History of Penn Township, St. Joseph County, Indiana (includes Mishawaka)
From: History of St. Joseph County, Indiana
Hon. John V. Hadley, Editor in Chief.
Chas. C. Chapman & Co.,
Chiago 1880


Much doubt and uncertainty envelope many of the events which go to make up the early history of a new country. The solitary wilds of an unexplored region afford few opportunities for making those notes and records which as time advances become valuable to the seeker after historical truths; and as a general thing the explorers and settlers of our great West have been men little accustomed to literary pursuits, and less desirous of literary honors. Besides, the arduous labors and engrossing duties of pioneer life leave little room or opportunity for that quiet and leisure indispensable to scholarly habits. Thus it is that a large portion of interesting events and reminiscences of our first settlements have faded from the memory of man, or are only handed down as traditions distorted by this uncertain medium, or mystified by the lapse of time. So it is with the pioneer history of Penn township; for we have found conflicting statements in some particulars regarding pioneer days and events; but by interviewing the most reliable authorities, the pioneers themselves, we are enabled to give a sketch which we hope will meet the approbation of all.

Penn township is a timbered country, and in the pioneer days when there were no railroads, telegraph wires, or even wagon roads, it was difficult for the settlers to go from one cabin to another without becoming lost. On one occasion a gentleman had gone some distance from home to a near neighbor's on an errand, and night overtaking him on his return he got lost, and wandered in the dense forest all night, while the wild lightnings flashed around him in a threatening manner. He was not found until late the following day. If the thick timber had been the only barrier to a rapid growth of settlement and improvement in this township, the obstacle would have soon been overcome; but there was a large amount of marsh land in the township, and it was almost impossible to traverse the marshes with a team; and the traveling was done by circuitous routes to avoid these marshy tracts of land. Many of these marshes have been drained, and now constitute a portion of the most fertile land in Penn township. The same land that now yields abundant crops was then a quagmire and a pit for explorers to fall into. It would be in keeping here to remark that there is a large marsh extending from the St. Joseph river near South Bend toward the southeast, almost the entire length of the township, or to within a half mile of the eastern line of the township. This marsh varies from three fourths of a mile to two miles in width. Near its center is an elevated, oblong tract of land consisting of 200 to 300 acres, which is tinder cultivation and known as the "Island." This peculiarly shaped marsh is regarded by the citizens of this township as once forming an arm of Lake Michigan. This is perhaps truce, as the indications are such as to lead any thinking person to such conclusions.

During the first settlement of the township the pioneers got their mail at Edwardsville, Cass Co., Mich., which was carried on horseback from Fort Wayne to that point. It here intersected the mail route between Detroit and Chicago. The residences of the pioneers consisted of log huts, and some were so poor that they made bedsteads of round poles. They did their cooking by the fireplace. A stick was fastened across the chimney at some distance above the fire, and the kettles were suspended from this by means of iron hooks or chains. The bread was baked in a "Dutch oven."

Although these sturdy pioneers of the forest had to nndergo many privations, they were a jovial class of people, and had their amusements and enjoyments, though in a rustic way, as do the people of the present day. The mill at which they first got their wheat ground was located below Niles, Mich.


In those days there were ten Indians to one "pale face," yet they were not troublesome, save to beg and steal a little when an opportunity presented itself, which is a characteristic of the "noble red man of the forest."

The noted chief "Raccoon" was buried near the house of Mr. James Curtis, in the eastern part of the township, and for weeks hips tribe would bring their provisions to his grave, and sing and dance around the grave for some time, and then eat their dinners and return to camp. Raccoon's skeleton was exhumed a short time since by the Curtis boys, who took the jaw bone to Mishawaka, where it can now be found in the Enterprise office.

At the beginning of the Black Hawk war the settlers of Penn township, knowing the great chief Pokagon and his warriors to be very powerful, sent a delegation to confer with him, and to learn what his plan of action should be for the coming campaign. He sent the glad news back to the half frightened settlers that he would remain neutral during the contest. A German who could not understand all the English vocabulary readily, was standing by and heard Pokagon's reply announced, when he became very much excited and insisted that "that damt neutral is now not 20 miles from here."


