acres. He made also several locations on the site of the village of Wilseyville, now in Tioga county.

The Cantine great and little locations in Caroline include the territory where Slateryille and Brookton (Mott's Corners) stand, with adjacent lands. His certificates of location for the land were filed with the secretary of state March 6, 7 and 21, 1792, and the patents were issued in the same month. General Cantine had located the lands upon the claims of militia soldiers called class men, who were entitled to 100 or more acres each. Many of these he had bought in advance, and others were assigned to him for location in large parcels, he afterwards reconveying them to the proper persons.

When John Cantine, jr., came to Caroline in 1798, as stated, his father gave him his choice of the land, where he finally settled, in Caroline, or of another tract which included the site of the city of Elmira. The son chose the Caroline tract for its superior water privileges on Six Mile Creek at Brookton. There he built a log house, which he occupied several years. His wife was a daughter of a Frenchman, who was driven out of his country in the reign of terror and who fled to America. His name was Carte. He opposed his daughter's marriage to Cantine, and an elopement followed. The father disowned his daughter, but in after years, when she was the happy mother of a family, he relented and sent her children presents, One of the sons of Cantine was named John J. Carte Cantine, and a former boy had been named John Marat Cantine.

Two years later (1800) General Cantine built a grist mill for his son at the falls, Brookton, the first real grist mill this side of Owego. A saw mill was added, the care of which and the clearing of his farm occupied Mr. Cantine's time while lie lived in Caroline, 1798 to 1828.

The pioneer lodge of Free Masons (the Eagle Lodge) in the county was organized in 1808 at his house, which is still standing, and the meetings for a time were held here and alternately at the inn of Luther Gere in Ithaca. Mr. Cantine's old home, built in 1804, and long called "The Mansion House," was the first frame dwelling erected in Caroline. He was an active, public spirited man, held several local offices

and had a large family, who are all dead. In 1828 he sold his property in Caroline to his brother Charles and removed to Ithaca, where he lived at 72 North Cayuga street until his death in 1834, aged sixty six years.

Hartman (or Hartmore) Ennest, with three others, came from Marbletown in 1800 and settled on the old Sullivan place. Ennest had made other previous improvements on the old Deuel farm, but sold out to Dr. Joseph Speed. Joseph Chambers, Richard Bush and Oakley Bush came probably in 1800 from Marbletown. Soon after his arrival Richard Bush built a large square house of hewn logs, a little west of where the Velotus Stevens residence stands, on the south side of the road, and began keeping tavern - the first public house in the town. This was long known as the "Old Bush Stand." Oakley Bush lived at first a near neighbor to Ennest, but later went over on the present John Rightmire farm, southwest of Slaterville.

Richard Bush and Joseph Chambers were both grantees of General Cantine and settled, the former near B. F. Mead's, and the latter on Michael C. Krum's farm. Chambers sold out to Krum in 1838, and went to Illinois with his sons. Bush died about 1815, but his widow and her family lived on their old place a great many years. It has since been much subdivided. Widow Bush continued the tavern after her husband's death.

Benoni Mulks was a millwright by trade. He was a soldier in the army of General Gates and took part in the first and second battles of Saratoga, but was prevented from witnessing the final surrender through the following circumstance: General Burgoyne's army having burned the mills at Schuylerville, Mr. Mulks, being a millwright, was detailed from the ranks with a squad of men to rebuild them to grind corn for the American army. This occurred three days before the final surrender of the British at Saratoga.

In 1800 he came to Caroline to build the Cantine grist mill, where Brookton now is. One Sunday going up the Six Mile Creek hunting and fishing lie for the first time passed the flats about Slaterville. A tract of 325 acres here was owned 1w two merchants at Chemung and was for sale. It had originally been a part of Cantine's location. On the premises was a fine large spring of water near the bank of the creek. It was then he for the first time conceived the idea of purchasing the land and removing thither. Three of his old neighbors from the east had just settled near by, one of whom, Joseph Chambers, was his brother in-law. When, early in the fall, his son J ohn came in with General Cantine and a party of young men to prospect the locality, the father and son decided to purchase it, and did so. Their deed bears date of September 30, 1800, 325 acres for $1,000.

