Chariton lies in the southwestern corner of the county. It is bounded on the north by Gaiway and Milton, on the east by Baliston, on the south by Schenectady county, and on the west by Schenectady and Montgomery counties. The Revised Statutes define the town as follows:

The town of Charlton shall contain all that part of said county bounded westerly and southerly by the bounds of the county, easterly by Baliston, northerly by Milton and Galway.

The surface is undulating, and is composed of an excellent quality of loam. Aal - Plass creek flows southwesterly through the town, and a branch of the Mourning kill runs eastwardly into Baliston.

Chariton was first settled by Joseph Gonzalez, who located in the southwestern part in 1770. In 1774 a number of Scotch-Irish families who had fled or been banished from Great Britain on account of their religious beliefs began the more thorough settlement of the town. Among them were Thomas Sweetman and David MaxwelL John Cavert, John Taylor, Joseph La Rue, James Valentine, William Chambers, John McKnight and others came the following year. John Rogers built the first saw mill in town, on Aal-Plass creek, about 1778. In 1776 John Holmes built the first grist mill in town.

Chariton village lies a short distance southeast of the centre of the town. West Chariton is a hamlet four miles northwest of Charlton. Blue Corners is a community in the northwest corner of the town. The Chariton academy was started at Chariton village about 1858 by the late Rev. Dr. James N. Crocker of Saratoga Springs. The teachers' assoáiation formed here in 1836 is believed to have been the first organization of the kind in New York State.

Of the churches in this town, St. Paul's Episcopal church at Chariton was organized December 10, 1803; .the Presbyterian church at Charlton (first called "the Presbyterian church of Freehold ") in 1786, the United Presbyterian church at West Chariton (commonly known as the old Scotch church) about 1784, and the M. E. church of Charlton about 1838.

The town of Chariton was formed from Baliston March 17, 1792. It originally had been called New Freehold, most of the original settlers having come from Freehold, N. J., where they made the first stop after leaving Great Britain. The supervisors of the town have been:

1782, John Boyd, jr. 1793, Alexander Gilchrist. 1794, John Taylor. 1795, John
Munro. 1796, Alexander Gilchrist. 1797, Henry Corl, jr. 1798, John Taylor. 1799, Alexander Gilchrist. 1800-01, Chauncey Belding. 1802, Caleb Holmes. 1803, Nathan Hinman 1804, John Anderson. 1805, Caleb Holmes. 1806, Joseph Brown. 1807, John Rogers, jr. 1808, Joseph Brown. 1809.11, Somers Huller. 1812, Daniel Ostrom. 1813, Samuel Belding. 1814-19, John Low. 1820, Calvin Isbell. 1821-32, John Low. 1833.36, Daniel Ostrom. 1837-38, Thomas Brown. 1839, Archibald Smith. 1840-43, Lawrence Gardiner. 1844, John A. Gilchrist. 1845, Lawrence Gardiner. 1846, Alexander Gilchrist. 1847, Henry Ostrom. 184849, James Richey. 1850, John A. Sweetman. 1851, John Low. 1852, John A. Sweetman. 1853-54, James N. Budd. 1855-58, Nathan H. Brown. 1859-60, John Consalus. 1861-66, Horatio S. Brown. 1867. George Ball. 1868.70, Frederick Curtis. 1871-72, James N. Budd. 1873-74, