History of Cleveland's Physicians and Surgions, Medical Colleges, Clinics and Hospitals

From: A History of Cuyahoga County
and the City of Cleveland
By: William R. Coates
Publishers: The American Historical Society
Chicago and New York, 1924


CLEVELAND'S PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS, MEDICAL COLLEGES, CLINICS AND HOSPITALS

"This is the way physicians mend or end us, Secundum artem, but although we sneer In health, when ill we call them to attend us, Without the least propensity to jeer."
-Byron.

As we have said, Cleveland had a United States senator before it had a doctor. Dr. David Long was the first physician to locate in Cleveland. He was born in Washington County, New York, in 1787 and came to Cleveland in 1810 at the age of twenty three. At this time he was the only doctor in Cuyahoga County. His arrival was hailed with joy because Cleveland was a very unhealthy neighborhood and the little settlement was suffering from fever and ague, and typhus fever, and other maladies of a kindred nature. Doctor Long was a successful practitioner, a typical pioneer, and became prominent in the civic life of the community. His visits were made on horseback over a wide extent of territory, by day and by night, through the forests of the Western reserve. When on a visit to a patient at Black River he learned of Hull's surrender of Detroit and he rode to Cleveland, twenty eight miles, in two hours and a quarter to notify the people. To appreciate this feat a knowledge of the condition of the forest roads is essential. He was in continuous medical practice for thirty years. He was elected county commissioner when the contest between Newburgh and Cleveland for the selection of the county seat was on, as we have related, and his election settled the contest in favor of Cleveland. He served as a surgeon in the army in the War of 1812 and won a lasting fame and at his death left an honored memory. He died in 1851 at the age of sixty four.

An early physician who won a high reputation as a practitioner and a citizen was Dr. Edwin W. Cowles, who came to Cleveland in 1832. On the year of his arrival an incident that tested the mettle of the young doctor occurred. A boat called the "Henry Clay" arrived at the dock at the foot of Superior Street, from Detroit. As was usual on such occasions a large crowd collected, for the arrival of a vessel was an "event" in the community. The captain came on deck and announced to the people assembled that Asiatic cholera had broken out among passengers and crew and said: "For God's sake send a doctor aboard." He said there were several dead and many sick. The crowd scattered and a messenger hurried to the office of Doctor Cowles. The doctor responded quickly and ministered to the sick and dying. A meeting of the citizens was held and it was voted to order the boat away, only Doctor Cowles and Thomas P. May voting in the negative, and the Henry Clay was obliged to leave. Doctor Cowles volunteered, against the advice of many friends, who considered it sure death, to accompany the boat on its return. He entered the charnel ship and remained until everything possible was done to relieve the sick and the dying. He was a great abolitionist in the days when that was an unpopular postion, was the first member of the "Old Liberty Guard" of Cleveland, but died just before the abolition of slavery, which was the great desire of his heart. Doctor Cowles was the father of Edwin Cowles of Cleveland Leader fame.

One of the most famous of Cleveland's early physicians was Dr. Jared P. Kirtland, of whom we have spoken in the chapter on Rockport. He was an honor to any community. He was born at Wallingford, Connecticut, in 1795. At the age of fifteen he came to Ohio with his parents, who settled in Poland Township. His father was a general agent of the Connecticut Land Company. The father early decided that his son should be a doctor and sent him to the famous medical school of Doctor Rush at Philadelphia to be educated. He came back to Poland, Mahoning County, and engaged in the practice of medicine. While engaged in the practice of his profession as a country physician he cultivated and acquired a taste for natural science and for twenty years was an eager student of animal and vegetable life. His researches were published under the patronage of the Boston Historical Society and he became a high authority in that department of science. In 1838 he was appointed to the department of natural history in connection with the geological survey organized by the State of Ohio. He first held a chair in the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati and then held the same position in the Cleveland Medical College. Of his life after he bought a residence in Rockport and engaged in fruit culture we have spoken. He died in Rockport, December 10, 1877, at the age of eighty four. The Kirtland Academy of Natural Science founded by him existed for many years in Cleveland.

Another physician of Cleveland became noted for his scientific researches, Dr. John H. Salisbury. He was of Welsh descent but was born in the State of New York. He graduated from the Albany Medical College in 1850. Like Doctor Kirtland he began the study of plant and animal life quite early and gave the benefit of his study to the public in printed articles He became a member of many societies, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Albany Institute, the Natural History Society of Montreal, Canada, the Philosophical Society of Great Britain, the American Antiquarian Society, the Western Reserve Historical Society, of which he was vice president, and many others. He won the first prize for the best essay on the "Anatomy and History of Plants." His published articles were legion. He began the study of microscopic medicine as early as 1849 and in 1858 began the study of alimentation, diphtheria, intermittent and remittant fevers, measles and other studies involving the use of the microscope. He came to Cleveland in 1864 and assisted in founding the Charity Hospital Medical College, where he gave lectures. He was president of the Institute of Micrology, and was at one time in charge of the state laboratory of New York.

Dr. John P. Robinson came to Ohio in 1832 and to Cleveland in 1862. His grandfather, of Scotch descent, fought under Braddock in the disastrous campaign before Fort Du Quesne, and throughout the Revolutionary war. Doctor Robinson graduated from the Vermont College of Medicine in 1831. In 1832 he began practice in Bedford, Ohio.

Dr. J. C. Sanders, among the early physicians, came naturally into the profession, as his father before him was a physician. He was born in Huron County. He graduated from the medical department of Western Reserve College under the teaching of Professors Kirtland, Dellamater, Ackley, Cassells, and St. John. He later studied in other schools. In 1856 he began practice in Cleveland, having an office on the Public Square. He was for twenty years a professor in the Cleveland Homeopathic College and was a contributor to medical journals.

Dr. Horace A. Ackley was said to be at the head of the medical profession in Cleveland in his day, and was one of the foremost surgeons on the Western Reserve. He was eccentric and attracted a great deal of public notice. Mr. O. J. Hodge relates in his memoirs that when Dr. Proctor Thayer and another young doctor were arrested for stealing a body from Erie Street Cemetery, Ackley appeared in Police Court and assumed all responsibility. He said to the court that the thing to do was to fine him and not the boys, for they did just what he told them to do; that the body was that of a pauper from the Poor House, that he had no friends and his body was justly forfeited for the benefit of the living. Mr. Hodge relates another story of Doctor Ackley regarding the man for whom he had set a limb, who objected to the fee of $10. All right, said the doctor, I will put it back where it was and it will not cost you anything. As the doctor seriously arranged for the second operation, the man, saying he would not have that done for $100, changed front and paid the bill.

Dr. Henry J. Herrick studied medicine in the office of Dr. M. L. Brooks. He was employed at the United States Marine Hospital before the Civil war. In 1862 he entered the army as assistant surgeon of the Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry. From 1865 to 1868 he occupied the chair of obstetrics and diseases of women and children in the medical department of the University of Wooster. Doctor Herrick was at one time the defendant in a malpractice case and was ably defended by Stevenson Burke. Dr. M. L. Brooks was the star witness. This case received much attention as it involved the reputation of a young school girl. Through the able defense of Judge Burke and the frank and lucid testimony of Doctor Brooks the case was won for the defendant. Doctor Herrick ranked as one of the leading physicians and surgeons of Cleveland.

Dr. William J. Scott, another prominent physician of Cleveland. was born in Culpeper County, Virginia, in 1822, and came to Ohio with his parents in 1830. He worked on a farm until twenty one, studied medicine at Cleveland Medical College and Starling Medical College, at Columbus, where he graduated in 1853. He practiced medicine in Franklin County, came to Cleveland and was connected with Charity Hospital Medical College, which after a time became the Medical Department of the University of Wooster. Doctor Scott stood high in the profession and in the community as a citizen. His practice was never limited to good pay clients. Once when called to attend a charity patient, or one of doubtful pay, he was cautioned about going, being told that he would get nothing. His reply was that they needed his services in that family and that he was not working altogether for money, he wanted a big funeral when he died. He was much in demand as an expert witness in law suits involving medical knowledge, and cross examiners found him a hard problem. In a prominent suit he was under examination by an attorney, who was given to flourish and high sounding phrases. It had to do with a case of dropsy and its treatment. The lawyer, rising to his feet, said: "Now, Doctor, suppose an incision was made so and so, and a tube was inserted so and so," with other explanatory matter given in a high key, "now Doctor, what would you think of that operation?" Having completed the question, he dropped into his seat as a dramatic climax. "I think it would let the water out," said the doctor in a quiet voice. Doctor Scott was connected with the Cleveland Medical College, and his picture adorns the walls of the office. He was a member of the Ohio State Medical Association, the American Medical Association, the American Pharmaceutical Society, the Franklin County Medical Association, was president of the Cleveland Academy of Medicine, the Cuyahoga County Medical Society, and the Ohio State Medical Society.