While some were busily engaged in making farms, others erected mills, and thus aided in improving the new country. In 1831 or '32 a saw mill was built on Bawbawgo creek, near where the village of Oceola now stands. Several years after this, another mill was built a little lower down; and by extending the same race, the one darn answered for both mills. This last mill was erected by Zelotes Bancroft; but the date is not certainly known.

In 1856, this mill having been discontinued, Mr. Bancroft and his brother William erected a saw and grist mill on the same site. It is now owned and conducted by a nephew of the preceding. Its capacity is 25 barrels per day. Mr. Bancroft is a life long miller, and makes the best of flour. The saw mill attachment is also run in connection with the flouring mill.

Penn township formerly contained Harris and Madison, and a portion of Centre and Portage townships. The first settlers were William and Timothy Moat, who located here about 1828, on section 17. Soon afterward came William Holt, Jesse Skinner, S. L. Cottrell, James Curtis, the Byrkits, Irelands and others. The first church edifice was built in Mishawaka. The first election was held in 1832, and Alpheus Ireland was one of the first justices of the peace. Nathan W. Young was also among the first settlers. He pre-empted land when the surveyors were at work here, and also carried chain for the Government surveyors. The beautiful prairie in Michigan known as Young's Prairie was named for him. Mr. Young is a natural genius, and is the author of several useful inventions. but not being financially able to have them patented, other parties are reaping the fruits of his labors. He now resides in Mishawaka.


In July. 1833, A. M. Hurd laid out and platted the village of "St. Joseph Iron Works," about four miles above South Bend, on the south bank of the St. Joseph river. Jan. 1; 1835, an election was held, and James White, John J. Deming, Samuel Stancliff, Henry De Camp and Alexander Sanderlands were elected village trustees. Thins was the first village organization in the county. During the same year William Barbee, of Ohio, laid out an addition to the east side of the village, and on the west side another addition was made, known as Taylor's Addition. In 1836 Joseph Bartell, James R. Lawrence and Grove Lawrence laid out the town of Indiana City, on the north side of the river, opposite St. Joseph Irons Works. This land (being school land), here Mishawaka now stands, upon petition of the settlers to the School Commissioner, was purchased Jan. 1, 1833, by Mr. Hurd, who had promised to erect a blast furnace upon the site. The following spring, he, in compare with William L. Earl. proceeded to erect the furnace. At the end of the year houses and shanties enough were erected to accommodate 100 persons. In the spring of 1834 a postoffice was established. and the Indian name "Mishawaka" was given it at the suggestion of Mr. Yerrington, who was appointed postmaster. The term "Mishawaka" was the name of an Indian village that once occupied Taylor's Addition to the village of St. Joseph Iron Works, and it signifies "Swift water," or as some render it," Thickwoods rapids." Either interpretation would be descriptive of the location, as the water at this point in the river was very swift, and also the land on either side was covered with a dense growth of heavy timber. The Indians had a small tract of land cleared where their village, of Mishawaka stood, and the large corn hills, which were of a conical shape, and about two feet high, remained there for several years after this country was settled.

While houses were being erected, and settlers and prospecting parties flocking in, the work upon the furnace was fast approaching completion, and was finished in 1834. The dam was built by the St. Joseph Iron Company in 1835, which was the first dam on the St. Joseph river, and is still standing. This company was incorporated Jan. 22, 1835. Prior to this the river was navigable, and both tow and steam boats, plied the limpid waters of this crystal stream for several years, as far up as Three Rivers, Mich.

The first flouring mill was erected in 1835 by Mr. Taylor. In 1834 a hotel was erected and run by Orlando Hard. The first bridge across the St. Joseph river was built at Mishawaka in 1837.

