History of Orange Township, Cuyahoga County, OH

From: A History of Cuyahoga County
and the City of Cleveland
By: William R. Coates
Publishers: The American Historical Society
Chicago and New York, 1924


Go with us now to township 7 of range 10 of the survey of the Western Reserve. Except that the forests are changed to farms, and paved roads at intervals have replaced the trails, and the sound of the auto horn the war whoop, the changes of a century and more are easily recorded. This township has no cities or villages within its borders. A portion of its original territory was taken when Chagrin Falls was formed but that is all. It is strictly a farming community, quiet, orderly, apart from the wild rush of industry and trade. And yet it has a distinction that outweighs all the rest. Here in the woods, in a log cabin, its walls of logs, its roof of shingles split with an axe, and its floor of rude thick planking split out of tree trunks with a wedge and maul, a pioneer mother cared for her household. The house had only a single room at one end of which was the big chimney and fireplace. Here the cooking was done. At the other end of the room was the bed. The younger children slept in a trundle bed, which was under the larger bed in the daytime to make room, as space was at a premium. The older ones climbed up in the loft under the steep roof to sleep. The father worked early and late clearing his farm, and it was said that he had few equals in wielding the axe. At least no man in the region around could equal him in the use of that pioneer necessity. A baby was born in this house November 19, 1831, another care for the faithful mother. Nearly fifty years later this mother, her boy, her youngest born, grown to manhood, and famous as soldier, orator, and statesman, turned to give her a kiss, as his first act after entering upon his duties as President of the United States, James A. Garfield. It is a proud distinction for the little township that the only President born on the soil of Cuyahoga County, and whose beautiful monument stands in Lake View Cemetery, at Cleveland, first saw the light and lived as a boy within her borders. His history and that of the wonderful mother belongs to the ages, but so much of it as pertains to their life in Orange may be given briefly in this recounting. In May, 1833, when the future President was eighteen months old, a serious fire broke out in the woods on the Garfield farm. Abram Garfield, the father, worked with his great strength and impetuosity in fighting the fire to keep it from the home, the fences and fields, and when it was checked, sat down to rest in a cool breeze. He was taken with a severe sore throat, and a country doctor aggravated the trouble by treatment that would now be discarded. Before he died he pointed to his children and said, "Eliza, I have planted four saplings in these woods. I leave them to your care." He was buried in the corner of a wheat field on his farm. The hardships of the pioneer mother left with her four children would have been more serious but for the assistance of Uncle Boynton, whose farm was next to theirs. Amos Boynton deserves a prominent place in history. His strong self reliant nature gave courage as his directing mind and material assistance aided the stricken family. He was a typical pioneer. The farms of the Garfields and the Boynton were separated by a large forest on one side and a rocky ravine on the other from the settled country around. From the day, and for many years after, Abram Garfield and his half brother Boynton built their log cabins, the nearest house was seven miles distant. When the township became well settled, the rugged character of the surface around their farms kept neighbors at a distance too great for the children to find associates among them, except at the district school. The district school was located on a corner of the Garfield farm and it was there that James A. Garfield learned his A B C's, and began to leaf the pages of Noah Webster's Spelling Book at the age of four. The childhood of James was spent in complete isolation from social influences except those that came from the district school, the home of his mother, and that of his uncle Boynton. James worked on the farm as soon as he was old enough to be of service and that is quite early, for there is much on the farm that a small boy can do.

He labors when the "dash" is in the chum,
If the grindstone's called to action he must turn,
And he brings in all the wood, and he goes to get the cow,
And he helps to feed the sheep,
And he treads the stack and mow.
Then it's time to go to sleep.

The family was very poor, and the mother often worked in the fields with the boys. "She spun the yarn and wove the cloth for the children's clothes and her own, sewed for the neighbors, knit stockings, cooked the simple meals for the household in the big fireplace, over which hung an iron crane for the pot hooks, helped plant and hoe the corn and gather the hay crop, and even assisted the oldest boy to clear and fence land. In the midst of this toilsome life the brave little woman found time to instill into the minds of her children the religious and moral maxims of her New England ancestry. Every day she read four chapters of the Bible, and this was never omitted except when sickness interfered. The children lived in an atmosphere of religious thought and discussion. Uncle Boynton, who was a second father to the Garfield family, flavored all his talk with Bible quotations. He carried a Testament in his pocket wherever he went and would sit on a plough beam at the end of a furrow to take it out and read a chapter. It was a time of religious ferment in Northern Ohio. New sects filled the air with their doctrinal cries. The Disciples, a sect founded by the preaching of Alexander Campbell, an eloquent and devout man of Scotch descent, who ranged over Kentucky, Ohio, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, from his home at Bethany, in the 'Pan Handle,' had made great progress. They assailed all creeds as made by men and declared the Bible to be the only rule of life. Attacking all other denominations they were vigorously attacked in return. James' mind was filled at an early day with the controversies this new sect excited. The guests at his mother's house were mostly traveling preachers, and the talk of the neighborhood, when not about the crops and farm labors, was usually on religious topics. At the district school James was known as a fighting boy. He found that the larger boys were disposed to insult and abuse a little fellow who had no father or big brother to protect him, and he resented such imposition with all the force of a sensitive nature backed by a hot temper, great physical courage, and a strength unusual for one of his age. His big brother Thomas had finished his schooling and was much away from home, working by the month or the day to earn money for the support of the family. Many stories went the rounds in Orange of the pluck shown by the future major general in his encounters with the rough country lads in defense of his boyish rights and honor. It was said that he never began a fight and never cherished malice, but when enraged by taunts or insults would attack boys of twice his size with the fury and tenacity of a bull dog."