The Cleveland Medical College, now the Western Reserve School of Medicine, was organized in 1843 and began with sixty seven students. It became the Medical Department of Western Reserve College by vote of the trustees in 1844. At first it occupied rented quarters The faculty subscribed and borrowed money after a time and built at Erie (East Ninth) and St. Clair streets. The total cost of the building was, with the equipment, $15,000. The present building on the same site was the gift of Mr. John L. Woods, a successful lumber dealer of the city, and his statue now adorns the reception hall of the building. The cost was $240,000 and when built was one of the finest medical school buildings in the country. It was dedicated March 8, 1887. The first woman graduate was Dr. Nancy Clark, who graduated in 1852, and who was one of the first women to enter the medical profession in the country. Five more women graduated in 1854 and 1856 and no more women were received as students until 1879. This is now the only medical college in the city. Since its organization, including the schools of which it is the successor, it has graduated over 4,000 students. These figures are given from a brief outline of the activities of the school by F. C. Waite.

The school is supported by endowment and special contributions, and the income from tuition and fees, which latter only cover 20 per cent of the current budget. The endowment of the school is now some $2,000,000. The Perry-Payne family, J. L. Woods and H. M. Hanna are mentioned in the annual catalogue as liberal donors.

The catalogue also states that in February, 1922, Mr. Samuel Mather undertook to provide, personally, the funds for the erection of the buildings of the New Medical School, the cost of which has been estimated at $2,500,000. These are situated on the combined school and hospital site of about twenty acres, adjacent to the present University Campus. The work is under way and will be completed by the time this history is printed. Mr. Samuel Mather holds, and is deserving of, the title of "The First Citizen of Cleveland."

On the walls of the present Medical School Building office are oil paintings of the following men, which include many of the prominent physicians and surgeons identified with the history of medicine and surgery in Cleveland. These include Drs. Jared P. Kirtland, John Henry Lowman, Jacob James Delamater, John L. assells, Henry Swift Upson, John Delamater, Henry Kirk Cushing, Samuel St. John, Horace A. Ackley, Proctor Thayer, John Bennett, Isaac N. Hines, Edward Fitch Cushing, Henry Justus Herrick, Jacob Laisy, Charles B. Parker, Dudley P. Allen, William J Scott, Gustav C. E. Weber, Hunter Holmes Powell, Benjamin L. Millikin, and there are busts of Noah Worcester and Proctor Thayer. The first faculty of the college consisted of Drs. John Delamater, Jared P. Kirtland, Horace A. Ackley, J. L. assells, Noah Worcester, Samuel St. John. and Jacob J. Delarnater.

While these names will call to mind the history of medicine and surgery in the past in suggestive power, the names of the instructors of the present, numbering some 160, include many who have added luster to the profession and done much for the advancement of medical science in the world. Among them are Drs. George Coates Ashmun, William Thompson Corlett, John Pascal Sawyer, Frank Emory Bunts, Carl August Hamann, Charles Francis Hoover, George Washington Crile, Torald Soilman, Frederick Clayton Waite, George Neil Stewart, Roger Griswold Perkins, Thomas Wingate Todd, Henry John Gerstenberger, Howard Thomas Karsner, William Evans Bruner, Carl John Wiggers, William Henry Humiston. and Arthur Holbrook Bill.

There are now 2,000 physicians and surgeons in the City of Cleveland and while as in the past there are many of outstanding prominence, yet the necessity of specializing has changed the manner of estimating so that we speak of individuals as leaders in certain lines. The great army of today, in the hospitals and in the homes, are dealing with the ills that flesh is heir to, as did Doctor Long, the solitary physician, who, with his saddle bags, traversed the forests in the beginning. Great advancement has been made. The period of human life has been extended, much unnecessary suffering has been eliminated.

The college Alumni Association includes all the graduates of the Cleveland Medical College, the School of Medicine of Western Reserve University; the Charity Hospital Medical College, the Medical Department of Wooster University, and the Medical Department of Ohio Wesleyan University (known also as the Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons). Thus the past and the present of these schools are united. This great school, soon to have the facilities offered by the new buildings provided by the bounty of Samuel Mather, has under its care Lakeside Hospital on Lakeside Avenue. This is a private undenominational corporation with its board of trustees. It is supported in part by fees of patients, but the bulk comes from private contributions and endowments. This was completed in 1898 and has 195 ward beds. In the last year 6,205 patients were cared for.

St. Vincent (Charity) Hospital was opened in 1865. It has 300 beds, including 100 free beds. In the past year it cared for 6,475 patients. The City Hospital is entirely supported by the City of Cleveland. The Western Reserve Medical School by contract with the city "assumes entire responsibility for the professional work of the institution, and has full use of all of its facilities for teaching purposes." This hospital has 1,100 beds. There are for contagious diseases 200, tuberculosis 150, neurology and psychiatry 144, skin and venereal diseases 100, and general medicine and surgery 506. This hospital, a credit to the city, is modern. It has up to date laboratory facilities, a complete Xray equipment, an electrocardiograph laboratory in the new building, with thirty two stations, so that a cardiogram may be taken without transporting the patient to the instrument. The Western Reserve Medical School has the exclusive teaching privileges and nominates the staff of the Cleveland Maternity Hospital, which has sixty beds. In the past year there were 1,090 confinements in this hospital. Ground has been broken for a new maternity hospital and for a babies' hospital. These will be completed soon and are located on the campus of the university. In the hospitals mentioned, including St. Vincent, which like the rest, is under the care of the Western Reserve Medical College, there are more than 1,200 beds, with over 20,000 patients.