In 1839 St. Joseph Iron Works with its two additions, and Indiana City were incorporated as one town, and named Mishawaka. The town is situated on both banks of the St. Joseph, within about a mile of the most southern point of that river. The site is one of very great natural beauty, and art and taste have added largely to its original loveliness. On the south side there is a gentle upward slope from the river bank, far off beyond the limits of the town. Here, embowered beneath a profusion of natural and cultivated trees, shrubbery and flowers, is built the main portion of Mishawaka. On the opposite side the banks are more precipitous, forming a high table land, seemingly designed by Nature far its present uses. To the lover of the beautiful and the sublime, a visit to the Riverside Park is one not only to be enjoyed, but a visit to be remembered. Standing among the beautiful oaks and cedars that nature has planted upon that elevated plain, his eyes are greeted by many beautiful sights at almost the same instant. Looking directly south he sees the original Milburn Wagon Works, that tower several stories above the basement, whose walls are made bright by the reflection of the sun from tile crystal waters of the beautiful St. Joseph. Then a little beyond he observes mangy church spires pointing toward the skies, seeming to say, "Behold the Lamb of God." And as he turns his eye to the southeast he is again impressed with the wonderful advancement in art, for here his eye falls upon a neatly constructed iron bridge, with hundreds of pedestrians, equestrians and teamsters passing over it daily. When lie has completed his stroll in Riverside Park on the north side, as the sited gradually sinks toward the western horizon, and as he wends his way hack to the Milburn House, he is struck with wonder and delight while crossings the bridge, for, looking into the swift running water beneath, he sees hundreds of fish swimming in all directions whose golden sides almost dazzle his eyes when turned to such an angle as to throw the reflection of the sun's rays to his view.

The St. Joseph Iron Company continued to operate their blast furnaces until 1856, when the supply of ore failed. They also established a foundry, and put in operation other machinery which has been of great benefit to the place. After the exhaustion of the ore they began the manufacture of plows, cultivators, etc., and machinery. Capital stock, $200,000. Albert Hudson is president, and J. H. Whitson general superintendent. In 1868 the name was changed to St. Joseph Manufacturing Company. The hydraulic power at this place is unsurpassed at any point on the river, and the facilities for erecting mills are most excellent. The town is situated upon the Michigan Southern and Grand Trunk Railroads, and is easily accessible from East or West. The surrounding country is one of extraordinary fertility, and the healthfulness of the place is undisputed.

In early times there was great rivalry between Mishawaka and South Bend. They were less than four miles apart, and the advantages they offered differed very slightly, except that the latter had the honor of being the county seat. The bitterness of those days has, however, subsided, and it is now seen that the interests of the two places are identical.

Before many years the borders of the thriving towns will meet, and it is not at all improbable that in the course of time they will be joined in one municipality.

Many years ago the steamboat Diamond was wrecked by running against a pier of the old Mishawaka bridge, and one life was lost.

The river at Mishawaka is about 100 yards wide, and the fall over the dam is eight feet. The natural fall at these rapids, in a distance of but a few rods, has been ascertained by actual measurement to be two feet and nine inches. The race on the south side is about 400 yards in length, and the one on the north side over 200 yards. On either side there is room for further extension, and there is at all times an abundance of water for all conceivable purposes. Indeed, but a very small portion of this valuable power has, as yet, been utilized. The manufactories are, however, gradually and successfully increasing, of each of which we shall speak a little further on.

The population of Mishawaka in 1860 was 1,486; by the last census (1880) it was 2,610.

In 1872 the great fire destroyed 32 buildings in the business part of town, valued, together with their contents, at over $80,000. New brick buildings immediately arose upon the ruins; and about 24 new stores were opened in the brick blocks thus erected. Scarcely had the citizens of Mishawaka recovered from the terrible effects of the fire, when the great and noted Milburn Wagon Works were removed from their town to Toledo. This was another severe shock upon the growth and prosperity of Mishawaka. But her citizens are not to be discouraged, for they have pressed forward until everything is life and bustle again. New manufactories occupy the old Milburn stand, and every enterprise seems to prosper.


Mishawaka Mills. - This mill was erected in 1836, and is now owned and operated by Joseph and William Miller, who purchased it in 1876. They have recently refitted and painted it, and it presents a striking appearance. They run five sets of burrs, making about 225 barrels of flour daily. The flour is of excellent quality, standing at the head of the market, both in the East and West.

St. Joseph Mill. - This structure was erected in 1861 by George and Casper Kuhn, and August Kellner. It is now owned and operated by Mr. George Kuhn, who is doing a good business. He does mostly a jobbing business. Capacity of mill, 150 barrels in 24 hours. He makes patent flour, as also do the other mills in Mishawaka.

Perkins Windmill and Ax Company. - This establishment manufactures edge tools, pumps, and water tanks; but its principal business is the manufacture of the Perkins windmill, which was invented and patented by P. C. Perkins in 1869. In 1873 there was a joint company formed for its manufacture. They are doing a large business.