Immediately after the War of 1812 fifteen settlers moved into that territory which is now the greater part of Orange. The first settler was Serenus Burnett, who settled on Chagrin River in 1815. It was then a part of township 7, range 10, but is now included in Chagrin Falls. The old annals do not give us much of the families of these first settlers for to a greater extent than in most others the original pioneers are not represented by descendants, as many have moved away and death has called as well. Thomas King of Orange Hill lived in the township to a ripe old age. He came in 1818. Then Jesse Kimball, Rufus Parsons, John White and Theron White had preceded him by one or two years. They all lived on the high ground in the north part of the township. The western part was the narrow valley of the Chagrin River, running due north across it. Separated from this valley is a broad highland known as Orange Hill. This tract comprises most of the northern part. From Orange Hill the surface gradually descends towards the south. The portion south of the central line is only of moderate height but is comparatively dry and has some broken ground. It has good natural drainage. The soil is a gravelly clay, and when the first settlers came it was covered with a growth of beech, maple, oak, elm and other forest trees. On account of its natural drainage and diversified forest it presented a more alluring appearance to pioneers than other more fertile sections, made unhealthy by swamps and wet ground. As all the first settlers located on the high ground it would appear that this consideration was first in mind and that they were seeking the most healthful location. The new comers immediately began clearing around their cabins, planting, sowing, and reaping grain, among the stumps, while yet the marks of the axe showed fresh and new. Wild mutton from the deer, and woodland pork, from the bear, they got. Wild herds were abundant. Other settlers came in 1818 and in 1819, and an agitation began at once for the formation of a civil township. Law and order must prevail in the woods as well as in New England. An appeal was made to the county commissioners, the name Orange selected, and on June 7, 1820, a civil township was formed, but to contain townships 6 and 7 in range 10. This territory of the original civil township included all of the present townships of Solon and Orange and most of Chagrin Falls.

The first election was held at the home of Daniel R. Smith June 27, 1820, and the following officers chosen: Trustees, Eber M. Waldo, Caleb Litch, and Edmunds Mallett; clerk, David Sayler; treasurer, D. R. Smith; lister, Eber M. Waldo; appraiser, Lawrence Huff; overseers of the poor, Thomas King and Serenus Burnet; fence viewers, William Weston and Seruyn Cleaveland; superintendents of the highways, E. Mallett, Rufus Parsons, Caleb Litch and Thomas Robinson. These officers were all residents of number 6, as number 7 was not then settled, with the exception of Burnet. That is they were residents of the present Township of Orange. In 1822, two years later, the election was held on May 20th, and there were thirty six who voted. The poll books do not show the entire voting population of the township as a few did not vote. As we estimate from the voters the poll books for 1822 would indicate a population in the township of about 300 at that time. There were some settlements in the south part of Solon at that time but they did not take the trouble to come so far through the woods to vote. The names of those who voted are Peter Gardiner, Jonathan Covey, Edward Corey, Jess Kimball, Jacob Gardiner, Isaac Saffler, Sylvanus L. Simpson, William Weston, Caleb Alvord, Nathaniel Goodspeed, Thomas King, Seruyn Cleaveland, Lewis Northrup, Clarimond Herriman, Benjamin Jenks, Nathaniel Sherman, Joseph Watson, Amaziah Northrop, Daniel R. Smith, Jacob Hutchins, Jedediah Buxton, Daniel S. Taylor, Asa Woodworth, Silas T. Dean, Ansel Jerome, Luman Griswold, Serenus Burnet, Ephraim Towne, Benjamin Hardy, Cornelius Milispaugh, Abel Stafford, Caleb Litch, John G. 'White and James Fisher. After this the settlement of the township must have been slow or the voters recreant to their duties of citizenship for in 1828, six years later, only twenty eight were registered as voting at the township election. Seth Mapes came as a settler in 1827. His son, John Mapes, was long prominent in township affairs. Amos Boynton, whom we have mentioned in connection with the Garfields, was an early settler in Newburg, where he had lived since 1818. Moving to Orange he settled one mile and a half south of the center. Some time after his death the farm was occupied by his widow and son, H. B. Boynton. When the Boynton came it was a wilderness. There was a north and south road laid out, but it had not been worked. Doctor Witter was a practicing physician at Orange Center. It is more than likely that he was the doctor called to attend Abram Garfield in his last sickness. H. B. Boynton was long prominent in township and county affairs. In 1829 there was no store, hotel or mill in Orange. A gristmill was built on the Chagrin River within the present limits of Orange, but it was soon abandoned. Settlers took their grists to Chagrin Falls or to a mill in the present limits of that township and village. Here as elsewhere the wolves were destructive and killed many sheep that strayed outside of the fenced enclosures. Abram Garfield, as soon as he had a clearing sufficient, planted a fine orchard, as did Amos Boynton. A few of the trees planted by the father of the martyred President are still standing. James had a name in later years, while a boy on the farm, for each tree. The trees were named after some historic character. Appropriate names suggested by the quality of the fruit were given, and we can imagine the interest attached and the appropriateness of the designations in view of the high literary attainments of the future President in later years. We have said the log cabin of the Garfields was a one room house. When the log schoolhouse, which was on a corner of the Garfield farm, was abandoned for a new frame building, the old log building was bought by Thomas Garfield for a trifle and he and James with the help of the Boynton boys pulled it down and moved it over and put it up again a few steps to the rear of their cabin. The family then had two rooms and counted themselves quite comfortable so far as household accommodations were concerned. In these two log buildings the family lived until James was fourteen, when the boys, with the assistance of Uncle Boynton, built a frame house for their mother. In the location of the log houses by the pioneers a spot if possible near a spring was selected. The convenience of the water supply was important and wells came later. The log house in the orchard was near a spring, but of a rather indifferent kind, located in a sale. When the new frame house was built it was at the point where they had located a clear running spring of cold water, a distance west of the old home site. This spring is much in evidence today.

