History of Baileys Harbor, Door County, Wisconsin
From: History of Door County, Wisconsin
The County Beautiful
By: Hjalmar R. Holand, M. A.
The S. J. Clark Publishing Company
Chicago 1917

BAILEYS HARBOR

Baileys Harbor enjoys the distinction of being the first place in Door County that was selected for a village site. Not only this but it was officially selected as the county seat several years before Door County's actual organization was effected. The genesis of this early Baileys Harbor boom is as follows:

On a windy afternoon about seventy years ago a Captain Bailey was piloting his storm tossed vessel back to Milwaukee. He had been to Buffalo with wheat and was now returning with a lighter but more troublesome cargo of immigrants bound for the West. After he had passed the Straits of Mackinac and turned southward a fresh northeast wind began to blow which soon developed into a fierce gale. He was now skirting the shore of Door County and was thinking with gloomy misgivings of the 200 mile journey up the lake to Milwaukee without a harbor or an island or a lighthouse to ease him. on his way. His topheavy schooner almost stripped of canvas was rolling about in the heavy sea in a fashion which held but little hope for her safety in the approaching night. Just as the wailing of the frightened immigrants was threatening to drive the worthy captain. frantic he saw a large harbor opening into the land on the west. He did not know whether the water was deep enough for his boat or how the passage was into it as his faulty charts said but little of any harbor at this point. However, fearing sure shipwreck if he continued he determined to take a chance on the harbor and turned in. He found the passage was broad, deep and easy and in a few minutes his vessel lay snugly anchored under a protecting wing of pine that shut out all evidence of the storm that raged outside.

As the storm continued several days the captain had time to explore his surroundings. He found the harbor was deep and roomy while the shores were studded with a splendid growth of mixed timber. Back from the shore a short distance he found a ledge of fine building stone. lip among these crags grew the most luscious raspberries which were eagerly picked by immigrants weary of a diet of salt pork. No human occupants were found.

Elated with his discovery Captain Bailey took with him several cords of building stone and firewood and proceeded on his way to Milwaukee. Here he gave such an enthusiastic account of the harbor he had discovered that among other captains of the line "Baileys Harbor" at once became a famous place. The owner of the line, Mr. Alanson Sweet, also became very much interested in the samples of stone and wood that Captain Bailey had brought with him. Mr. Sweet was doing an extensive business in the forwarding and commission business and owned about a dozen large vessels. These plied between Milwaukee and Buffalo. On the way down there were always large cargoes of grain to be carried but on the way up the freight was scant and uncertain, consisting chiefly of salt and immigrants. In Captain Bailey's discovery he saw a chance to augment his profits by adding freight to his return trips. Building stone, cordwood and lumber were in great demand in Milwaukee and at "Baileys Harbor" they were all easily accessible. In the summer of 1849 he therefore purchased lots 3 and 4, section 20, containing about 125 acres. 'These with lots 1 and 2 in the same section include the present Village of Baileys Harbor. Lots 1 and 2 were entered by Joel Carrington from Peshtigo in September, 1849, and the patents to lots 3 and 4 were issued to Wm. S. Trowbridge who entered them May 29, 1850. There is therefore some doubt as to Sweet's title.

In the summer of 1849 he sent a crew of men under Solomon Beery up to build a pier and open a stone quarry. During the following winter the pier was built, being the first one built in Door County. The crew of men also cut and banked 2,500 cords of wood which were shipped to Milwaukee in the summer of 1850. Six comfortable log houses were also put up in the vicinity of where now stands Branns Store and a road was cut across the peninsula from the harbor to the Green Bay shore opposite Hat Island. This was the first road cut in Door County.

Mr. Sweet had great hopes of his colony at Baileys Harbor. He began negotiations at once with the Federal Government to secure a lighthouse for the harbor. In this he was successful and in 1851 he built a lighthouse under contract from the Government on the point at the east side of the bay. This lighthouse was in use until 1868 when the present range lights were built to take its place. He also got an act passed by the State Legislature setting off Door County as a separate county with its present boundaries. He also persuaded the lawmakers of Madison to designate his own little settlement at the harbor as the official county seat. To accomplish this he pointed out that this site had the best harbor - not only in Door County - but along the entire west shore of Lake Michigan and that it was therefore bound to become a place of great commercial importance. In contrast to this he claimed that all the western shore of Door County was made up of steep, unapproachable cliffs affording no natural shelter for shipping. He also showed that the proposed site for the county seat was half way between the northern and southern extremities of the county and therefore most centrally located. Finally, Baileys Harbor was the only village or claimant for the county seat in the entire county. All of this was more than enough for the worthy legislators, none of which ever expected to see the new county. The county seat was therefore established at Baileys Harbor but under another name. Mr. Sweet felt that Baileys Harbor - named after one of his own happy go lucky captains - was not sufficiently sonorous to fit the county seat. As the principal characteristic of the place to him seemed to be stone and rocks he was reminded of the name of Gibraltar, the great rock of the Mediterranean. He therefore suggested this name which was adopted as the official name of Door County's capital. This new name did not, however, stick with the people as did the old name of Baileys Harbor which continued to be used.