An important adjunct to the work of this school is the dispensary at Lakeside Hospital. This is supported in part by the Huntington Dispensary Fund and in part by the appropriations made from time to time by the board of trustees of the hospital. There is nothing that reflects so much credit on the City of Cleveland and its citizenry as the multitude of endowments established by their generosity. At the Lakeside Dispensary during the past year the total number of visits by patients in the day clinic were 109,000, and in the night clinic over 13,000. The Maternity Dispensary of Western Reserve University and Maternity Hospital is located in the Hospital Building. It has eight prenatal dispensaries, located at 2509 East Thirty fifth Street, 2749 Woodbill Road, 2317 Lorain Avenue, the Alta House, 3582 East Forty ninth Street, the Goodrich House, 2573 East Fifty fifth Street and 12718 St. Clair Avenue. Eighteen nurses assigned by the University and Maternity Hospital devote their entire time to the care of patients. The Babies' Dispensary and Hospital on East Thirty fifth Street has a milk laboratory connected with it. Its staff consists of a medical director, one physician, fifteen assistant physicians, a superintendent of nurses, and seven nurses, who serve also as social workers. During the past year there were 5,388 patients.

Among the leading hospitals of the city are Mt. Sinai, St. Alexis, St. John's, St. Luke's, Lutheran Hospital, Glenville, Carnegie, and the United States Marine Hospital (United States Public Health Service) in addition to those we have named. The Huron Road Hospital, St. Clair, Grace, Winsor, Nottingham, Fairmount, Euclid Avenue, Fairview, Flower, Provident, Rainbow, Rosemary, Emergency, Cosmopolitan, add to the list. There are the Hough Maternity Hospital, St. Anns, East Seventy ninth Hospital, with a maternity annex, and others of a like nature. The Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic, the Orthopmdic Institute, the Oxley Home, the Euclid Creek Sanitarium, the Hydropathic Rest Clinic, play an important part in the treatment of the sick and ailing. There are a number of private institutions, the Joanna Private Hospital, the Prospect Private Hospital, are among them. The Evangelic Deaconess Hospital on Pearl Road, recently established, is doing excellent work. The Sanitarium of Doctor McNamara, and the Neal Institute are other institutions doing hospital work in special lines. The Welfare Association for Jewish Children may be classed with the others named. It will be of interest to note that in many if not all of the large industrial plants of the city there are "first aid" hospital departments for the benefit of employes who may he injured or taken ill while in the employ of their various companies.

Perhaps the most famous surgeon of the past in Cleveland was Dr. G. C. E. Weber, whom we have mentioned as connected with the Cleveland Medical College. He spent his last days in a beautiful home in Willoughby Township, Lake County, overlooking the Chagrin River valley. Like Doctor Scott he gave of his genius to the poor as well as to the rich, and did not refuse a call because of the inability of a family to pay. His practice took him often into remote townships and it was an event to have Doctor Weber drive into town with his handsome team of black horses to attend a critical case, extract a bullet, set a limb, or consult with the local physician. His coming was hailed with joy, believing that it meant a life was saved, and in many cases that was undoubtedly the result.

Drs. Augustus and William A. Knowlton, the latter still living at the age of eighty five, were practicing physicians in the county for many years, the former until his death and the latter until his retirement a few years ago. Their father, Dr. William Knowlton, was a skilled physician and surgeon before them. These sons, like their father, became enured to the hardships of the country physician in what was designated by Mr. Kerruish as the mud era. Dr. William A. Knowlton came to Cleveland in 1890. He had practiced as a country physician for a quarter of a century, living in Brecksville, but practicing in the surrounding towns as well. He read medicine in his brother's office at Berea, attended and was graduated from the medical department of the University of Wooster and also received a diploma from the medical department of the Western Reserve University. After coming to Cleveland he held the chair of obstetrics in the medical department of the Wooster University and was chosen president of the Cleveland Medical Association. He is a member of the Ohio State Medical Association. It may be added that he was a soldier in the Civil war, entering as a private and coming out as a captain. He was wounded in the service and still suffers from the wound. Probably few physicians in the county had so large an acquaintance as he in the days when he was in active practice.