"Not a full blushing goblet could tempt me to leave it, Though filled with the nectar that Jupiter sips."

This new house was painted red and had three rooms below and two under the roof. Today it is painted white and surrounded by shade trees planted by the builders of the new home, but grown to large proportions. James Garfield often got employment in the haying and harvesting season from the farmers of Orange. When he was sixteen he walked ten miles to Aurora, in company with a boy older than himself, looking for work. They offered their services to a farmer who had a good deal of hay to cut. Negotiations were on and the boys demanded $1 a day, men's wages. The Aurora farmer demurred, not being willing to pay men's wages to boys. They then proposed to cut the hay by the acre, and suggested the going price of 50 cents. This offer was accepted and when night came the four acres were cut and the boys got their dollar each. It should be recorded that they finished by 4 o'clock. Then the farmer engaged them for several weeks. The future President got his first regular wages from a merchant who ran an ashery where he leached ashes and made black salts, which were shipped by lake and canal to New York. He got $9 a month and his board, and stuck to the business for two months. When he quit work at the ashery his hair was bleached by the fumes to a bright red hue except that portion of his head which was protected by his cap. Afterwards he went to his uncle's in Newburgh, near Independence, and cleared land. His contract was to cut 100 cords of wood at 50 cents a cord. He boarded with one of his sisters, who was married and lived nearby. He, like his father, was a good chopper and easily cut two cords a day. Like many a country lad who lived in view of the water he had a great aspiration to be a sailor. He had seen the white sails on Lake Erie and had read stories of the sea. He made up his mind to be a sailor and to start on the lakes with a view, no doubt, eventually to sail on the ocean. With this in mind he walked to Cleveland, boarded a schooner, at anchor at the wharf, and finding the captain, told him that he wanted to hire out as a sailor. The captain, much impressed with his own importance and half drunk, desired to astonish the green country lad and answered him with a volley of profanity and coarse language. James escaped as quickly as he could and walked up the river along the docks in search of opportunity. Whiled on his way he heard himself called by name from the deck of a canal boat. The speaker was a cousin, Amos Letcher. Letcher was captain of a canal boat, and learning his quest, proposed to hire him to drive mules or horses on the towpath. The future President was taken with this offer as being primary navigation and something that might lead up to his dream of "a life on the ocean wave, a home on the rolling deep." He accepted the offer and the wages agreed upon were $10 a month and "found," the last word indicating board, lodging, and washing. The next day he began his labors. The boat was called the Evening Star and was loaded with copper ore for Pittsburg. It was open amidships and had a cabin on the bow for horses, and one in the stern for the men. On the return trip the Evening Star stopped at Brier Hill and here took on a cargo of coal from the mines of David Tod, afterward governor of Ohio and a warm personal friend of Garfield, the major general and congressman. Governor Tod died in 1868, long before Garfield became President. The future statesman continued his work on the canal through the season of 1848. After the first trip the Evening Star plied back and forth between Brier Hill and Cleveland with cargoes of coal and iron. The mule driver rose to be steersman on the boat. As the season closed he was taken with that malady that afflicted so many, who worked on or lived near the canal, fever and ague. This kept him home and in bed most of the following winter and the money he had earned in the summer went for doctors' bills and medicine. This was Providential, for it gave the mother, who had never approved of his idea of being a sailor, and disapproved accordingly of the canal adventure, her opportunity. When he got well the mother sought to arouse in him a desire for learning as a counter proposition. The passion for the sea she knew was real and she reasoned that it could only be cured by a counter passion. She brought to her aid the district school teacher, Samuel D. Bates. Bates was a man of fine parts and an attractive and interesting character. He stirred up the boy with a desire for an education, and he and the faithful mother changed the course of the would be sailor to one marked on the log book of history. James went to the Geauga Academy, at Chester, a few miles distant. and began his studies. We have spoken of the intense religious feeling in the neighborhood and the devotion of his mother and Uncle Boynton. He refused time and again to join the church as he was urged to do, and when the urgency became too marked he stayed away from meetings for several Sundays. He wished to arrive at his own conclusions on the subject in his own way. After two years at the Geauga Academy he joined his uncle's congregation, and was baptized in a little stream y in Orange, a tributary of the Chagrin River. This occurred while a series of meetings were being held in a schoolhouse near the Garfield home. It is said he was greatly interested in the reading of Pollok's "Course of Time," which impressed him deeply and started him in the study of religious matters. But more of the beginning of the new departure from a life of adventure as a sailor to the student. Mrs. Garfield, the mother, was tactful and wonderful. She knew the boy mind and how fixed might be the cherished ideas there entertained. She used the argument that if he attended school and became able to teach, he could teach winters and sail summers and then be sure of employment the year round. It was in March of 1849 that James with his cousins, William and Henry Boynton, started at the Geauga Academy at Chester, a Free Will Baptist school. It was ten miles from the Garfield home in Orange. The future President had $17, which his mother and brother Thomas had scraped together, when he started. He and the Boynton boys took along provisions and rented a room in an old unpainted house occupied by a poor widow. The room had two beds and a cook stove, and the widow agreed to cook their meals and do their washing for a very, small compensation. The school at that time had about 100 pupils. The building was two storied and in it was a library of 100 volumes, more books than James had ever seen before. Daniel Branch was the principal, and his wife was first assistant. The pupils were of both sexes. When the term was over, twelve weeks, Garfield went home to Orange, helped his brother build a barn for his mother, and then worked for day wages at haying and harvesting. With the money earned he settled with the doctor for the balance due from the attendance in his long sickness. He left no debts at the academy and more than that he came home with a silver sixpence in his pocket. The next day at church he dropped this in the contribution box, so that when he began work in the summer he started with a clean slate. The next term at the Chester Academy he contracted with Homan Woodworth, a carpenter, to live at his house, and he was to have lodging, board, washing, fuel, and light for $1.06 per week, and with this arrangement it was understood that he might earn something by helping the carpenter on Saturdays and at odd school hours. The carpenter was building a two story house, and on the first Saturday, Garfield