Dodge Manufacturing Company. - The Dodge Manufactory was established in 1878, and incorporated in 1880. They manufacture school furniture, wooden ware, etc. From Jan. 1, 1880, until Aug. 1 of the same year, they took 2,000,000 feet of lumber from the stump, and sawed and worked it into goods. The company is now behind with their orders, and business constantly increasing.

St. Joseph Valley Furniture Company. - The business of this firm was established in a wing of the Milburn Wagon Manufactory in 1878, with a capital stock of $50,000. They make drawer work a specialty. This firm is shipping their chamber suits and bedsteads mostly to Ohio and the East, and they are behind with their orders, which are accumulating upon their hands. J. A. Roper is president.

Telegraph Insulator Manufactory. - This is of recent advent into Mishawaka. It was removed from Hudson, Mich., to this place in the summer of 1880, by Robert Gilliland. The business is a thriving one, and adds material wealth to Mishawaka.

School Furniture Manufactory. - A. H. Andrews & Co., of Chicago, established a branch manufactory in Mishawaka in 1871, and are doing a good business in the manufacture of school furniture.

Bostwick Refrigerator Company. - This enterprising company is engaged in the manufacture of refrigerators of all kinds, safes, mouse traps and furniture, and is doing an extensive business under the direction of Joseph Bostwick, the principal stockholder.

Ripple Mills. - The Ripple Mills were erected by A. Cass & Co., who owned them for several years, but recently passed into the hands of J. H. and A. Eberbart, who are doing a large business. They have five run of stones, with a capacity of 225 barrels in 24 hours. They make the best of flour, and have a large trade in the East.

There is also in Mishawaka a stave factory, a wood pulp mill, a woolen factory, a wagon manufactory, a barrel factory, and several smaller cooper shops and minor manufactories of various kinds. All departments of trade and business are represented in Mishawaka, the most prominent and leading representatives of which we will mention in the biographical department of the history of Mishawaka and Penn township.


This beautiful table land, which we have already referred to, is situated on the north bank of the St. Joseph river, opposite the Milburn Wagon Works. As yet there has been nothing done to beautify the grounds, save what nature alone has done. In 1879 one Mr. Robbins Battled, of Hartford, Conn., sent Thomas McClunie an experienced architect, here, who surveyed and platted the proposed park. Battell proposes to donate it to the town if the citizens will make of the land a park, after the prescribed improvements or specifications in the plat. This gentleman anticipates erecting a female seminary directly west of the park.

The first couple married in Mishawaka were Hiram Rush and Miss Inwood, by Rev. N. M. Wells. Indiana Yerrington was the first child born, receiving his name in honor of the State. The first death was that of a Mr. Moore.

Mishawaka has a fine cornet band, which discourses strains of that which "hath charms to soothe the savage ear." It is ably led and conducted by Mr. Jacob Eckstein, a first class musician of Mishawaka, and, by the way, a subscriber for this work, whose sketch appears in the biographical department.


The Freemasons and Odd Fellows have a fine, well furnished halt in the third story of the Phoenix Block.

The Masonic lodge was organized May 26, 1852, A. L. 5,852. The names of the officers at the organization were as follows: R. S. Alden, W. M.; D. H. Smith, S. W.; J. Holdridge, J. W.; J. E. Hollister, Treasurer; T. S. Cowles, Secretary; A. C. Foot, S. D.; W. M. Wood, J. D., and A. L. Brimsnraid, Tyler. The society is in a flourishing condition, and adds materially to the sociability and refinement of the community.

Odd Fellows. - St. Joseph Lodge No. 27, I. O. O. F., was organized about 1843. Among its members were Dr. Eddy and John Niles, deceased, Albert Cass, H. E. Hurlbut, A. H. Long and James. Easton, still members of the order. This lodge ceased to work, and Monitor Lodge, No. 286, was instituted Aug. 13, 1867. The charter members were A. H. Long, James Easton, Washington Gibson, Philip McElvain and Thomas S. Long, the latter being the first Noble Grand. The Lodge hall was destroyed by the fire of 1812, with all the furniture; since then the lodge has furnished a new hall in the Phoenix block, as above stated, which is an honor, not only to the lodge, but also to the order generally. The lodge has over a hundred members and is in a prosperous condition.