If Mr. Sweet had continued prosperously in the shipping business it is probable that Baileys Harbor would to this day have been the county seat, a little city of importance perhaps overshadowing Sturgeon Bay. However, for reason unknown to me, Mr. Sweet shortly afterward withdrew his connections from Baileys Harbor. His mill burned down. his pier went to ruin, his cottages crumbled into decay, and the hopeful county seat of Door County expired in its infancy. However, on the official records of the state it continued as the county seat until 1857 when the energetic hustlers of Sturgeon Bay took the necessary steps to have the county seat removed to the latter village. Notices were posted in Baileys Harbor and elsewhere, chiefly inspected by chipmunks, stating that an election would be held to learn the wish of the people as to the location of the county seat. A cigar box was then carried around to the scattered fishermen and few dozen farmers inviting them to vote for the rising metropolis, Sturgeon Bay, which they obligingly did.

While the county seat went south its name went north. In December, 1857, the Town of Gibraltar, as yet nameless, was set off, embracing all of the present Liberty Grove, Gibraltar, Egg Harbor, Baileys Harbor and Jacksonport. The following spring the first town meeting was held in Asa Thorp's house at Fish Creek. Solomon Beery proposed that the town adopt as its name the official name of the county seat, Gibraltar, which lay within its borders as befitting the bold precipitous cliffs that overshadowed them. This was done. When therefore Baileys Harbor in 1861 was set aside as a separate town it lost even the name of its former glory.

For a time Baileys Harbor relapsed into almost primeval seclusion. Its earlier population mostly left for other parts, leaving only Solomon Beery, Miles M. Carrington, Adam Hendricks and S. B. Ward. The last was a kindly, chatty old man who had brought a small stock of provisions and notions to the Harbor in 1853 and opened a small store in the firm conviction that Baileys Harbor would soon become the business center of the entire county. He was the first storekeeper on the peninsula. In 1870 he fell dead on the street of heart failure.

These early settlers at the Harbor during the '50s existed after a fashion, fishing a little, hunting a little and now and then sawing a little lumber with a stationary engine that some one had landed. There was no pier, however, so shipments were made with difficulty.

In 1857 a new business man from outside parts saw possibilities in Baileys Harbor. This man was A. K. Lee, who built six limekilns along the bluff and proceeded to burn and ship lime in a wholesale fashion. He also built a very large dwelling house "with a cupola from which you could see clean across Lake Michigan," on the site of Wm. Brann's new house. He had time to make only one shipment of lime when he failed in business. His interests were now taken over by Cooley Williamson. He operated the business for a year but found much trouble in shipping lime by water. When at the end of this time the large comfortable house left by Lee burned up, he gave up the business in disgust and removed to other parts.

Among the men that Lee brought up to work at the lime kilns was Hugh Collins. He stayed and shortly afterward cleared a farm three miles south of Baileys Harbor on which his family still reside. Through him several Irish families settled near the harbor. A number of other men who had drifted north in the hope of good employment in the village but were disappointed followed suit and began the huge task of carving out farms out of the vast forest that surrounded Baileys Harbor. Among those who stayed and became old settlers were T. W. McCullough, Peter Goss, Samuel Williams, J. B. Lallemont, William Toseland, William and Thomas Panter, John and Con Collins, James Ridings, Hugh Spring and Roger Eatough. These all came during the Civil war or shortly after. The. greater part of Baileys Harbor's choicest surrounding farming lands, lying west and northwest of the village, was not settled until about 1876 when there was a considerable immigration of Polanders. They live partly in the Town of Baileys Harbor and partly in Gibraltar and the story of their coming is told in a separate chapter. About this time (1877) also came the Brann brothers, John, Andrew, William and August Brann, who later became prominent business men of Baileys Harbor. They are from Finland. They were sailors and when their vessel in 1877 was laid up they were directed to Door County where woodchopping was at its height. They came here with about twenty other Finnish sailors who all fell to chopping and later became prosperous citizens.