planed siding at two cents a board, and earned $1.02, the most money he ever got for a day's work, up to that time. This term he earned enough to pay for tuition, books, and other expenses, and came home with $8 in his pocket. After two years at the academy he felt qualified to teach, and started out to get a school. He tramped two days over Cuyahoga County and came home without success, and completely disheartened. In many of the schools the teachers were already engaged and in others the directors thought him too young. He met rebuffs and was greatly humiliated. It is said that he then made a resolve that he would never again ask for a position of any kind and that throughout his life that resolution was never broken, as all came to him, even the nomination for the presidency, unsolicited. Well, the next morning after his unsuccessful effort and return home, he heard a man call to his mother from the road, "Widow Garfield, where's your boy Jim? I wonder if he wouldn't like to teach our school at the Ledge." James immediately made his presence known and found a neighbor from a district a mile away, where the school had been broken up for two winters by the rowdyism of the big boys. He said he would like to try the school, but before deciding definitely he must consult his uncle, Amos Boynton. That evening the two families got together and held a council. Uncle Amos was the leading mind in the conference and his opinions were considered sound. He heard the proposition in full and then gave the subject deliberate silent consideration. Finally he said: "You go and try it. You will go into that school as the boy, 'Jim Garfield,' see that you come out as Mr. Garfield the schoolmaster." The school was mastered. Among the first efforts at discipline was a tussle with the bully of the school, who in the melee tried to brain the teacher with a stick of wood. The teacher won, and after that there was order and diligent and respectful pupils. The future President got $12 a month and his board. He boarded around and came out in the spring with more money than he had ever had before, $48. He had now clearly abandoned the idea of becoming a sailor. He and his cousin, Henry Boynton, went to the academy for a third time. They boarded themselves and kept a strict account and at the end of six weeks found that their expenses for food had averaged just 31 cents per week apiece. Henry argued that they were living too poorly, consistent with good health, and so they agreed to increase the weekly expense for food to 50 cents a week. With this necessity for strict economy even at the academy, James had looked upon a college course as entirely beyond his reach, but he met a graduate of a college, who told him that it was possible, that it was a mistaken idea that only the sons of rich parents could go to college, that a poor boy could work his way through, but it might take a long time. He was now obsessed with the idea of going to college and at the academy began the study of Latin, philosophy, and botany. Again he is back on the farm at Orange, working through the summer at haying and carpentering. In the fall he went back to Chester for a fourth term at the academy and in the winter taught school at Warrensville. Here he received $16 a month and board. Returning to Orange he learned that the Disciples, his chosen denomination, had just founded a college at Hiram, Portage County, a cross roads village twelve miles from a town or a railroad. His religious preference called him to that college. He began his studies there in August, 1851. The college was a plain brick building standing in the midst of a corn field, with a few houses nearby as boarding places for students. He roomed with four other students and studied with intense application. In the winter he again taught school at Warrensville and this time he received $18 a month. In the spring he was back at Hiram, and during the summer vacation helped build a house there, planing all the siding and shingling the roof. At the beginning of his second year at Hiram he was made a tutor there, and from that time on he taught and studied at the same time. In three years' time he fitted himself to enter the junior class, thus crowding, including the preparatory, six years' study into three, and teaching for his support at the same time. His pupils at the Hiram school included Lucretia Rudolph, who recited to him two years, and later was a teacher in the Cleveland schools. The teacher and pupil became engaged while at Hiram, but the marriage awaited financial conditions. While the lady taught in Cleveland, the tutor planned a larger study, as both awaited the realization of their hopes. Garfield wrote to the presidents of Yale, Brown, and Williams colleges telling what books he had studied and asking in what class he could enter if he passed the requisite examination. All answered that he could enter the junior year. President Hopkins of Williams said in his letter: "If you come here, we shall do what we can for you." This kindly postscript decided him in his choice, and he went to Williams, arriving there in June, 1854, with $300 dollars in his pocket, which he had saved as a tutor at Hiram. Although self taught, that is, having studied many of the prescribed books without a teacher, he passed the examination easily. After his examination and before the school opened he spent his time in the large library at Williams reading. He especially delighted in Shakespeare and Tennyson, authors that he had never read before except the small extracts found in school text books. He reveled in English history and poetry. He broke into the wide range of fiction, prescribed at that time by religious people generally as a waste of time and therefore sinful. When he entered Williams he studied Latin and Greek, and took up German as an elective study. During the winter vacation at the end of the fall term, he taught a writing school at North Pownal, Vermont. He wrote a fine hand but not one included in the systems taught in commercial schools. His writing was the envy, it is said, of the boys and girls who attended his school at North Pownal. A year or two before he taught his writing class there, Chester A. Arthur, who was elected Vice President with him and succeeded to the presidency at his death, taught the district school in the same building. At the end of his first college year at Williams, Garfield visited his mother, who was then living with a daughter in Solon. His money was gone and he must either drop out a year and teach or borrow money to complete his college course. He decided to insure his life for the benefit of the lender and borrow. After his brother Thomas had tried to furnish the loan and failed, he succeeded in borrowing from a neighbor, Doctor Robinson. He gave his notes for the loan and said it was on a fair business basis, for if he lived he would pay it and if he died the lender would get his money. In the second winter vacation he again taught writing school, this time in Poestenkill, New York, a little town, six miles from Troy. This brought him in a little money to help out in his college expenses. It was in his last year at Williams that Garfield made a political speech in which he gave evidence of that gift of oratory that made him famous in later years. His mother.was Eliza Ballou of Huguenot ancestry, and the family for generations back were a race of preachers. It may be supposed that President Garfield's wonderful gift of oratory was derived from the mother's side, the Ballous. The political speech referred to was in support of John C. Freemont for President. He had never before taken any part in political meetings.

