History of Connoquenessing, Pa.
From: A History of Butler County, Pennsylvania
Published By R. C. Brown & Co., Publishers 1895


THIS township takes its name from the Indian word Connoquenessing, meaning "For a long way straight," applied to the creek by the Indians. It was one of the four original townships of the county, and embraced the present divisions known as Cranberry, Jackson, Lancaster, and Muddy Creek, and parts of Worth, Brady, Franklin, Connoquenessing, Forward and Adams, all within the Depreciation lands district, in Jones', Nicholson's and Alexander's surveys. In 1804, the township was reduced to nine miles square; in 1842, it was divided into East and West Connoquenessing, and in 1854 reduced to its present area.

Connoquenessing township is drained in its southeast corner by a half dozen little feeders of the main stream. Crab run rises above Whitestown, flows along the west line and enters the Little Connoquenessing just west of the township line. This last named stream receives the Semiconon almost in the center of the township, and the two creeks drain the northeast quarter, the center of the south half, and the southwest quarter. West of the Butler and Petersville road, the township is hilly, its inclines being very decisive. For this reason, it is easier to drive from Butler to Whitestown via Prospect, or from the White Springs neighborhood via Petersville and the old pike road, than cross the hills, which in some places rise 450 feet above the creek bottoms. Withal it is a fine farming country and possesses many first class agriculturists. Near the Lancaster line, the old coal banks of Daniel Cable, in the Gallitzin coal, were worked for years; while a simi lar coal was found in the McCandless bank and the Muder bank on the opposite side of the Little Connoquenessing. At the mouth of the Semiconan, it is found on the Graham farm, and farther up, in the Wilson bank, the Edmondson mine, and above and below the old mill, as well as on the Galloway lands near Allen's mill, now operated by Finerty & Son, and along Crab run, east of Whitestown, Below the mill clam, a brecciateci Freeport limestone has been quarried for building and burning, and Freeport coal is also found.


The settlement of Peter Kinney, commonly written McKinney, in Forward township, in 1702, and his transfer to a point at or near Petersville, shortly after, are noticed in the chapter on The Pioneers, and as a veteran of the Revolution is also spoken of in the chapter on Early Military History. Petersville, where he resided until his death, in 1849, was named in his honor, and a thousand reminis cences of olden days cluster round the pioneer's tavern and shoemaker's shop.

Dunning McNair, the land speculator, erected a cabin in 1795, on or near the James McCandless farm and laid claim to large tracts of the Morris lands He induced five or six Scotch families to leave Westmoreland county and settled in this township. They trusted the man and paid him for their lands; but when the legal owner appeared, they had to pay again. John Ekin came hither in 1795, erected a cabin, and in 1796, brought his wife, Agnes, from Westmoreland eounty, and located near the site of Whitestown, where this pioneer wife died in 1833, and her husband in 1837. Leonard Shannon, who came with Ekin in 1795, and erected a cabin here, did not bring his family to their new home until 1799. His son David, born in 1791 in Westmoreland county, became publisher of the Repository at Butler, built a mill on the Semiconan and was a sterling citizen.

Daniel Graham, a soldier of the Revolution, moved from Braddock's Field to Connoquenessing township, in 1796, where he died in• 1839. When the Reformers got possession of Scotland about 1587, the Graham's found a refuge on the Isle of Lewis, and to that island they look as the cradle of the family. In 1803, Daniel Graham, known as " Little Dan," Daniel Graham, known as "Big Dan," John, Malcolm, Angus, Matthew and William, who came from Ireland in 1801, owned 3,300 acres of land in this township. Angus served in the Revolution and his sons in the War of 1812.

Mordecai McLeod came in 1796, and in 1803 owned two tracts of 400 acres each: while Norman owned three cows; William, 400 acres; John, 400 acres, and Angus, a single man, 400 acres. Cohn McDonald's land was taken possession of, in his absence, by one John Bailes. In 1803, the family was represented here by Colin, Daniel, John, a single man, John Jr., and William, all owning 1,600 acres.

John Beighley and his brother Henry arrived in 1796, and Peter, George and Jacob came a year or so later, each of the three first named being a land owner in 1803; while Jacob had 400 acres in Clay township. John brought his family hither from Westmoreland county in 1798, and resided here until his death in 1846. Henry died in 1836. They were descendants of the Palatinates who were shipped to Maryland and Pennsylvania, from England, about the middle of the Eighteenth century. Francis Sandford came in 1706, purchased 400 acres of land and was one of the progressive farmers of pioneer times. Nicholas Mubleisen, another descendant of the Palatinate shipments, arrived in 1796 and settled near the Beighleys. He was a weaver, cooper, carpenter, tinner and general fixer, and saw here a chance for his handiwork before bringing his family from Westmoreland county. David Moon, another Palatinate, had 200 acres which he worked with a yoke of oxen for eighteen hours a day.