They erected a log house by the spring the same fall, in readiness for their coming the next season. Early next year (1801) Levi Slater, John Robison and Lemuel Yates, arriving a little earlier, occupied the log house with their families until they could build one for themselves on their lands near by, The Mulks party came in June, arriving on the 15th of the month. There were eight souls in the party, the eldest being the aged grandmother of seventy, and the youngest an infant of six months. The first season (1801) they cleared off six acres in readiness for winter wheat, and during the following winter and spring seven acres more for corn. At the same time they brought with them, among other live stock, thirty sheep, which were taken to Lansing (Egypt *) and let on shares for a few years until they could keep them.

* Among the old settlers to the east of the lake country it was much called Egypt as they went there to buy corn until they could raise it. This similitude had reference to Joseph and his brothers in Egypt, where they went to buy corn.

Two or three years later another son, Moses, came and also a married daughter, Mrs. Daniel Newkirk. John Mulks lived in Caroline twenty five years. He built a grist mill, saw mill and distillery on his farm. In 1826 he went west. He was a pioneer in four different States - Central New York in 1801; Michigan Territory in 1826; Indiana State in 1833, and Wisconsin Territory in 1838. In each case he settled in a new, undeveloped country, and the last three times on government land. He lived to the age of eighty four, and died in Whitewater, Wis., in 1864.

Levi Slater, a Yankee schoolmaster, came to this town with General Cantine in the summer, and having a knowledge of surveying, used the instruments owned by John Cantine in laying out land in this vicinity. In the spring of 1801 he built and settled in a log house on the site of Slaterville (named from him), which stood where W. J. Carns's house now stands. He had bought of General Cantine 100 acres at $3.75 per acre. He brought his wife and child, the latter of whom was the late Justus Slater, of Jersey City. When Mr. Slater arrived here he found two men from Chemung running a large sugar bush on the flats owned in late years by John Boice. They were about to go away and left their kettles and utensils. Mr. Slater took up the work and made for himself quite a quantity of maple sugar and molasses. The next few years were spent in clearing land and its cultivation, and by 1812 he had most of the land in and around Slaterville under improvement. He also taught school at intervals in winter months. A few years afterwards his brother Thomas, and brother in law, Joseph Goodrich, moved here from the east, the latter settling where John Schutt now lives, in the town of Caroline, but till recently in Dryden. In the war of 1812 Mr, Slater was captain of the local company, and when the British burned Buffalo, he and and his company were ordered to the frontier.

For a few years after the locality around Slaterville was settled by a number of families, a small party of Indians came each fall to hunt in that vicinity. They were Oneidas and were led by one whom the settlers called Wheelock. Their usual camp was on the farm now owned by Aaron Schutt, first settled by Matthew Krum in IS This Wheelock was killed in the war of 1812, while fighting with the Americans; after that the Indians came to the town no more.

The first sale of land by Mr. Slater was to Isaac Miller in 1816, about three acres, owned in later years by D. B. Drummond. Miller built a store and started in trade, but died soon after, and Mr. Slater succeeded to the business. Within the lapse of a few years a hamlet gathered around at that point and took the name of "Dutch Settlement." A postoffice was opened in 1823, with John Robison as postmaster, and the name of Slaterville was given to it. Mr. Slater became a leading man and interested with his sons in various enterprises. About 1825 he failed, and his real estate passed to James Hall, of New York. Mr. Slater was supervisor five years in early times, and died at the age of seventy eight years.

John Robison, grandfather of Henry, came in 1801 from Marbletown and settled next east of Slater, where C. H. Deul's house now stands; and in the same year Lemuel Yates came in and settled where Robert Speed now lives.