This speech was made before a gathering in one of the class rooms at the college It is said that he was the first man nominated for the presidency whose "political convictions and activities began with the birth of the republican party." He graduated in August, 1856, but before that time he had been elected to a post at Hiram. It was not a professorship, for that institution was not a college and did not become one until after the Civil war. A year later Garfield was placed at the head of the school. He began to preach but was never ordained as a minister, for the Disciples do not ordain, but anyone having the ability to preach is welcome to their pulpit. His fame as a preacher soon extended beyond the confines of Hiram. A year after coming to Hiram as a member of the faculty, and when he was at the head of the school, enjoying a living compensation, he married Lucretia Rudolph, his former pupil, with whom he had been so long engaged. The marriage took place November 11, 1858. He began speaking in political campaigns first in small meetings about Hiram and then in larger gatherings, and in 1860 was elected to the State Senate. While in the Legislature he studied law, expecting to make that his life occupation. He entered his name as a law student in the office of Williamson and Riddle, of Cleveland, and got from Mr. Riddle a list of books to be studied. In 1861 he applied to the Supreme Court at Columbus for admission to the bar, and was examined by Thomas M. Key, a distinguished lawyer of Cincinnati, and Robert Harrison, afterwards a member of the Supreme Court Commission, and was admitted. The subsequent career of this remarkable man, pioneer, and son of a pioneer of Orange Township, would fill volumes, but we cannot refrain from giving an instance in his military record which turns us back in thought to the days when he steered the canal boat on the Ohio canal, having risen from the position of driver on the towpath. The incident is taken from Whitelaw Reid's "Ohio in the War."

"When the time came for appointing the officers for the Ohio troops, the Legislature was still in session. Garfield at once avowed his intention of entering the service. He was offered the lieutenant colonelcy of the Forty second Ohio Regiment, but it was not until the 14th of December that orders for the field were received. The regiment was then sent to Catlettsburg, Kentucky, and Garfield, then made a colonel, was directed to report in person to General Buell. On the 17th of December he assigned Colonel Garfield to the command of the Seventeenth Brigade, and ordered him to drive the rebel forces under Humphrey Marshall out of Sandy Valley, in Eastern Kentucky. Up to this date no active operations had been attempted in the great department that lay south of the Ohio River. The spell of Bull Run still hung over our armies. Save the campaigns in Western Virginia, and the unfortunate attack by General Grant at Belmont, not a single engagement had occurred over all the region between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi. General .Buell was preparing to advance upon the rebel position at Bowling Green, when he suddenly found himself hampered by two cooperating forces skillfully planted within striking distance of his flank. General Zollicoffer was advancing from Cumberland Gap toward Mill Spring, and Humphrey Marshall, moving down the Sandy Valley, was threatening to overrun Eastern Kentucky. Till these could be driven back, an advance upon Bowling Green would be perilous, if not actually impossible. To General George H. Thomas, then just raised from his colonelcy of regulars to a brigadier generalship of volunteers, was committed the task of repulsing Zollicoffer; to the untried colonel of the raw Forty second Ohio, the task of repulsing Humphrey Marshall, and on their success the whole army of the department waited. Colonel Garfield thus found himself, before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, in command of four regiments of infantry, and some eight companies of cavalry, charged with the work of driving out of his native state the officer reputed the ablest of those not educated to war whom Kentucky had given to the rebellion. Marshall had under his command nearly 5,000 men stationed at the Village of Paintville, sixty miles up the Sandy Valley. He was expected by the rebel authorities to advance towards Lexington, unite with Zollicoffer, and establish the authority of the Provisional Government at the state capital. These hopes were fed by the recollection of his great intellectual abilities, and the soldierly reputation he had borne ever since he lead the famous charge of the Kentucky volunteers at Buena Vista. But Garfield won the day. Marshall hastily abandoned his position, fired his camp equipage and stores, and began a retreat which was not ended till he reached Abington, Virginia. A fresh peril, however, now beset the little force. An unusually violent rainstorm broke out, the mountain gorges were all flooded, and the Sandy rose to such a height that steam boatmen pronounced it impossible to ascend the stream with supplies. The troops were almost out of rations, and the rough mountainous country was incapable of supporting them. Colonel Garfield had gone down the river to its mouth. He ordered a small steamer which had been in the quartermaster's service to take on a load of supplies and start up. The captain declared it was impossible. Efforts were made to get other vessels, but without success. Finally Colonel Garfield ordered the captain and crew on board, stationed a competent officer on deck to see that the captain did his duty, and himself took the wheel. The captain still protested that no boat could possibly stem the raging current, but Garfield turned her head up the stream and began the perilous trip. The water in the usually shallow river was sixty feet deep, and the tree tops along the bank were almost submerged. The little vessel trembled from stem to stern at every motion of the engines; the waters whirled about her as if she were a skiff; and the utmost speed that steam could give her was three miles an hour. When night fell the captain of the boat begged permission to tie up. To attempt ascending that flood in the dark, he declared, was madness. But Colonel Garfield kept his place at the wheel. Finally in one of the sudden bends of the river, they drove, with a full head of steam, into the quicksand of the bank. Every effort to back off was in vain. Garfield at last ordered a boat to be lowered to take a line across to the opposite bank. The crew protested against venturing out in the flood. The colonel leaped into the boat himself and steered it over. The force of the current carried them far below the point they sought to reach; but they finally succeeded in making fast to a tree and rigging a windlass with rails sufficiently powerful to draw the vessel off and get her once more afloat. It was on Saturday that the boat left the mouth of the Sandy. All night, all day Sunday, and all through Sunday night they kept up their struggle with the current, Garfield leaving the wheel only eight hours out of the whole time, and that during the day. By 9 o'clock Monday morning they reached the camp, and were received with tumultuous cheering. Garfield himself could scarcely escape from being borne to headquarters on the shoulders of the delighted men."