William Campbell, the bear hunter, may be credited with settlement in 1796. He had 300 acres of land, but he devoted his time to hunting rather than to agriculture. James Plummer, a settler of 1796, sold his four hundred acres on Crab run to George Matthews, in 1813, and moved to some other part of the county. Abdiel and Andrew McClure located here in 1706. Both were natives of Ireland and the former a soldier of the Revolution, while Robert, his son, was a wagoner in the War of 1812.

Charles McGinnis, Sr., and Charles, a single man, with John McGinnis, Sr., were here prior to 1800, Charles Sr., owning 100 acres, three cows and me horse in 1803. Stephen and Joseph Crawford located 750 acres near John Ekin's cabin in 1796, and brought their families into the wilderness. Israel Gibson, who married one of the Girty girls, resided south of the site of Whites0 town, due west of Mt. Nebo cemetery. His wife died, it is said, in 1801, and was among the first tenants of that cemetery. Thomas Gray located among the pioneers, where he had 400 acres of land, two horses and three in 1803. John, Thomas and Ann Girty, said to have been related to the Scotch-Irish renegade and traitor, Simon Girty, who was in the employe of the English during the Revolution, resided in a cabin on what is now the Shiever farm, south of the forks of the Harmony and Evans City roads. It is said that Ann was shot and killed as she stood in the cabin door, and that burial was denied the body by the elders of Mt. Nebo church, or the cemetery managers or owners. Thomas Girty's wife was buried at Mt. Nebo, and he was known as a single man, residing on his 400-acre farm in 1803. Alexander Bryson located 400 acres on the Little Connoquenessing about 1800, and built a grist-mill on that stream in 1805. He moved to Ohio after the county was organized, to teach school, and there died.

John Welsh, a native of Ireland, and a veteran of the Revolution, came to this township about 1800, from Westmoreland county, bringing his family with him. Some of his sons served in the War of 1812. Andrew Baker, whose farm passed into the hands of Gen. William Ayres, left about 1810. Ayres rented the lands to George King, who brought the wagon he used, as wagoner in the War of 1812, here in 1814. lIe built a large frame barn, which is still. standing. In that structure the seceders from Mt. Nebo church held meetings until the White Oak Springs church was completed. Thomas Dodds, born on the Atlantic, while his parents James and Mary Dodds were en route from Ireland to the United States, settled south of Mt. Chestnut in 1800, and died there in 1842. He served this county as commissioner. In 1803, Thomas and William Dodds had 650 acres of land and six cows.

Matthew White, whose name occurs so often in the early history of the county, came from Allegheny county, in May, 1799, and located 400 acres on the site of Whitestown, where he established a tannery and tavern. His infant son John, who died in August, 1801, was the first tenant of ML Nebo cemetery; Moses Richardson, who was accidcntly killed, in 1801, being the second, and one of the Girtys the third. Matthew White died in 1813. John Richardson, an Irish emigrant, purchased 400 acres in 1800 and built his cabin the same year, where he carried on the trade of weaver. His wife, Ann Pillow, was a daughter of Col. Henry Pillow, who came from Ireland the same year. William Martin, Sr., William, Michael, John, Daniel and Robert Martin, Sr., came from Ireland with his parents, William and Elizabeth Martin, in 1801, and located on Yellow creek, but selected other hands subsequent to 1803. Robert was a single man then; but he married Keziah MdClure in 1808, and raised a large fainihy. Mrs. Martin died in 1843, and Robert in 1847. He filled several township and county offices and served as a captain in the War of 1812.

Robert Hays, who had 400 acres of land, two cows and two horses, in 1803, also carried on a distillery. Samuel, his son, established a store on the farm, near the west line of the township, in 1822, and carried it on until 1834, in connection with peddling; but for over thirty years prior to his death, in 1873, he was an agriculturalist. William Purviance, born in Washington county, came to the Petersville neighborhood in 1810 and purchased the William Campbell farm and mill. For forty-nine years he was a surveyor, served two terms in the legislature and was county surveyor for three terms.