There is also a lodge of the Knights of Pythias, of recent organization in Mishawaka.


We shall now revert to the pioneer days of Mishawaka and Penn township.

There soon came a time amid the rush of business, the foundation of homes, and making of farms, when the enterprising settlers of this locality turned their attention to the all important duty of educating their children. There seemed now to be something else for the little prattlers to do besides gathering nuts and acorns from under the lofty trees of the dense forests of Penn township. The pioneer school house was soon erected. It was a small, round log cabin, with a puncheon door hung upon wooden hinges. The floor was also made of puncheons, as were the writing desks, which were supported by pins in the wall. The seats consisted of split logs, supperted upon pin legs. They sat upon these with their backs resting against the edge of the desks; and when they wished to write they just "flopped around, right about face." But the smaller ones sat upon these rustic seats with their feet dangling a foot above the floor, and with nothing against which to rest their little bowed up backs.

The room was warmed by a huge fire place, which occupied the entire end of the house, and was filled with logs that the boys drew into the room upon a sled. The roof consisted of clapboards, which were fastened or secured by means of poles laid lengthwise with the roof; about three feet apart, separated by chunks or knees. The chimney was made of "cat and clay" (mud and straw) and sticks. The windows of the pioneer school house consisted of a log removed nearly the entire length of the building, and greased paper pasted over the aperture for lights. The text books consisted principally of a speller, Testament and an arithmetic. In those days the children did not need to dress in fine clothes, in order to rival some classmate in that direction, bat all alike wore garments to school, spun and woven by their mothers.

The schools were first taught entirely by subscription, and the teachers were principally of the "ox-gad persuasion," using force rather than affection as a means of obtaining and preserving good order. The first school house in the township was erected in 1832. The schools, as well as all branches of industry, have greatly changed since then.

In Mishawaka there had been more interest taken in the public schools than in any other part of the county, and with good success. The first school house was built here in 1834, which was a small frame building; and the first teacher was a Miss Sheldon, of White Pigeon. The schools of Mishawaka have reached a high degree of excellence, under the wise management of Prof. Elisha Sumption, who has had charge of them for seven years, but has lately resigned on account of failing health. Mishawaka has a fine high school building, that cost about $50,000, containing 12 rooms and offices. This is one of the finest school buildings in Northern Indiana, and speaks well for the enterprise of the flourishing town of Mishawaka.

There are 14 school districts in Penn township. There were formerly 15, but No. 7 was, in 1880, discontinued and attached to district No. 9 and to Mishawaka.

The County Superintendent of Public Instruction, Mr. Moon held his annual county teachers' institute in the high school building at Mishawaka, in August, 1880, and teachers were favorably impressed with the very able instructions there given to them by professors from Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Valparaiso and New York. The educational interests are thus being promoted, not only in Mishawaka and Penn township, but throughout the entire county.


Mishawaka Baptist Church. - There was an organization of this Church in Mishawaka prior to 1840, but it has since become extinct. The present Church was organized May 14, 1867, by Elders T. P. Campbell, of South Bend, and B. P. Russell, of Niles, Mich., and brethren from the Churches of South Bend, Niles and Penn township. There were 18 charter members; Rev. M. T. Lamb was the first pastor, P. C. Perkins first clerk, and J. C. Snyder the first treasurer. The first deacons were John Merriman, A. J. Ames and J. C. Snyder. Rev. F. Moro was pastor of the Church from December, 1870, to November, 1871. Rev. B. P. Russell became pastor in 1874. In 1868 this society erected a house of worship, valued at $5,000. Sabbath school each Sabbath at 12 M.; and services each alternate Sabbath morning and each Sabbath evening, by Rev. H. J. Finch, pastor. Present number of communicants, 101.

First Baptist Church of Penn Township. - Feb. 11, 1837, a meeting was held in the house of Eli B. Mead, for the purpose of constituting a Baptist Church in Penn township. Rev. Price, of Edwardsburg, Elan S. Colby, of Lockport, and Mr. Alger of Mishawaka, were present. Rev. Price was chosen moderator, and Mr. Colby made clerk of the meeting. The following persons presented letters of commendation, and expressed a desire to unite in Church fellowship: Isaiah Ferris, Jacob M. Galore, Jonathan Buck, John Barton, Lucinda Ferris, Sr., Elizabeth Ferris, Azuhah Galore, Anna Buck, elinda Barton and Parmelia Ferris. Elder Price examined them, extended to them the right hand of fellowship, and pronounced them a Church, to be known as "The First Baptist Church of Penn Township." John Barton was the first clerk and B. J. Ferris the first treasurer.