From this time Garfield took high rank in the estimate of those in the army and out. General Buell gave unstinted praise and a special commendation was made by the officials at Washington. Our history must be confined largely to his early struggles from the boy on the farm in Orange to the time when he became a national figure, orator, soldier, statesman, President of the United States. His subsequent history and that of his family belong to the nation and are a part of the larger annals that form most interesting reading. Of Amos Boynton, Uncle Boynton, the half brother of his father, we will speak more fully than we have done, before the dose of this chapter.

The first store in Orange was opened near the site of the "Bible Christian" Church in 1835, the name of the storekeeper who first began we cannot give, but about the same time or a little later a Mr. Bymont opened a store on the town line in Warrensville. The second store continued for three or four years, and until the Village of Chagrin Falls, attracted the trade. In 1845 the Township of Chagrin Falls was formed and included in its boundaries was all that part of Orange in the first division of tract 3 except lots 1, 2 and 3. The area taken from Orange was nearly two and one half square miles, leaving twenty two and one half square miles in the township, its present area. In marked contrast to Rockport on the other side of the county, Orange has not the semblance of a village within its borders. There is a postoffice at the Center and another at North Solon, but notwithstanding the fact that the latter is called North Solon postoffice it is in Orange. Its change from the pioneer, the log house era, to the frame house, the farming era, came about with the same rapidity as other parts of the county. By 1850 there was only one or two log houses in the township. The Civil war came and the sons of Orange went to the front and their names are recorded in the soldiers' monument on the public square at Cleveland. The hardy farmer boys made good soldiers. After the war dairying came to be the principal line of the farmers, and cheese factories sprung up to manufacture the product of the dairies. At one time there were three in the township, one operated by J. P. Whitlam at Orange Center, another by M. A. Lander, two miles southwest of the Center, and a third by David Sheldon on the Chagrin River, two miles east of the Center. The only manufacturing industries that have found their way into the township have been the sawmills. The mills of David Sheldon, on or near the Chagrin River, two miles east of the Center; of James Graham, on the river, close to the township line of Chagrin Falls, and of John Stoneman, one mile west of the Center, are associated with the early history. Near the North Solon postoffice a store was opened by Eldridge Morse in 1860, and three years later it was sold to G. C. Arnold, a son of Ralph Arnold, whose home on the farm was nearby. As elsewhere in the county, churches were organized early in the township and they with the schools in the districts constituted the social centers as well as educational and religious centers of the township. Without exception this has been the rule in the settlement and development of all the townships, this not excepted.

A Methodist Episcopal Church was organized at Orange Center in 1839. The first members were P. C. Gordon, Mary Gordon, Henry Gordon, Alanson Smith, Henrietta Smith, Jesse Luce, Sophia H. Luce, Sophia Weller, Reese Bowell, William Case, William Ansel, Mary A. Ansel, Caroline Ansel, Abigail Lander, Clarissa Hennessy, William Hennessy. The first class leader was Henry Gordon. The pastor was Rev. Mr. Halleck. They met at schoolhouses and residences until 1868, when a frame church was built. Following this first minister there is a long line as the policy of government in this denomination requires frequent changes. We will only name a few of the earlier. They were denominated circuit preachers because serving other charges on a particular circuit. Revs. William F. Wilson, Hiram Kellogg, Timothy Goodwin, Lorenzo Rogers, S. C. Freer, R. H. Hurlbut, E. Lattamore, A. Fouts, Benjamin Excell, William Patterson, William Lunn, J. B. Hammond and Thomas Gray were among the number. Meetings were held on Orange Hill as early as 1830, but no church was organized until 1847. This small Methodist organization was on the Orange Center and Warrensville circuit. A Bible Christian Church, Protestant Methodist, was organized in 1840. It started under the first name, and then finding no particular difference in creeds, it was organized under the second name of Protestant Methodists, or rather it was reorganized. It then came into the Warrensville circuit. Rev. George Pippin was the first Bible Christian preacher, and then followed Revs. Hodge, Roach, Pinch, Hooper, Colwell, Wicket, Chapel, and Tethna. The North Orange Disciple Church was organized July 28, 1845, with fifteen members. The first elders were William T. Hutchinson and Ira Rutherford. By changes in the population its membership dwindled to a handful. In the same year the South Orange Disciple Church was organized. Amos Boynton and Z. Smith were the first overseers. Its history is similar to that of the same denomination in North Orange. The Free Will Baptist Church was organized in 1868. Rev. W. Whitacre was the first minister, and John Wentmore and Joseph A. Bums, the first deacons, and William Mills and John Wentmore the first trustees. In 1870 a church was built by the congregation, east of the North Solon postoffice.

The schools of Orange are still in the school buildings of one room and located in various parts of the township for the accommodation of the pupils as in pioneer days, but a large central building for the centralization of the schools is in process of construction. There are now eight district school buildings in use, most of them of one room. The principal of the Orange schools is B. E. Stevens There are twelve teachers employed and the total enrollment of pupils in the township is 298. The new building will accommodate all the pupils of the township and transportation will be furnished as in other townships for getting the pupils to and from school. At present it approaches more nearly to the original district school system than any that we find in the county.