James Stevenson. who was a cooper at Butler in 1811, came here in 1825; Thomas Alexander came from Ireland prior to 1820, and was one of the useful pioneers; George Cowan, a native of Ireland, came in 1821 ; Harrison Dyke, a millwright, came in 1824; Peter Nicklass settled at Harmony in 1832, then moved to Donegal township and afterwards located here; James C. McCandless. Jacob Dambach, Thomas C. Allen, Daniel Cable and others came in after 1830.

The original township had a population of 1,284, in 1810; reduced to 977, by cutting off territory, in 1820; increased to 1,944 by 1830; to 2,692 by 1840; reduced to 2,518, owing to cutting off territory, by 1850; and reduced to 1,098 by 1860, six years after the general resubdivision of the county. In 1880, the population was 1,191, and in 1890, 1,55a. The assessed valuation, in 1894, was $298,004; the county tax levied, $1,192.01, and the State tax, $401.99.


The first election held in Connoquenessing towrnship, after its organization as one of the thirteen original townships, was that of October 14, 1800. There were seventy-six votes cast for congressional candidates, 140 for sheriff, seventythree for coroner and seventy-four for commissioner. Matthew White's house was the polling place. Robert Martin was inspector; Moses Bolton, Leonard Shuman and Robert Boggs, the judges, and Andrew McClure and Thomas Nisbit, clerks.

The first election for county officers was held in East Connoquenessing township, October 11, 1842, when John Shearer was judge, and Henry Buhl and J. W. McCandless, inspectors. One hundred and fifty-one votes were cast for the candidates for Assembly; John R. Harris, one of the candidates for sheriff received 118 votes, and James G. Campbell, the other, forty-one votes.

The first election for county officers in Wast Connoquenessing township was held October 11, 1842, Christian Buhi being judge, and John Levis and John Boyer, inspectors. The vote cast was 161 for William Balph, candidate for register and recorder, against seventy-five recorded for his opponent, William Walker. Abraham Moyer received the highest vote, being 186, against fiftyseven for John Shaffer, they being the candidates for commissioner.

The justices of the peace for Connoquenessing from 1840 to 1894 are named as follows: Daniel Graham, 1840; 1-lenry Umpstead, 1840; Thomas Fletcher, 1841; Abraham Moyer, 1841; David Shannon, 1845, 1850 and 1855; John M. Graham, 1845; Thomas Cratty, 1846, 1851 and 1850; James S. Kirker, 1846 and 1851; Jared F. Phillips, 1851; William S. McKinney, 1800 and 1865; Samuel Reed, 1860; Isaiah N. Graham, 1869 and 1875; jacob Fry, 1870 and 1877; James McKinncy, 1872; Alexander Stewart, 1870, 1881 and 1886; C. A. McKinney, 1881 ; Thomas Graham, 1886; Rudolph Barnhart, 1891; W. H. Alexander, 1891 and Daniel B. Weize, 1892


In 1805 Alexander Bryson built a small grist mill on the Little Connoquenessing creek, a short distance south of Mt. Chestnut. 'After he removeçl to Ohio the mill became the property of his son, Richard, who operated it until 1828, when he sold it to his brother, Joseph. In 1837 a new mill, begun in 1835, on the site of the old one, was completed. in 1831 Joseph Bryson erected a sawmill near by, and ran it in connection with the grist mill. Mark Hammer, who had previously worked at Brinker's mill, was the first miller. He came in 1831. Numerous changes of ownership have taken place during the intervening years; tile mill also having undergone repeated repairs and improvements. The present proprietor is O. W. Eagle.

William Campbell built a grist mill on Powder Mill run, near Petersville, in 1807. About 1810 William Purviance purchased the property and converted it into a powder mill. Campbell E. Purviance built another powder mill in 1840, which he operated until 1854.

The Crab Run grist and saw mills were erected in 1811, by Henry Beighley, who carried them on until his death, in 1836. The Shannon grist, carding and saw mills, on the Semiconan, were built in 1818 by David Shannon, who came into the Semiconan valley in 1799, when a child. He named the creek, considering it as half the Connoquenessing. In 1849 William Allen built a new mill on the site of the grist mill. Hurh Gibson erected a grist mill on the Semiconan in 1827 or 1828. Time and competition led to its demolition, and upon its site, the most romantic spot in the valley, James McKinney erected a larger mill, which he carried on successfully until 1865, when it was purchased by R. S. Hays.