In the meantime the Village of Baileys Harbor, having made several false starts, had found its true course and was now humming merrily. This real beginning of the village may be said to start with Moses Kilgore's arrival in 1860. He built the first permanent pier in the village in 1861 and by it made an outlet for the vast forest products that for forty years made Baileys Harbor the chief shipping point for cordwood, ties, and cedar poles in the county.

In 1865 William R. Higgins and his son, Allen Higgins, built a pier a mile south of Baileys Harbor which for many years did a big business. Maj. J. W. Lowell followed with a sawmill and a hotel was also built. For many years Hit gins Pier, or "Frogtown" as it was called, now one of the most peaceful spots in the county, was a very busy trading point.

Between the village proper and Higgins Pier the road traversed the land of a man by the name of Finch. Certain legal formalities had been omitted in opening the road and Finch began a series of suits against the town for damages. So persistent was he in pushing his legal claims that he after some years won the title of "the champion suists." The Door County Advocate of February 25, 1869, contains the following account of his legal persistence:

"We have a champion suist in our county. He hails from Baileys Harbor and answers to the name of Finch. He is the Mark Tapley of suists and can stand more suits with greater cheerfulness than any other man we know of. He flourishes beneath the depressing influences of the law like a veritable green bay tree. No term of the Circuit Court escapes without his name on the calendar in some capacity, and during court week his cheerful countenance beams benignantly on judge, jury, lawyers and spectators. And he has influence too. Twice every year a delegation of Baileys Harborites come up and their business is Finch. The magic of his name summons them from their homes to brave the gibes of lawyers and the uncertainties of petit jurors. Between him and a portion of his townsmen is a road and that road has run through three years of our Circuit Court and bids fair to run for many a term to come. He takes a grim pleasure in thus playing familiarly with that that is a grim terror to so many, and takes more delight in punching up his unanmiable neighbors than a menagerie man the royal bengal tiger to make it roar. Great is the law and great is its friend Finch."

In spite of his persistence and the possible justice of his claim Mr. Finch was not a popular hero as he was interfering with a public necessity. It was therefore with a feeling of relief that people one day in the winter of 1871 heard that an end had come to Finch's lawsuits because he had committed suicide by hanging himself in the stable. The circumstances of the hanging were peculiar and many old settlers to this day feel sure that the man was murdered by his teamster instead of taking his own life. However, Finch by this time was considered a nuisance and no further inquiry was made into the manner of his death. The teamster married the widow and Baileys Harbor's perennial lawsuit was at end.

The village was platted in 1866 by Thomas Severn who bought the land, laid it out in lots, built a third pier where now is Anclam's Pier and opened a big store. He did a large business until he in 1871 sold out to F. Woldtman.

Owing to the shallow water at Baileys Harbor it was necesary to build very long piers which were expensive to keep up. In 1869 Kilgore built a long addition to his pier. During the following winter there was piled on this new extension no less than 800 cords of green maple wood. This load was too much for it and in January, 1870, this extension collapsed with a loss to Mr. Kilgore of about five thousand dollars besides a great loss to the pioneers who owned the wood who hoped with its returns to pay the interest on the mortgage.

Baileys Harbor was at this time and for many years afterward a very busy place. Numerous schooners were daily to be seen, loading wood and other products, more than a hundred cargoes being shipped annually. The big boats, plying between Chicago and Buffalo, also made regular stops at Baileys Harbor. Compared with the bustle of the latter '60s, '70s and '80s the village now presents a very tranquil appearance.

The greater part of the farming population around Baileys Harbor is German, most of whom settled oh their various tracts of wild land in the '80s. Of these immigrants it may be said that they helped to clear their part of the world of stump and stone, toiling desperately that their children might possibly haves little ease.