As we have said, the township was organized and a government established in 1830. Among those who have served in the earlier days of the official life of the township are: Trustees, Eber M. Waldo, Caleb Litch, Edmund Mallett, Caleb Alvord, Benjamin Hardy, Thomas King, Seruyn Cleaveland, N. Goodspeed, James Fisher, S. Burnett, Samuel Bull, E. Covey, Jonathan Cole, Lawrence Huff, Isaac Eames, Wm. Luce, J. Witter, D. R. Smith, Frederick Mallett, William Smith, Amos Boynton, Saxton R. Rathbun, Cyrus Phelps, Joseph Cline, M. G. Hickey, Cotton J. Pratt, Samuel Nettleton, H. Abell, Howard S. Allen, H. Church, E. Waite, Zadock Bowel!, Elestus Arnold, J. D. Mapes, Benjamin Sheldon, Abram Tibbits, H. Deloff, Zenas Smith, E. Arnold, C. Gates, C. Cole, John McLane, Jason H. Luce, T. Willett, A. McVeigh, A. Jerome, R. Lewis, H. Baster, John Whitlock, J. Bray, P. Farr, Henry Price, Horace Rudd, F. Judd, E. B. Pike, William Lander, L. Sawyer, Alonzo Cathan, J. Burton, H. B. Boynton, Edwin Mapes, F. Rowe, D. C. Kimball, William Stoneman, L. Underwood, J. M. Burgess, Jedediah Burton, John Whitlaw, J. Baster, H. W. Gordon, J. Q Lander, A. Stevens, C. L. Jackson, and Charles Thomas. Among the clerks have been: David Lafler, James Fisher, C. Alvord, Ansel Young, Samuel G. Harger, Michael Hickey, Henry W. Gordon, Walbridge Smith, C. J. Pratt, Cyrus Phelps, L. D. Williams, C. T. Blakeslee, J Cole, C. Alvord, Thompson Willett B. Boynton, H. W. Gordon, Charles Jackson, and Edwin Mapes. Treasurers, D. R. Smith, Edward Covey, Seruyn Cleaveland, Thomas King, William Luce, William Lander, Stephen Burnett, T. King, John Whitlow, H. S. Allen, J. H. Luce, William Stoneman, Richmond Barber, H. B. Boynton, and H. Price. M. A. Lander served for many years as assessor of the township. The present officers of the township are: Justice of the peace, Joseph Zoul; trustees, U. G. Teare, A. A. Ayers and H. G. Strick; clerk, T. W. Taylor; treasurer, Henry Miller; assessor, H. W. Lander; constable, Milton Kidd.