The first school-house in Connoquenessing township was that built one and one-half miles west of Whitestown on John Beighley's farm. Nicholas Muhleisen, the pioneer teacher, taught German there for many years. The first teacher of English was Mr. Irvine, who had a school at Ekin's, east of Whitestown, in 1799. The second school building was constructed on the hill or divide between the Connoquenessing and Little Connoquenessing, on the trail from Fort Pitt to Venango, about three miles north of Evans City. The Grahams, Welshs, Magees and McDonalds were the builders, and a Mr. Evans was the first teacher. George Lee was teaching here when drowned below Amberson's bridge. Near the old Samuel Hays dwelling another pioneer school was erected, and there John Sanderson presided as teacher. Rev. Reid Bracken preached here whenever he would visit the settlement, until the building of Mt. Nebo church. On the James Hays farm, a fourth school-house was erected, in which John McKendry, W. W. Brandon, Robert B. Walker, Griffith Owen, Robert Stewart, W. G. Bracken, Robert McElvaine, Robert Flays and James McCandless taught successively. There are now seven school-houses in the township. The children of school age here, in 1894, numbered 157 males, and 144 females.


Mt. Nebo Presbyterian Church was organized in 1805, by Rev. Reid Bracken, with James Plummer and Joseph McPherrin, elders. Mr. Bracken was installed pastor by the Erie Presbytery, April 20, 1808, and preached here until 1844. Rev. Mr. Leake preached here from 1845 to 1848; Rev. Alexander Cunningham, from 1852 to 1860; Rev. William P. Harrison from July 7, 1863, to june 19, 1867; Rev. Samuel L. Johnson from 1870 to 1882, and Rev. Jonathan W. Miller from 1884 to 1887. Flis successor, Rev. Watson J. Young, is tile present pastor. Shortly after the installation of Mr. Bracken, a log church was built near the site of the present brick building. On March 12, 1827, an adver tisement appeared, asking for bids for erecting a stone meeting-house, which was signed by Leonard Shannon, David Shannon, William Flays, Alexander Hays, John Branclon, William Morrison and Robert Martin. A few years later the stone church was completed and sheltered the congregation for over thirty years.

On February 15, 1859, an advertisement for bids for a church building at Whitestown appeared. The building committee comprised M. F. White, Robert Hays, Thomas Cratty, Jr., John Brandon and James Anderson. Under their direction a substantial brick building was erected, which to-day appears almost as good as the day it was built. Long before the old log church was abandoned, or about 1817, the introduction of "Watt's Psalms," in lieu of the psalms formerly in use, incited rebellion, as several members did not wish to cast aside those with which they were familiar. The seceders went out in a body to the Associate Reformed society, and the church at White Oak Springs resulted. Articles of qssociation of Mount Nebo Presbyterian church were examined by the court of common pleas, January 6, 1847, and on the same day, a charter was granted. The trustees were William C. Martin, Abdiel McClure and Thomas j. Gibson. The list of elders embraces the names of Israel Gibson, R. I-lays, John Dick, John Brandon, James Welsh, Thomas Cratty, James Scott, Thomas H. Bracken, Robert Hays, John Martin, James Anderson, Bryson Black, A. W. McCollough, John Cratty, John W. Martin, Dr. William A. Clark, Joim Weigle, Elliott Robb, John W. Brandon, James Brandon, Henry Welch, John A. Brandon, Reed Nesbit and R. B. Gibson. In 1893 there were 100 members reported by J. A. Brandon, clerk of the session. The cemetery belonging to this church dates back to 1801.

While Oak Springs United Presbyterian Church was' organized in 1818 by Rev. Isaiah Nibiock, of Butler, and Elders Thomas Dodds, Hugh McKee and George Matthews, with a few followers of the church residing in that district, and several seceders from Mt. Nebo Presbyterian church, making, in all, sixteen members. From 1818 to the completion of a brick house in 1820, the members worshipped in a tent. In 1862, the old brick church was removed and the present building erected at a cost of about $3,500. After Mr. Niblock was released, in 1834, the pulpit was vacant until 1836, when Rev. William Findley was called. In 1853 or1854, Rev. Thomas Drennen came and preached here until his death. In 1858, Rev. W. H. Jamison accepted a call, and remained until 1879. Rev. T. W. Young succeeded him and Rev. J. B. Borland, the present pastor, followed Mr. Young. There were 168 members reported in 1894, among whom are many representatives of the pioneers who made its beginning in 1818, such as the Dodds, Martins, Mahargs, Critchiows, Richardsons, Brysons, Rumseys, McKees, Roses, Fultons, Gillilands, McLains, McLeods, Stevensons, Fraziers, Wrights, Johnsons, Matthews, and others. In the cemetery may be found some old headstones such as those raised over Thomas McKinney, who died January 26, 1830; John Hamble, April 25, 1833; Rachael Matthews, July 9, 1832; Nancy Matthews, January 1, 1832; John Gray, October 18, 1839; Sarah Jane Balph, January 16, 1851, and Jane McGinnis, January 15, 1844. The society was incorPorated November 21, 1883, Henry Brunermer, William Shorts, john M. Rose, I. N. Duncan and Dr. J. L. Christie signing the constitution.