About fifty years ago Dr. F. J. Weed, who received his training as a surgeon under Doctor Weber, began practice with an office on Church Street on the West Side. He became dean of the medical department of the University of Wooster, was visiting surgeon at Lakeside (the Old Marine) and Charity hospitals. His practice grew and he associated with him in the office Dr. J. G. Gehring, a fine physician and scholar. Dr. F. E. Bunts was next taken in as an assistant, then Doctor Merz, and the staff continued for some time as Weed, Gehring, Bunts, and Merz. They did much casualty surgery, that is in connection with accidents in the large manufacturing plants of the city, general surgery, medical practice and specializing to some extent in gynecology or diseases peculiar to women.

When the Casualty Insurance companies began to insure manufacturing plants, this office became the official medical representative of the companies. To know something of the practice this brought to the staff aside from their general work, it should be related that, representing some 40,000 employes, there were often fifteen or twenty cases daily. Under the strain Doctor Gehring's health failed and he was compelled to drop out. It should be said of him that after dropping out of Cleveland medical history, he went to Maine and there established at Bethel a famous institution for the treatment of nervous and psychic disorders.

After Doctor Gehring left, Doctor Bunts was promoted from assistant to a full fledged member of the staff and as the large amount of work required another assistant in his place he was given authority to select a man. He chose Dr. George W. Crile. Doctor Crile says he was taken in as office dog at $50 per month. From Church Street the office was moved to 380 Pearl Street (now West Twenty fifth Street). Here each member of the staff had his own horse and buggy.

A sad blow came to this historic staff in 1895 when Doctor Weed was taken with pneumonia and died. He was much loved and respected and the community suffered a distinct loss. After his death, Doctors Bunts and Crile practiced individually, but they kept the original office and shared the expenses equally.

Then Dr. J. C. Lower was taken in. During its West Side history this office had a record of over 25,000 accident cases. In 1897 the office was removed to the East Side in the Osborn Building. In the Spanish-American war, all the office staff went to the front, Doctor Bunts with Troop A and became its commander, Doctor Crile was on General Garrettson's staff, and Doctor Lower went to the Philippines. After the war others were added to the office staff, Dr. H. G. Sloan, Dr. T. P. Shupe, and Doctor Osmond.

When the World war came, the entire office went to the front as before. It is impossible in a short chapter to give even an outline of their services on the battle front.

The Clinic Building at Euclid and East Ninety third Street is an outgrowth of the original office founded by Doctor Weed. This attractive and convenient building, designed by the architect of the world famous Clinic Building of the Mayos, at Rochester, Minnesota, was, built by Drs. George W. Crile, F. E. Bunts, W. E. Lower and John Phillips. The cost was about $600,000. The main building is 76 by 120 feet. It is supplemented by smaller ones that have arisen since this was dedicated and its capacity ascertained. At the dedication, which occurred February 21, 1921, there were present 500 physicians of note, and among them Dr. William J. Mayo, who delivered an interesting address. Among the advantages of this clinic will be the giving of higher training to young physicians entering the profession. It is a place where the general practitioner "can send his patients for diagnostic survey." At the head is Dr. George W. Crile, "the master surgeon."

While this clinic is established as a private enterprise, Doctor Crile has taken steps to perpetuate it by establishing a foundation to the end that it eventually becomes a public institution and is never changed from its original purpose, after the present managers are gone. There is already something over $100,000 in this fund. Doctor Crile became known internationally at the head of the Lakeside Hospital Unit in France during the World war, but his fame was a national one before that time. He graduated from the medical department of Wooster University, studied also in Europe, was professor of Clinical Surgery in the medical school of Western Reserve University, when he resigned to devote his time more fully as the head of the work in the new Clinic Building. Dr. Elliott Cutler, the successor of Doctor Crile in Lakeside Hospital, is a distinct acquisition to the medical profession in Cleveland. He entered the World war at the head of the Harvard Unit in France, was commissioned captain when America entered, promoted to major and put in charge of a base hospital, and has been given a medal by Congress for his work while at the hospital at Boulogne.

In connection with the Clinic Building it is appropriate to mention another private enterprise that will be of great benefit to the profession in Cleveland. A new Medical Building has just been completed costing $1,250,000. It is located on Huron Road in the downtown section and to be rented only to physicians, surgeons, and dentists, except the ground floor, which will be devoted to an elaborate drug store establishment. This building is finely appointed. The manager is L. A. Whitman. It is called the Medical Central Building. The advantages of such a building to the medical profession in Cleveland will be apparent to those familiar with the work.