Messrs. Galor and Buck were elected trustees to attend to selecting ground and erecting a house of worship. In 1838 the society erected a small log house in which to worship. Rev. Adam Miller was the first pastor, they having worshiped for some time without a minister in charge. The present house was erected in 1849, a large frame building, about 4 1/2 miles south of Mishawaka. The Church grew weaker by deaths, emigration and removals to Mishawaka, until it is now extinct. It was the first Baptist Church organized in the county, and now it is numbered with the things that were. Its only survivors are Jacob M. and Azubah Galore, of Mishawaka; Parmelia Ferris, now Mrs. Moore, of Pleasant Valley; and Belinda Barton, of Kansas.

Pleasant Valley Baptist Church was organized about 1852. They have a neat little frame house of worship in the northeastern part of Penn township; Elder H. J. Finch is the pastor. Number of communicants, 20.

Christian Church. - The Christian Church at Mishawaka was organized about 1843. The first elders were H. E. Hurlbut, A. Alden and Morris Hartwick. The first deacons were S. B. Hutchinson, A. L. Wright and C. Hartman. The pioneer ministers of this denomination, who occasionally held services in Mishawaka, were R. Wilson, C. Martin, J. Martindale, P. T. Russell, H. E. Hurlbut and William T. Horner. The latter began in 1854, and preached nearly regularly for two years. Daring the next twelve years Elders Lane, New, Beggs, Green, Shepard and Hurlbut, respectively, preached to the Church. in 1867 I. J. Chase became pastor, remaining for two years, when Elder William B. Hendrin took his place and remained for the same length of time. Elders R. Fauret, Sutten and S. K. Sweetman also officiated as pastors. This Church owes much to Dr. O'Connor and S. H. Ireland for its prosperity. The house is valued at $5,000. The society sustains weekly prayer meetings and Sabbath school, besides services each Sabbath by the pastor, Elder C. P. Hendershot. Communicants, 120.

St. Joseph's Catholic Church, at Mishawaka. The first organization of this society dates back to 1848, although services had been previously held here by that denomination. A house had been erected on the north side of the river, and was that year dedicated to the Most High. Revs. W. Zevers, J. F. Gonesset, W. Masters and the Father Superior of Notre Dame, Very Rev. R. E. Sorin, and others wore instrumental in establishing this Church. The society had no pastor until 1857, when Rev. John Mayer was appointed to this charge; but in 1859 he accepted the pastorate of St. Peter's Church in Chicago. In December, 1859, Bishop Right Rev. John H. Luers, of Fort Wayne, appointed Rev. H. Koening to the pastorate of this Church. In March, 1860, the house was destroyed by fire, which was a severe blow upon the young Church. By the united efforts of priest, the Church, and some of the wealthy citizens of Mishawaka, another house was erected on the south side, which is the present commodious structure. Special mention should be made of George Milburn, who gave liberally to this enterprise. The house is 92 by 41 feet, and 25 feet high. Many improvements were made during the administration of Rev. Koening, including a parsonage, and a building for a parochial school. In May, 1867, Rev. A. B. Oechtering entered upon the duties of pastor of this Church. In 1871 two fine bells were purchased, and in 1872 another was added, which make the town resound with their melody as they call the good people together. In 1872 the walls were frescoed, and still further improvements made. The pulpit and altar in this Church are unsurpassed for beauty and grandeur in the United States. On this are represented the 14 principal scenes of the passion and death of our blessed Lord.

Catholics do not worship these pictures and images, as many suppose; but as they look upon them they meditate upon the suffering Master and his love for poor mankind.

The Church now supports two schools, and owns a library of 600 volumes. It still continues to prosper under the fatherly care of Rev. A. B. Oechtering, who has been tendered a more remunerative situation, but preferred to remain here. The communicants now number over 200 families.