To the eastward of Slaterville a number of pioneers from New England gathered, giving it the local name of "Yankee Settlement," by which title it was distinguished from the "Dutch Settlement," as the locality where Matthew Jansen settled. Jansen came in 1802 and was a blacksmith. He brought a few slaves into the town, Benjamin Tracy, son of Thomas, who had settled the Charles P. Tobey farm, in the same year, and Daniel Newkirk, a tailor, about the same time. Daniel Newkirk was the son in law of Benoni Mulks. He settled on the Stilwell farm in 1503 and lived there till 1814, when he exchanged farms with Isaac Stilwell, of Hector, and Mr. Stilwell then moved on to the farm, where he lived most of his life. He has descendants in Caroline. Rev. Garrett Mandeville, from Ulster county, settled in 1803 near the site of Mott's Corners, on the William Personius farm (Brookton), and was a prominent citizen, and left several descendants in the town. He was the founder of the Dutch Reformed church of Caroline back in the twenties.

The first settlers at what became known as "Tobey's" were from New England. One of them was George Vickery, who came in 1804 and located where the widow of N. M. Tobey lives. Edward and Thomas Paine, the latter a Revolutionary soldier, and Dr. Elisha Briggs and Dr. James and Simeon Ashley were others who settled early in that section; also five brothers by the names of Abiathar G., Samuel, William, Sylvester and Bradford Rounsvell, all of whom settled along the turnpike on farms which theycleared up. They all came before the war of 1812. William was the first supervisor. The Rounsvells were a valuable addition to the new country, and were from Bristol county, Mass.

Two brothers, Nathaniel and Samuel Tobey, were early settlers in Caroline, coming from Massachusetts. Nathaniel came in 1810, having been married a short time previous. He settled first on the Levi Goodrich farm, west of "Rawson Hollow," lived there one year and then moved to what has been called the Widow Rounsvell farm, where Abiather Rounsvell lived in early times, Later Mr. Rounsvell and Mr. Tobey traded farms; they where brothers in law. Mr. Tobey kept a tavern many years on the turnpike. Mr. Tobey had two sons, Nathaniel M. and Charles P., and several daughters. The father died in the early years of the late war, and both sons died in 1885. Samuel Tobey was a younger brother of Nathaniel, and came to town at a later date. At his death he left three sons, Austin, Edwin and William. Austin and William learned the printing trade at Mack & Andrus's office in Ithaca.

In 1800 John Rounsvell (sometimes spelled "Rounsville") settled on the farm which became the Dr. Speed homestead. He was from New Hampshire, and with him came Joel Rich. Rounsvell was the father of the late Charles J. Rounsvell, who was a member of assembly in 1849. His daughter Harriet has repeatedly been stated to have been the first white child born in the town. This is not true. David Rich, jr., was the first, born January 18, 1797, as shown in the family record. Harriet Rounsvell was not born till 1801. There were also four others named Rounsvell who settled in the town, all brothers.

Robert Freeland was an Irishman and a carpenter. He came to Carolinein 1801 with the family of John Robison, who was his father in law. He bought the farm (now the T. B. June place) about 1804, and adjoining parcels later, and owned nearly 400 acres at one time, He was well educated and one of the leading men of his day.

Jonathan Norwood, son of Francis Norwood, came to the town probably at a later day than his father. He lived to a great age.

Henry Quick was the first of that name to settle in the town. He took the farm now owned by his son, Daniel H., about the year 1804. His brother Jacob came later, and also others of the name. Henry Quick married a daughter of Widow Earsley.