Not a single hospital in Cleveland is self sustaining, only 27 per cent of the patients pay full fare. They are a part of the charities that call for annual contributions. The response in the city has never been niggardly and a large fund is raised for the various charities. From the Clinic Hospital at Eighty eighth Street and Euclid, with its fifty beds, ten regular nurses and three aids, fifteen visiting physicians, with Dr. Paul Beach at the head, we turn to the new twelve story City Hospital Building, the largest in Ohio, capable of caring for 575 patients, and built at a cost of $4,500,000, with the equipment we have referred to, and there is a mantling pride that comes to us in the contemplation of both.

The hospital growth has kept pace with that of the city, and eyes are peering into the future to maintain this standard. Two hundred and fifty thousand dollars has been expended in increasing the capacity of Charity Hospital. Mount Sinai, built at a cost of nearly $600,000, has been given $100,000 since, by a Cleveland citizen, for a dispensary, to be founded in memory of the donor's mother, and the Cleveland Homeopathic Hospital Society have bought four acres in the Forest Hill tract of John D. Rockefeller, as a site for a $700,000 hospital. The society has already an endowment of $250,000 from Daniel Rhodes, and $115,000 from J. H. Wade. It was announced in the newspapers that the building would begin in 1894. It was also intimated that the site was purchased at so low a figure that the deal in reality carried with it a large contribution.

St. Luke's Hospital on Carnegie was founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church, and its superintendent is Rev. Ward B. Pickands. It is supported in part by contributions from the various Methodist churches.

St. Alexis on Broadway has long been famous. It enlarged some years ago and at the dedication of the new building there were present besides Bishop Horstman, Senator M. A. Hanna and Mayor Tom L. Johnson, and a large company. Aside from Doctor Crile, the most notable person connected with the hospital in the past was Mother (Sister) Leonarda. She had both titles, and as a hospital manager had few equals. She was much beloved and at her death a society was formed to perpetuate her memory and bear her name. From this, others came into being and took the name, and it became a synonym for goodness.

We shall not attempt in this chapter to do more than speak of a few of the 2,000 present doctors and the many that have gone before. We may dodge here and there and that is all. Dr. Donald McIntosh came to Cleveland in 1818 and his practice, while it lasted, was in competition with Doctor Long. He had a reputation for profanity that was known and discussed in the community. Squire Hudson, of Hudson, a very pious deacon, was taken sick and by some crossing of the lines Doctor McIntosh was called instead of Doctor Long. The doctor's medicine was so unpleasant to the taste that the deacon balked and refused to take it, whereupon in a fury the doctor said: "Die then and go to hell." This emphatic language so impressed the sick man that he took the medicine and got well. Doctor McIntosh soon opened a tavern where the Cleveland Hotel is now located, and probably gave up practice altogether. He was given to horse racing, and was killed from being thrown from a running horse.

Dr. H. F. Biggar, Jr., was for years on the staff of the Huron Road Hospital and was in 1896 in the British Marine Service as transport surgeon. He gained much notoriety from his close personal friendship to John D. Rockefeller, being his personal physician for many years. Dr. P. J. Byrne was born in Cleveland, graduated from the medical department of Western Reserve University, was visiting physician at St. John's Hospital and served as county coroner for five years. Dr. D. B. Smith was for many years in the public eye. In his work as instructor in the medical college he taught 10,000 different students. He was for some time president of the board of education of the City of Cleveland.

We have referred to the present medical college in Cleveland as the lineal descendant of all. The Homeopathic College was organized in 1850 and its first building located on Prospect Street, near Ontario, on an upper floor. Some time after, the building was attacked by a mob and badly torn to pieces. The occasion of the riot was the finding of a body in the dissecting room supposed to have been stolen from a city cemetery. The first professors of the new school were Drs. Edwin C Wetherell, Lansing Briggs, Alfred H. Burritt, Lewis Dodge, Hamilton Smith, and Jehu Brainard. In 1851 twelve students composed the graduating class. Dr. H. F. Biggar, in a journal article, relates that when he came to Cleveland in 1864 the college was located in the Haymarket (old Ohio Street), the aristocratic precincts of "Commercial Hill," where every second house was either a saloon or a bawdy house, the rendezvous of toughs, pickpockets and murderers, the very worst slum of Cleveland. In the faculty were Profs. John Ellis, A. O. Blair, J. C. Sanders, R. F. Humiston, G. F. Turrill, T. P. Wilson, and S. R. Beckwith. Professor Humiston was of the Humiston Institute. This institute in 1868 was located on the Heights, south of the city, and was purchased by the faculty for a college and hospital. The name was then changed from the Western Homeopathic College to the Cleveland Homeopathic Hospital College. Added to the faculty were Drs. H. F. Biggar, N. Schneider, L. W. Sapp, and H. L. Ambler.