A serio-comic event of some importance happened in connection with the arrival of one of these immigrants which makes a rather good story. A man by the name of August Krauser, having laid aside a few dollars by diligent chopping of cordwood, bought transportation tickets from C. L. Nelson and sent them to Germany that his brother, Gottfried, and family might also come and partake of the wealth that abounded in the slashings of Door County. Gottfried and his family packed their boxes and went to Bremen to take passage for America. Through some mistake the ticket for the youngest child was made out for an infant of less than a year old and the child being over this age was not permitted to go on board. In their dilemma it was arranged that the wife and the children should go on to America first and there arrange with their relative to have the mistake corrected so that Gottfried could follow. In due course of time the woman with the children arrived in Door County and explained why the father had been left behind. Through Mr. Nelson arrangements were now made to bring over. Gottfried Krauser who, however, in the meantime had disappeared. After months of search the steamship company finally found him in a hospital with an injured leg. He was finally brought on board the vessel to join his family.

In the meantime his wife had given up her husband for lost. After a brief season of grief she was ardently wooed by another German in her new home in Gibraltar by the name of Anton Mahlberger. When he proposed to marry her, children and all, she demurely consented and the marriage knot was tied at once by the renowned justice, William Jackson.

The next day a goodly crowd was assembled in one of the saloons of Baileys Harbor, where Anton Mahiberger was "setting them up" in honor of the event. Just as they were having "one round more" and congratulations were profuse and noisy another man stepped in. It was C. L. Nelson, the agent of the steamship company. He listened to their thick tongued chatter for a moment and then created great consternation by announcing that their celebration was a little premature - husband number one had just arrived in Sturgeon Bay! For a moment there was silence and visions of a deadly struggle between the two jealous husbands flew before the eyes of the excited bystanders. Anton Mahlberger was the least effected. He ordered up another drink and coolly announced that if the woman wanted to live with the "other fellow" it was agreeable to him

The following day there was great eagerness to see the woman meet her two husbands. However, it did not take her long to make her choice. Anton was big and strong as a young ox, a perfection of manly grace in her lovesick eyes; Gottfried was small, deformed and pinched by excessive work and illness. She scornfully surveyed her humble first husband and said "Go back to Germany where you belong! I have eaten husks with you long enough. Now I want some of the real fruit!" Then she went to the triumphant Anton and took his hand. However, that poor Gottfried might have something to show. for his share in the affair, they magnanimously told him to take the children, which he humbly did.

Baileys Harbor has had a number of prominent residents favorably known all over the county. Among these are in particular three whose names are among the leading memories of the county's history. These are Moses Kilgore, Allen Higgins and Roger Batough. Moses Kilgore was among the earliest permanent settlers of the town and it is commonly asserted that he did more for the improvement of the town than any other man. He was a remarkably energetic Yankee from the State of Maine with a picturesque flow of profanity and unadorned speech which was exceedingly entertaining or dreadfully horrifying according to the temper of his audience. He was the first great booster for good roads in the county. When he represented the county in the State Legislature in 1867 he succeeded in putting through an appropriation for building the state road that runs through the county on the Lake Michigan side. He was also a prominent business man, stage driver and member of the county board for a number of years. His epitaph might be: "He was an indomitable hustler from his cradle to his grave."

Roger Eatough is Kilgore's son in law and while he has the same strength of purpose he is very much unlike him in manner. While Kilgore was frequently brusque and vociferous Mr. Eatough is always smooth and quiet. He has a natural aptitude for diplomacy which in more favorable fields like politics, law or real estate would have given him a distinguished name and station. Mr. Eatough has however always spent his time in Baileys Harbor until recently when he moved to Sturgeon Bay. As member of the county board he has had a unique record representing the Town of Baileys Harbor on the county board for twenty years, terminating only with his removal to Sturgeon. For eight years he was chairman of the county board.

Allen Higgins was like Kilgore a pier owner and business man. In company with his father he built Higgins' pier south of Baileys Harbor which for many years was a great place of business. Mr. Higgins; however, is better known as one of the most respected county officers the county has had. New men came and went but Mr. Higgins stayed on as clerk of the court for thirty five years until he finally refused re-election. To all these county officers he was a helpful friend, to the annual county boards an interested counselor and to the thousands who visited the courthouse a willing helper whose genial, courteous manner and never failing fund of exact information was always at the command of those seeking aid.

The Town of Baileys Harbor is very irregular in shape, being about eight miles long, with a shore line of twice that length, while it is only a mile wide at the village. At this point the Town of Gibraltar comes within about a mile of Lake Michigan. In 1870 the county board was persuaded to detach a large portion, sections 1, 2, 11, 12, 13 and 14, from the Town of Gibraltar, and attach it to Baileys Harbor. This gave Baileys Harbor a very valuable tract of territory and largely remedied the irregularities of its boundaries. The people in the detached portion of Gibraltar, however, resisted the transfer. Both towns assessed the debatable territory and for a time it looked as if the people in this section would have to pay taxes in both towns. Gibraltar was finally permitted to keep the territory within her boundaries owing to the fact that the town had less than thirty six sections of land.

Baileys Harbor has more swamp land than any other town in the county with the possible exception of the Town of Sturgeon Bay. It is claimed that 70 per cent of the town is unfit for cultivation. This claim is probably excessive. It alsa has two lakes within its borders. In the northern part is Mud Lake, a dreary pond deserving of its name. In the southern part is Kangaroo Lake, a very beautiful body of water three miles long and almost a mile wide. This charming lake, now beginning to be appreciated by summer resorters, was the first part of Door County to evoke a poetic outburst. Far back in 1857 Mr. Allen H. Powers, a man of culture who for some years lived in Fish Creek and was chairman of the Town of Gibraltar, suddenly came upon Kangaroo Lake hidden in the trackless forest. Mr. Powers was so charmed with the unexpected panorama that he at once penned the following very respectable lines:

KANGAROO LAKE
"This wild northwestern land I love, As
'mongst its bays and lakes I rove. Nor wish
for other home than this, To give me all
home can of bliss.

"I love its beauteous inland lakes, Whose
tiny waves in riplets break On pebbly
beach, begirt with trees All murmuring in
the gentle breeze.

"And when my restless spirit craves A
stormy scene and wilder waves, Within
one mile, an inland sea Rolls its surf on
a rocky lea.

"I love to stand on that rock-bound shore, And
hear the mighty waters roar,
And feel the earth beneath me quake,
As the foam-capped waves in thunder break.

"I love its skies so deeply blue; Its stars so
brightly shining through, Where Luna holds
her night sway, And Sol's refulgence lights
the day.

"Where Orion's belt with its triple clasp, And the
heavy club in his mighty grasp, With radiant
beauty that nightly shine, Unknown in stars in
southern clime.

" 'Tis here that nature tried her hand,
To make a wild romantic land,
And spread her streams, and bays and lakes,
In all the forms that beauty takes."

A. H. POWERS.

THE POLISH SETTLEMENT AT BAILEYS HARBOR

One of the thriftiest looking sections of Door County is to be found just west and northwest of the Village of Baileys Harbor. It is a rolling country covered with a fertile soil in a high state of cultivation. The roads are in excellent shape and are lined by large barns and commodious dwelling houses. There is an abundance of livestock to be seen on every hand and there are often two windmills in each barnyard - one for pumping water, the other for grinding feed and other power purposes. This is the home of the Polish Settlement of Door County.

As one beholds this pleasing, comfortable looking countryside it is hard to believe that forty years ago this was all an unbroken wilderness of timber. For mile after mile the forest stood dense and unbroken except for the ruthless slashing of the lumberman. With branches interlaced the huge maples and hemlocks stood - thin, shaggy tops shutting out the sunlight, while underneath the moist ground was covered with rotting windfalls and boulders of all sizes. There were no roads or paths. There were no little clearings with romping children. It was a primeval wilderness, undisturbed since the day of creation with only now and then a prowling redskin in search of favorite herbs or setting his traps in a well chosen runway.

In October, 1871, the great Chicago fire laid the western metropolis in ruins and the news of the disaster reached to the ends of the earth. During the following winter and summer the cry of the city for men to come and rebuild it went far and wide. In Chicago, they were told, any man could get work at his own wages. A boom in real estate was also coming and they could get rich over night. Thousands heeded the call and hurried thither.

Among these soldiers of fortune were also five Polanders from the far distant Province of Posen, in Prussia. Once upon a time Poland was one of the great powers of Europe but little by little it fell a prey to the greed of the surrounding powers. In 1794, after the downfall of the great Kosciusko, the country was divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria, and Poland ceased to exist as a nation. As proof of the great national spirit of the Polish people it may be added that even to this day the people cling to their own language and ideas and refuse to be considered as natives of the countries that conquered them. It was from the Prussian part of ancient Poland that these five men came. Their names were Martin Schram, Theodore Zak, John Raza, Christ Grey and Casimir Schmidt. They were all married except Martin Schram.