Moses Higgins told Charles F. Mulks,* in an interview in 1883, the following reminiscences: The Reeds, Moses, Daniel and Belden, three brothers from Rhode island, were early settlers in Caroline. Moses was the eldest, and came first and bought the present Higgins farm, east of Slaterville, together with a part of the Tobey farm lying on the south side of the turnpike. He first settled on the Tobey part, lived there a few years, cleared about five acres, when he traded with the senior J. J. Speed. Mr. Speed built a dwelling and a store in a block house and lived there several years. It is still called the old Jack Speed place. Daniel Reed, who was a minor, joined Moses, and for several years the family consisted of the two brothers and their stepmother. Upon her death John Higgins, a brother in law of the Reeds, came with his family, a wife and two or more children. He came from Ulster county, N. Y., and lived with Moses Reed, who was a bachelor. The Higgins family arrived in the town in the spring. of 1808. Daniel and Belden Reed went to live together on land now owned by Moses Bull, on the hills south of the turnpike. When Moses Higgins came to the town there was no house between the Roe farm below Mott's Corners and the Cantine mill and Mansion House. From there it was all woods until they reached Chambers's, where M. C. Krum now lives. From Krum:s up past Slaterville it was much cleared and quite thickly settled, and nearly all by old Dutch neighbors from Ulster county. Samuel Rounsvell was then living where Charles P. Tobey now lives. Thomas Tracy had lived on the place, but had sold to Rounsvell. The first school attended by Mr. Higgins was kept by John D. Bell in the old Mulks log house, the family having just built a new frame house. He afterwards attended the Lyman Cobb school. The first man to enlist from this town for the war of 1812 was Richard Robison, son of Capt. Ebenezer Lewis Robison. Capt. John Cantine raised a volunteer artillery company for three months' service. John J. Speed was keeping a small store when Higgins came, and also a postoffice called Speedsville on the turnpike. The mail was brought up by a post rider from Ithaca in a small bag. From the turnpike Mr. Speed removed to the "city" lot, and subsequently to the Morrell farm, as elsewhere noted.

* These interviews, when had with Mr. Mulks, were committed to paper at the time, and are not from memory merely.

The Speed family, who were to become conspicuous in the history of the town and county, were from Mecklenberg county, Va. Dr. Joseph Speed studied medicine with the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, where Dr. Speed practiced a few years before coming to what was then the town of Spencer, Tioga county. De Witt Clinton visited this region in 1810, as before noted, and in his journal of August 10, of that year, he wrote:

"Fourteen miles southeast from Ithaca, in the town of Spencer, Tioga county, there is a settlement of Virginians called Speed; they are all Federalist."

Caroline was then a part of Spencer, and Dr. Joseph Speed was the most prominent of the little colony alluded to by Clinton, the members of which came in between the years 1805 and 1808. So far as known their names were John James Speed, William Speed, brothers, who came in 1805, and were followed three years later by their father, Henry Speed, and. Dr. Joseph Speed also in 1805, with his brother John, cousins of the two brothers above named; Robert H. Hyde came in 1805, and two years later was followed by Robert's father, also named Robert, and by John and William Patillo and the family of Thomas Heggie. Robert H. S. Hyde, the lawyer, was the son of Robert H., and was born in town some years later. Augustine Boyer came from Maryland in 1803, and purchased through the agency of James Pumpelly 1,000 acres of land of the Johnsons, who were the eastern proprietors under the Watkins & Flint syndicate. The other southerners, of whom we have spoken, also bought largely of wild lands in the town, and nearly all of them brought slaves with them, who were held until the institution was abolished in 1827.

The senior John James Speed had been a merchant in Virginia, and had owned slaves, as had also others of this colony. He was a man of noble bearing and lived to about ninety years of age. He removed to Ithaca in 1832, and a little later to Cortland village, where he was connected with paper making. After other removals, he died in the State of Maine in the fall of 1860.