In 1871 the college was located in Plymouth Church at the corner of Prospect and Oak Place (East Eighth Street). The professors were Jehu Brainard, George W. Barnes, A. O. Blair, J. C. Sanders, N. Schneider, H. F. Biggar, H. H. Baxter, S. A. Boynton, G. J. Jones, C. H. Von Tagen, E. R. Taylor, W. E. Saunders, W. F. Hocking, G. O. Spence and G. M. Barber, lecturer on medical jurisprudence, and H. B. Van Norman, lecturer on hygiene.

In 1890 there was a rupture in the faculty. This was due to differences as to the administration, educationally and financially. As has been said: "Some were partly right, all were in the wrong." Two colleges grew out of this difference. The offshoot, the Cleveland Medical College, after a year, built a college on Bolivar Street, and about the same time the other division, styled the Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College, opened its new building on Huron Street. The next year its name was changed to the Cleveland University of Medicine and Surgery. The building on Huron was built from funds donated, at a cost of $50,000. The building was under the direction of Dr. Stanley Hall.

These colleges were later affiliated, and this was high tide in the history of homeopathy in Cleveland. The faculty in 1896 was: Dr. W. A. Phillips, dean, and then Dr. G. J. Jones, Drs. John C. Sanders, T. P. Wilson, D. H. Beckwith, G. W. Spencer, J. Richey Homer, A. B. Schneider, E. O. Adams, G. W. Gurnee, R. J. Cummer, H. L. Frost, William T. Miller, Hudson D. Bishop, W. E. Trego, N. T. B. Nobles, J. A. Lytle, B. B. Kimmel, James C. Wood, P. B. Roper, A. L. Waltz, F. W. Somers, E. H. Jewitt, William A. Phillips, B. B. Viets, H. W. Richmond, L. E. Siemon, H. Quay, W. H. Phillips, L. A. Noble, C. M. Thurston, G. W. Jones, D. J. Bryant, B. R. Burgner, Josephine M. Danforth, J. P. Sobey, G. R. Wilkins, E. O. Bonsteel, H. D. Fowler, H. F. Staples, Pauline H. Barton, R. Clark, R. F. Livermore, H. F. Ryder, Carl V. Schneider, H. Landon Taylor, Frieda E. Weiss, Denver H. Patterson, G. H. Benton, A. W. King, W. H. Loomis, Alice Butler, and A G. Scannable. Judge Thomas S. Dunlap was lecturer on medical jurisprudence.

Several women members are noticed in the faculty list. Women students were excluded from the college classes until several years after the Civil war. In 1868 a woman's college was organized. Its location was the Flatiron Building at Prospect and Huron. Two years later, after some discussion, the Cleveland Homeopathic College opened its doors to women by a majority of one vote. Each one voting later declared that it was his vote that did it. The women then transferred their property to the larger college. The first woman's hospital was located on Webster Street. It was moved to Cedar, to Fairmount, and then to East One Hundredth Street. Drs. C. A. Seamon, Myra K. Merrick, Martha Canfield, Martha Stone, Kate Parsons, and Eliza Johnson Merrick were early women practitioners of note. Of a later date and of the present time we may mention Drs. Minabel Snow, Alice Butler, Clara K. Clendon, Eva F. Collins, Josephine Danforth, Mary V. Davidson, Viola J. Erlanger, Mabelle S. Gilbert, Mary C. Goodwin, Julia Egbert Hoover, Fannie C. Hutchins, Sarah Marcus, Eliza H. Patton, Margaret Rupert, Mary H. White, and many others.

It was just about the beginning of the twentieth century when the standardizing of all medical colleges in the United States and Canada was brought about and all were discontinued in Cleveland except the School of Medicine of the Western Reserve University. Earlier than this, however, as Doctor Biggar states in his "Fragments of History," the surgeon was also a physician. He was physician, surgeon and dentist, but as Doctor Biggar says, thes pecialist is a better specialist for having been a general practitioner. The specialist of this day is a natural result of more systematic and enlarged opportunities coming with the greater development of medical science, and the human race are benefited by his experience and special devotion.

There are 1,100 dentists in Cleveland, and great changes have come about since the days when Doctor Long pulled teeth along with his general practice in pioneer days. The relation of the condition of the teeth to the general health is now carefully studied, and the X-ray discloses what was before hidden to the practitioner. There are twenty eight dental laboratories in the city. There are seven dermatologists and twenty four chiropodists licensed and practicing in the city. There are seventy three chiropractors and nearly the same number of osteopathic physicians in the city. The Roscoe Osteopathic Clinic is advertised as a group functioning as one physician. This is located on Euclid. There are 100 Christian Science practitioners. Closely allied with the medical practice in Cleveland are the opticians and optometrists, who number sixty nine. These do not include many specialists who are regular graduates from the general medical colleges but confine their practice to special lines.