When these men arrived in Chicago in the fall of 1873 they were all filled with great hopes of success. They were sturdy fellows willing to work and they looked forward to the time when they could send money to their humble friends and relatives in the Province of Posen. However they were soon to be disappointed. The boom following the fire was past, a panic had followed and the city was over filled with foreigners like themselves, who could speak no Bnglish and who had no other qualifications but a pair of brawny arms. As they went from one employment office to another they were everywhere met with the same reception, "Nothing doing, come some other day."

One day as they stood in an employment office discussing their hard luck, a stranger entered. He listened to their talk and said:

"If you want work, boys, come with me, I'll fix you up."
"What work do you have?" they inquired, and "where is it?"
"You can cut cordwood for me at Baileys Harbor, where I live, 800 miles north of here."

Their faces fell. Three hundred miles away! How would they get there?

"I have a schooner here," said the stranger, "and I'll take you up there free of charge."

The matter was quickly settled. To be sure, they had little idea of what or where Baileys Harbor was, but they had to make a living some" way and they went with him.

This man was Frederick Woldtman, a German who had been in America four or five years. He had a little store where Anclam's store is now located, with a pier outside. He is spoken of by most people as a kind hearted man, who was always ready to help the needy by word or deed.

Besides Woldtman's there were two other piers in Baileys Harbor. In the north end of the village was one owned by the bluff old Yankee, Moses Kilgore, a sterling old pioneer of whom many good stories are told. A half mile south of the village, however, was for a time the principal business center. This was "Frogtown," where William R. Higgins and son, Allen Higgins, had a pier. Here was also a sawmill, a hotel, much traffic and no doubt, much whiskey. In those days there was much more business at "Frogtown" or Baileys Harbor than now. Before the Sturgeon Bay Canal was built the Goodrich boats used to stop there twice a week. There was also a constant stream of schooners loading cordwood and other timber products. Many men had crews in the woods cutting cordwood. The more cordwood they handled the poorer they got, but they kept at it. Nothing now remains of "Frogtown" but a charming little nook by the water, unvisited except for an occasional picnic party seeking a secluded spot for a lunching place.

Our Polish pioneers cut cordwood for Woldtman for about two years. By 1876 Schram and Schmidt had saved up a few dollars and were able to buy forty acres of land each on the north side of the township between Gibraltar and Baileys Harbor. Schmidt built the first house. This land lies just west of the little creek that crosses the town line two miles west of Baileys Harbor and was chosen because of its convenience to the creek, as water in those days was almost a luxury. A little later the other Polanders bought in the immediate vicinity. Not all were able to build houses and for years they lived together in crowded log houses, but in great harmony. Even after they got individual houses the swamp and the creek was a great gathering place, for everybody had to carry water from the creek.

Little by little these sturdy pioneers forged ahead. Though beginning only with a borrowed axe and a pair of overalls, in a strange land with no knowledge of the language, they never flinched or bemoaned their fate, but hewed their homes out of the wilderness. After a few years they were joined by their friends and countrymen to whom they had written. Among these can be mentioned the Polzins, the Charnetzkis, the Rehs, the Wisas, the Brunetzkis, the Rosenaws, the Kittas, the Krauses, the Klingbeils, the Zdryewskis and others. Some of these are Germans, but they come from the same part of Posen as the Polanders and they speak Polish as well as German. These all went through the same desperate battle with the wilderness, but they have all made good and many of them are in very prosperous circumstances, owning several hundred acres of land, with choice improvements. There are now about thirty Polish family in this settlement, but judging by the number of children in most families it will soon be many times as large. Fred Reh, John Wisa and Ignatz Charnetzki have each had nine children, Peter Zdryewskis has ten, Theodor Zak and John Raza have twelve, and Martin Schram had fourteen.

The secret of the success of these people is their remarkable capacity for work. Physically considered they are a splendid class of people. Because of their indomitable energy and industry they have triumphed over stumps and stone picking, mortgages, drouths, grasshoppers, hard times, drink and all. The last mentioned handicap has perhaps been the worst. Although they live in close proximity to Baileys Harbor's many saloons which have been rather freely patronized by them they have not permitted these occasional indulgences to get the mastery over them but have pushed ahead untiringly.

And just as capable as the men have been in the woods or in the fields, so have their wives in their households. Old settlers who used to travel through the settlement in early days tell that no matter how small or humble the log shanty was, it was always scrupulously neat and clean inside, with well cooked food and a ready welcome.

May this settlement of Polish people prosper and live long! They are built of the stuff that is needed in a new country.


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