We must take the space to give a little of the history of some of the families, whose members have served the township in various public positions. First, the Lander and Litch families. M. A. Lander, whom we have mentioned, was the son of William and Eliza (Litch) Lander. His father was born in the Town of Marcellus, Onondaga County, New York, and came to Orange at an early date. Here he married Eliza Litch, who was a native of Orange, and named his first born Marcellus in memory of his native town. Marcellus or M. A. Lander, was raised on the farm, had a common school education, enlisted when the Civil war came on as a private, and rose to the rank of quartermaster sergeant, served till the end of the war, operated with his father and uncle one of the largest cheese and butter factories in the county at Orange, and then continued in the business as sole proprietor for a number of years, came to Cleveland and entered the county treasurer's office as a deputy, became popular by reason of his uniform courtesy, was elected and reelected county treasurer, serving the full time allowed by law. Another son of William Lander, the trustee, a younger son, Frank R. Lander, after the boyhood on the farm, a liberal and technical education, was elected county engineer, founded the Lander Engineering Company of Cleveland, was out of office for a while, and again elected to that position and is at present serving as county engineer and surveyor. One of his most important works, in construction, is the Rocky River bridge, the concrete arch of which, at the time it was built, was the largest in the United States. He drew the plans for the Superior Street High Level bridge, with subway, a feature which he strongly advocated, and which has proved to be a fine thing for traffic. The plans were revised and the construction carried out by Mr. Stinchcomb, his successor as county engineer. Both of these gentlemen have made a name reflecting great credit on themselves in that important office. Under both administrations road construction has advanced to a point of efficiency never before reached in the history of the county. The Jackson families are identified with the history of Orange and its part in the fraternity of townships. Charles Jackson, born in, the County of Yorkshire, England, and C. L. Jackson, of the same nativity, came with their parents, Row and Jane (Lonsdale) Jackson, to Orange in 1835. Charles became a republican in politics, and C. L. a democrat, but both were good republicans and good democrats. In the township Charles served as constable one year, assessor seven years, clerk eight years, and justice of the peace eighteen years. He also served on the Board of Education. He served the county as county commissioner for three successive terms. C. L. Jackson served as trustee of the township for three terms and held other public positions. He owned one of the finest farms in the township, comprising 248 acres. His wife was prominent in the Methodist Episcopal Church. A son, W. W. Jackson, was the principal of the West Cleveland schools while that municipality was in existence, and when it became a part of Cleveland, Professor Jackson became a Cleveland teacher. The Mapes family deserve especial mention. John D. Mapes, born in Seneca County, New York, came to Orange in 1831. Before coming he married Henrietta Patchen, and the two started pioneer life on the Orange farm. The family grew to eight children, six of whom became school teachers. The oldest child was named Edwin. He served as justice of the peace, and then his name read Edwin Mapes, Esquire. He married Mary Thorp, and their children numbered six, and four became successful school teachers. But school teaching was not the sole ambition of the members of the family, for Perry Mapes and John P. Mapes, grandsons of John D., made a great record in the county under the firm name of Mapes Brothers. Their farm in Orange became known over the county for its fine product of milk, cream, and maple syrup. In the markets of Cleveland the label "Mapes Brothers" became known as the synonym of choice product. The farm became a model of attractiveness and beauty. And now as to Uncle Boynton. Fifty years ago B. A. Hinsdale, of Hiram College, wrote a sketch of the half brother of President Garfield's father, Uncle Amos, which runs as follows: Caleb Boynton, father, was a native of Massachusetts. We know but little of his genealogy but find him in Worcester, Otsego County, New York, early in the nineteenth century. There he married Asenath Garfield, the widow of Thomas Garfield, and the mother by her two husbands of thirteen children. Four of these were Garfields, Polly, Betsey, Abram, and Thomas, Abram being the father of James A. Garfield. Her children by Mr. Boynton were: Anna, Amos, Nathan, Alpha, Calista, Jerry, William, and John. In 1808 he moved to Madrid, St. Lawrence County, New York. In 1818, in company with his son Amos, he made a winter journey in a sleigh to Ohio, whither he was followed by the remainder of his family the next spring. He made his home in Independence, Cuyahoga County, where he died in 1821. He was a soldier in the War of 1812. Amos Boynton, the second child of Caleb and Asenath, was born in Otsego County, New York, September 9, 1805. He lived with his father in Independence, and when his father died he, at the age of seventeen, started out to shift for himself. He was employed for some time on construction work on the Erie Canal, and assisted his half brother, Abram Garfield, in carrying out several large contracts on the Ohio Canal. October 17, 1826, he married Alpha Ballou, a younger sister of the wife of Abram Garfield. These two belonged to the well known Ballou family of New England, their father being James Ballou of Cumberland, Rhode Island, and their mother Mehitable Ingalls of the Town of Richmond, New Hampshire. In 1829 Abram Garfield and Amos Boynton purchased a small farm, each, in Orange, Cuyahoga County, and on these farms established their families. Their homes were three miles from the present Town of Chagrin Falls, and four miles from the Village of Solon, but neither of these places then existed, and all around was an unbroken wilderness. Their nearest neighbors were the Mapes family a mile distant, and the next nearest were in the north part of the township nearly three miles away. These two men, earnestly seconded by their devoted wives, fell to work to clear up their farms and to build their homes. Mr. Garfield lived but four years. He died in 1833, leaving four children to the care of their mother. Mr. Boynton lived to clear up his farm, to rear a family, and to see the wilderness of 1829 transformed into cultivated land dotted by homes of a numerous, thrifty, and happy population. But this struggle with nature was too much for his powers, and he was compelled to relinquish his business, little by little, until in the spring of 1866 he left the farm and removed to Cleveland in search of rest, which he so much needed. The quest was vain, his native force was too much abated and he was taken with a lingering and painful illness and died December 3, 1866, in his sixty second year. Mr. Boynton had a family of seven children, William A., who died at the age of twenty nine; Henry B., who remained on the old farm when he moved to Cleveland; Harriet A., who became Mrs. Clark of Bedford; Phoebe M., later Mrs. Clapp of Hiram; Silas A., a distinguished physician of Cleveland; Mary C., who became Mrs. Arnold of Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Bentley, who died at the age of fourteen months. Mrs. Boynton, the companion of their forty years of married life, survived him many years.

Amos Boynton was of medium size, of vigorous and enduring physical powers, and of clear, strong and well poised mind. His opportunity for obtaining the education of schools was limited, being those of his time and state. He closely read the few books within his reach, but the one book that he knew was the Bible. His farm and family were the center of his life. He was a tireless worker, a close economist, a painstaking farmer. He was methodical in all things to minuteness. His farm was the best kept in the neighborhood, his products went to market in the best order and commanded the best price. In his business deals he was honest to a farthing and required men to be equally honest with him. He had an invincible abhorrence of anything like sham or false appearance, and the competence that he gathered was the slow result of hard labor and small savings. Boundless nature lay about him. He had himself, that was all. He must work ceaselessly and save carefully or live in poverty. Still, his heart always responded to the calls of the poor, the suffering, and oppressed. In the community he stood a standard of truth, honesty, and justice. He watched carefully over his children. Aided by his wife, who had been a teacher, he instilled into them a desire for education, and all of them but the one who died in infancy were at one time teachers. He gave them habits of industry, implanted in their minds the great law of morals and the sentiments of religion. Intemperance and profanity were unknown in his family circle. At the death of Abram Garfield in 1833 Mr. Boynton stood in a peculiarly close and interesting relationship to the family of the deceased. General Garfield gratefully recognized this obligation and spoke in strong terms of appreciation of the extent and kind of his uncle's influence upon himself. This came partly in the way of wise counsel and direction but more probably in the form of that unconscious influence, which works so silently, yet so powerfully. The hard worked farmer found time to aid the young men of the neighborhood in organizing and maintaining a debating society and he frequently took part as a critic and guide in the efforts of his children and their associates to "think on their feet" and defend their opinions. He was frequently made judge of their debates and his approval was a reward worthy of their best efforts. His type was that created in the school of John Calvin, strong, deep, narrow, just, true, severe. He was one of the last of the Puritans. His type, the pioneer engrafted on the Puritan, is passing away, but before it vanishes it should be faithfully painted in all its lights and shadows for the benefit of posterity.

We have given a larger mention of Uncle Boynton as a pioneer of Orange, first, because of his dose relationship to the family and boyhood and young manhood of President Garfield, and second because he represents in his character and life the dominant type of pioneer found in every township of Cuyahoga County.

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