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Petersville, organized March 15, 1858, is noticed in the history of Forward township, where the building is located.

St. Paul's Reformed Lutheran Church was organized in 1865, with Peter Rader, Nicholas Frishkorn, Jacob Ziegler and others named in the sketch of St. Paul's church, of Petersville. The pastors were Revs. Landis, F. A. Edmonds and Scheel.

St. Paul's German Evangelical Protestant United Church of Petersville, was organized September 28, 1885, with Peter Rader, George Hartman, Adam Hartman, Casper Fehl and Mrs. Peter Staaf, with others, named in the articles of association, as members. The society was incorporated March 16, 1887, with Martin Flinner, Edward and Nicholas Miller, Andrew and William Fehi and Casper Nolzheim, members. All resided at or near Reibold station. The same year Rev. E. H. Otting, of Grace Reformed church, Harmony, became pastor, a position he held until March 18, 1894, when he resigned the pastorate of the Harmony church and others in his charge. The present building, a substantial frame house, thirty by forty-five feet, was erected in 1887 at a cost of $1,000.

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church of Petersville was formally organized September 25. 1880, by Rev. E. Cronenwett of Butler, who, before and after that date, preached occasionally here in the Methodist church or in a school. Organization was completed November 3, 1886, at the house of Conrad Nicklass, who, with Rev. Cronenwett, George H. Burr, Isaac Burr, Philip Burr, Charles Nicklass, John Burr and M. McKinney, were present. On September 4, 1887, the corner stone of the present building was laid; on December 14, the society was incorporated, and April 22, 1888, the house was dedicated. Rev. Louis Wagner preached the dedicatory sermon. The resignation of Mr. Cronenwett was announced September 14, 1889, and fifteen clays later Rev. Louis Wagner was chosen his successor. The membership in 1894 was sixty-five. The officers were Jacob Hutzly and charles Nicklass, elders; Charles Spithaler and Adam Nicklass, deacons; Milton Cress, Conrad Nicklass and Philip Burr, trustees.


Whitestown had its inception in 1799, when Matthew White settled there, and started a tannery and tavern, although it was not platted until 1813, after the death of the pioneer, when Edward, his son succeeded him as tavern-keeper and had the land surveyed into town lots. Matthew White, a relative of the pioneer and a son of Alexander White carried on a tavern here down to 1831. At that thne the temperance movement was in full force and the temperance party, having secured postoffice privileges for the place and established literary societies, thought it wasligh time to boycott thirsty travelers as well as thirsty residents. Edward White, the second tavern-keeper and first postmaster, from 1831 to 1839, was succeeded as postmaster by John A. Fletcher, who held the office until 1879. Since 1879, Joseph Graham, George Graham, Samuel O. Wright and J. H. Doutf, appointed in May, 1893, have filled the office.

The first merchant was Alfred Pearce, who moved to Harmony and was there elected justice of the peace. Joseph W. Pollock and John W. Brandon were early merchants. Samuel Reed kept store in the brick house, formerly Matthew White's tavern. It was built in 1859 to replace the old log and frame house. Joseph Pyle carried on a tavern here for some years, and it is said that Andrew Spear, Jacob Cratty, Thomas Cratty and Andrew W. McCollough, carried on business here at various times. Joseph Graham came in 1871; George Graham and Dr. McConnell had a store north of the brick house. S. O. and J. C. Wright and W. H. Alexander leased the brick building later and it is now owned by J. H. Doutt and W. H. Alexander, who carry on a general store and postoflice therein. The village is in the midst of one of the finest agricultural districts in the county. The oil deposits have been but little developed. Coal of good quality is found in the vicinity, and it is only a matter of a little time until natural gas is introduced into the homes of this locality.

Petersville, named Petersburg in 1848, in honor of Peter McKinney, the pioneer of Connoquenessing township, was surveyed in June, 1849, into town lots, near the site of William Campbell's old powder mill and Campbell E. Purviance's new mill, for William S. and C. A. McKinnev. In 1812 old John Crowe settled on the site, but afterwards moved into what is now Forward township. Away back in the twenties the place was known as "McKinney's Tavern." The pioneer merchant appears to have been Alexander Douthett, who seems to have pursued a mercantile itinerancy for a time appearing once a week at McKinney's tavern wIth a stock of goods, which he exposed for sale. He afterwards opened a store and established himself in business as the first merchant in the place. Thomas Critchiow used also to visit the place twice a week with a stock of goods, before opening a stoi-e. About 1837 William and Henry Purviance bought out Alexander Douthett. David Marshall opened a little store in 1838, and Hugh Stevenson a tavern in 1849. At the sale of lots in the latter year, Thomas Critchlow, Jesse Critchlow, George Brunermer, James McKinney, Evans Critchlow, Henry Nicklas, and a few others, became purchasers. Thomas Critchlow, who had been appointed postmaster in 1848, was the principal buyer.

The business established by Alexander Douthett and sold by him to William and Henry Purviance, appears to have had many owners, among those who succeedeci to it being David Marshall, C. A. McKinney, Thomas Critchlow, John M. McKinney, C. E. Purviance, Thomas Short, Bryson & Woods, Robert Dodds, John and R. Dodds, fohn Ferguson, Fluselton & Crafty, J. W. Kaltenbach & Company, James Boggs, H. P. Wilson, Damback & Purviance, Nicklas & Brothers. Peter Staaf and W. A. Purviance, who was the owner in 1876.

In that year there were seventeen families and a total population of seventy persons in the village. Today. the drug store of Dr. J. L. Christie and the general stores af C. Nicklas, J. T. and W. A. Purviance, and Barnhart & Son, represent the mercantile interests; while the agricultural implement factory, established in 1880 by P. W. Thomas, represents the manufacturing industries.

The postmasters from 1848, when Petersburg office was established, to 1885, were Thomas Critchlow, George Brunermer, Hugh Stevenson, William S. McKinney, Jacob Fry and Conrad Nickhas. In 1885 A. A. Vandling was appointed, and May 7, 1888, Caroline Rasely, the present incumbent took charge of the office, in 1871 the name of the office was changed to Connoquenessing. Petersville Lodge, Number 364, Jr. O. U. A. M., organized in 1891, has left its charter and a few members here. George Thomas, the first councillor, is also the present one. J. H. Miller is recorder, and Charles Ray, treasurer. The Knights of the Maccabees had also to cast their tents in other fields, the lodge being re-organized at Renfrew in June, 1893.

Buttercup is the name of a postoffice established in the seventies, with J. N. Stephenson as postmaster. Its history dates back about forty years, when the first store was established here by George Ansley and P. W. Thomas. For about Sixteen years they carried on business in the original frame building, when Calvin and Henry Dietrich succeeded them and continued for about five years, when the store building became vacant and so remained for about ten years, and was then re-opened by Samuel L. Rasely. After three years R. W. Barnhart bought his interests, but six years later sold out the stock. In 1892 R. S. Henry built the present store, and has since carried on the business.

J. N. Stephenson, the first postmaster appointed, remained in charge until he moved away. He locked the office and left the key with R. S. Henry. In 1884 the office was re-established, with Samuel L. Rasely in charge. In 1886 Presley A. Barnhart was appointed, and he served until July 1, 1892, when R. S. Henry succeeded him. He resigned, and Isaac M. Dyke was appointed, but after two months he, too, resigned, and Mr. Henry was re-appointed.


The Connoquenessing Vigilance Association, organized with the object of mutual protection against horse thieves and the prevention of the crime of horse stealing, was incorporated April 27, 1856. The directors named in the articles of association were L. P. Hazlett, president; Greer McCandless, secretary; John T. Cooper, Robert S. Hays, F. S. Dambach, W. M. Humphrey, William Anderson, Jacob Dambach and John R Boyer. Eighty-two members signed the constitution. The present membership is eighty, the officers being L. P. Hazlett, president. and Greer McCandless secretary.

The Connoquenessing Valley Agricultural Society was incorporated March 20, 1875, with 113 members. It has passed out of existence.

Eureka Grange, Number 224, P. of H., has an active membership in the township. Its purpose is to promote the interests of agriculture and foster a fraternal spirit among the farmers.

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