A pleasant fact to record in the history of the medical profession of Cleveland is that of an arrangement agreed upon and carried out during the World war. A committee of the Academy of Medicine visited the office of every doctor who had gone to the war and posted a notice asking each caller to notify the physician whom they finally employed of this fact, to the end that the family of the soldier physician should get 40 per cent of the fees collected for medical service.

As we close this chapter in outline of our subject we are conscious that to quite an extent in these latter days the individual is lost in the larger survey of the whole. There are many young physicians who, today, have performed and are performing operations in surgery and successfully treating ailments, that in pioneer days would have made them famous. Dr. Harry C. Barr, on the staff of Grace Hospital, is one who is from a family of physicians and who comes within the knowledge of the writer as deserving special mention; also Dr. L. Moore, chief of staff of the same hospital. We have not mentioned among the earlier physicians Dr. Charles F. Dutton, who was a surgeon in the Union army and for seventeen years professor of medicine and surgery in the Cleveland Medical College. Dr. Alexander W. Wheeler, son of Dr. John Wheeler, who came to Cleveland in 1846, was particularly prominent in his day. He was president of the Homeopathic College, was wealthy and aristocratic, and his practice among the cultured and prominent people of the city at one time was almost exclusive.

Cleveland has never been a good field for the so called "quacks." In 1835 the Cleveland Herald published a notice that Dr. Samuel Underhill and Dr. W. F. Otis had associated themselves in business and were prepared to do marvelous things. These practitioners did not attract patients, and they turned their attention to the publication of a Socialist newspaper, which did not long endure.

Two notices appeared in the newspapers of the city that deserve a place in this history. In the Cleveland Plain Dealer of May 5, 1924, occurs this article:

"LAKESIDE TO MARK PLACE WHERE UNIT LANDED

"May 14th will see the marking of another historic spot in Rouen, France, the town where Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. A tablet will be erected on the stone quay where the Lakeside Hospital Unit of Cleveland, first United States Army detachment to arrive in France, landed seven years ago.

Dr. George W. Crile of the Cleveland Clinic, who organized the unit and served as its surgical director, sails for Rouen, Wednesday, to help the mayor arrange the memorial dedication. Dr. William E Lower, also of the clinic, Dr. Henry L. Sanford, Cleveland physician, and United States Ambassador Myron T. Herrick are to participate in the ceremony. Doctor Lower was one of the unit's commanders, and Doctor Sanford was a captain. The occasion will be a reunion for both the Clevelanders and townspeople, for when the unit arrived an association of Rouen home owners was formed to make homes for the Lakeside physicians and nurses. Doctor Crile and his party will present the tablet to Rouen on behalf of Base Hospital No. 4, as the Lakeside organization was known in army records. The memorial was designed by William J. Brownlow, staff artist of the unit, who is now photographer and surgical draftsman for the Cleveland Clinic. The 200 officers, men, and nurses of the Lakeside unit had been in army training hardly more than twenty days when they landed in Rouen May 25, 1917.

"The mobilization order brought the personnel to the Union Station in Cleveland, May 6th, eight days after the order was issued. Many of the enlistment papers were filled out on the train enroute to New York. Not a uniform had been issued or a drill command shouted when the volunteers sailed on the British steamer Orduna May 8th. Uniforms were passed out on ship, only to be repacked, and drill begun, only to be discontinued, when the danger of submarines made it imperative that the ship continue with as little sign of military activity as possible. King George and Queen Mary welcome the Americans before they went to France, most of them to serve until the end of the war. Letter files of the Cleveland Clinic show that Doctor Crile was not only the organizer of the first surgical unit to reach France as a part of the United States Army, but that he organized the Lakeside Hospital Unit of Western Reserve, the first American university hospital corps to reach France after the outbreak of the war in 1914. It sailed December 28, 1914. Doctor Crile, according to his file of correspondence with Surgeon General W. C. Gorgas, also organized the first base hospital unit to be given trial mobilization in the United States before her entry into the war."

From the Cleveland News, May 5, 1924, we quote:

"WILL OBSERVE HOSPITAL DAY

"The birthday of Florence Nightingale, founder of modern nursing, will be observed May 12th by Cleveland hospitals, which will unite in celebration of National Hospital Day.

"P. J. McMillan, superintendent of the City Hospital, said Hospital Day is an innovation, inasmuch as the operation of a modern hospital has always been more or less of a mystery to the public. Hospitals have stocks of groceries more plentiful than the average grocery store. They also have kitchens and dining rooms that serve more persons than the average hotel, and dry goods and household supplies of which a moderately large department store might well be proud. Hospitals are finishing schools for young practitioners who are compelled by law to serve a period of interneship before becoming physicians. They are also advanced educational institutions for nurses and experimental stations for the advancement of medical science."


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