In Caroline, John J. and William Speed opened a small store in 1805 in a log house half a mile east of the site of Slaterville, and there in 1806 secured a postoffice, with John J. as postmaster, the office being named "Speedsville." A few years later, when John J. Speed, sr., left the turnpike, he removed to a place now called the "City Lot." This was about the time of the war of 1812-15. He built a little collection of log and plank sided houses, and families lived in a part of them. He also built a small grist mill and a saw mill on the little streams of that neighborhood and moved his store and the postoffice there. The settlers gave it the name of "The City;" but Mr. Speed soon abandoned his project and moved upon the hill and lived there several years, conducting a large farm, since subdivided, but the homestead of which now belongs to F. C. Cornell, of Ithaca. When he left there it was to live for a time with his son, John J., on the Caroline Center road, whence he removed to Ithaca. The Speedsville postoffice had traveled across the town, and up the hill and down the hill without hindrance until about 1832, when the younger Mr. Speed was its custodian. At that time the citizens of Jenksville wished to have it removed to their little hamlet and the name changed to Jenksville. This Mr. Speed, jr., opposed, and his influence prevented such action. While he cared nothing for the postoffice, he did wish that the name should be perpetuated. A compromise was effected by which the name was retained; the Speeds resigned the office, and another postmaster was appointed at Jenksville, which was thenceforth called "Speedsville." This office was supplied in early days by a horseback rider, whose regular weekly round trip was from Ithaca to Danby; thence via Spencer court house to Owego, and returning by way of Berkshire and Speedsville. The site of Speedsville when the "City Lot" was booming is now a back pasture on the Cornell Morrell farm.

John J. Speed, jr., became very prominent in the history of the county. While still living in Caroline lie was elected to the Assembly, and after engaging in business at Ithaca was a presidential elector and a candidate for Congress. Between 1830 and 1840 he exchanged his property in Caroline for the mercantile business of the late Stephen B. Munn, jr., on the northeast corner of State and Cayuga streets, Ithaca. He continued business there a few years, and was conspicuous in the company which established the Fall Creek Woolen Mills, a project which was highly useful, but destined to failure. Mr. Speed failed, and afterwards was associated with Ezra Cornell in building early telegraph lines, retrieved his fortunes, and paid all the debts incurred before his failure.

(Following is an extract from the last will of henry Speed, of Caroline, which relates to slavery in the town:

"I also give to her [his daughter Polly) my negroes, to wit, Lukey, Liza and John (called Jack). I also lend her my horse Below, and one her choice of my feather beds and furniture. This land and premises, negroes, horse and bed, etc., I desire that she, my daughter, Polly (Hyde) may have and enjoy during her natural life: and after her decease I desire that this estate above lent to my daughter Polly Hyde may be given to her child or children that may arrive at lawful age. I give unto Robert H. Hyde (her husband) my good wishes, and pray that his soul may rest happy with God, and desire him to treat the negroes committed to his care with lenity and try to teach them the fear of the Lord."

[This slave Eliza was the most conspicuous figure in quite a celebrated law suit, which is alluded to on page 74.])

Aaron Bull came here in 1806 from Ulster county, N.Y., but was originally from a locality on the Housatonic River, Connecticut. He had gone to Ulster county, lived and married there before moving to Caroline. His children, Moses, Henry W., Mathew, Justus and John are still living. John has been a merchant and a miller at Slaterville for several years, and supervisor of his town. Matthew Krum, a brother in law of Aaron Bull, settled in the same year just north of the latter. Other early settlers were Moses Reed, Joseph Goodrich, Moses Cass, who had an early store; Josiah Cass, brother of Moses, and who built a tavern about 1815 where H. S. Krum now lives; it passed three years later to Aaron Bull, who kept it nearly thirty years; Aaron Cass, father of Moses and Josiah, who was the pioneer on the present Hasbrouck farm, a soldier of the Revolution, and in Captain Ellis's company in 1812, and killed at the attack on Queenstown; Isaac Miller, an early merchant; Nathan Gosper on the Edward J. Thomas farm; Joseph Smith on the Willey farm; Marcus Palmerton on the Hollister farm; John Doty on Chauncy L. Wattles farm; Captain Alexander Stowell at Caroline Center, and others.

[will be contuined with part 2 in a while.]

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