Evangelical Association, at Mishawaka, was organized in 1846 by Rev. G. G. Platz, with 15 charter members. The first presiding elder was Rev. G. G. Platz, and the first pastor was Rev. William Kolb. They erected a house of worship in 1857. The Church grew and prospered for a time, but by death and emigration it became very much weakened. There are now but 31 members. They sustain weekly prayer meetings and Sabbath school; services each Sabbath by the pastor, Rev. Henry Arlen. This society erected a new church edifice in 1872.

Coal Bush, Evangelical Association, three and a half miles south of Mishawaka. This society, of which there is one in Mishawaka, is not known in their records by the name of "Church," any more than the term Odd Fellows, or Good Templars is known by that name; but nevertheless it is a Church as much as any other Christian organization. It was organized in 1847, by Rev. G. G. Platz. The house was erected in 1856. At one time this society was one of the strongest in the North Indiana Conference; but by death and emigration it has been weakened until the membership numbers but nine. Services each alternate Sunday, by Rev. Henry Arlen, pastor. The rules and regulations of this Church are much the same as that of the Methodists. In fact, many persons call them German Methodists, thinking them to be indentical with that denomination.

St. Andrew's Evangelical Church, of Mishawaka. - This organization differs materially from the "Evangelical Association." It was organized in 1864 with 25 members, by Rev. Philip Wagoner. They erected a house the same year. Services each alternate Sunday, by the pastor, Rev. Philip Wagoner. Communicants about 25.

Lutheran Church, at Mishawaka, was organized prior to 1848 by Rev. Philip Bernreuther, with about 12 members. This society sustains services each Sabbath in summer, and each alternate Sabbath in the winter seasons. In the winter they also have a Sunday or catechism school, for children, and sustain also a denominational day school four days each week during winter. Communicants about 20. Rev. Gustavus Rosenwinkel, pastor.

Mishawaka Methodism Episcopal Church was organized in 1835. The charter members were Richmond Tuttle and wife, Joseph Skerritt and wife, Susan Hurd, and a brother whose name is lost. They at first worshiped in an empty store building, which was also used by the Presbyterians. The first house of worship was erected in 1836, another in 1844, which is now occupied by the Mishawaka furniture store. The last and present structure was erected in 1872, which is a credit, not only to the Methodist Church, but also to the town of Mishawaka. Sabbath school each Sabbath, and services each Sunday morning and evening, by the pastor, Rev. Mr. Cone. They also sustain a weekly prayer meeting and class meeting.

Tamarack Methodist Chureh, seven miles southeast of Mishawaka. - This class was organized in a log school house, Dec. 19, 1855, by Rev. E. P. Church, with 11 charter members, viz.: A. B. Lamport, A. M. Lamppost, Rosy Lamport, Willard Rockwell, Deborah Rockwell, Elam Crouch, Benjamin Pickard, Isaac Christ, Esther S. Ghrist, Edwin Sawyer and Phoebes Sawyer. They worshiped in the Tamarack school house until the fall of 1880, when they erected a substantial house 34 x 50 feet. There are now 56 communicants. Sabbath school each Sabbath, and services each alternate Sunday by the pastor, Rev. J. H. Jackson.

Free Methodists, of Mishawaka. This peculiar sect was organized in Mishawaka in 1877. They are a branch of the M. E. Church, or rather have separated themselves from that Church. There are about 16 or 18 members, and they worship in an old dwelling house, fitted up for their purpose.

Presbyterian, Church, at Mishawaka. This Church was organized July 25, 1834, by Rev. N. M. Wells, who died in Detroit in 1879. The organization took place in the house of Philo Hurd. The following is a list of the charter members: Rev. N. M. Wells, Elias Smith, Alfa Smith, Levi Bean, Polly Bean, Philo Hurd, Martha Hurd, Alanson M. Hurd, Sarah L. Hurd, Willis S. Garrison. Philo Hurd and Elias Smith were the first elders, and Phil Hurd the first deacon. Jan. 29, 1835, John J. Deming was received into the Church as an elder, and elected clerk. There is now in the church a chandelier presented to the society by Judge Beming's daughter, Mrs. Charles Crocker, of California. The first house of worship was erected in 1837, and another one in 1845, which was destroyed by the fire of 1872. The present structure was erected in the fall of 1872. Services each Sabbath morning and alternate Sabbath evenings by the pastor, Rev. S. V. McKee. Sabbath school each Sabbath. Communicants, 90.

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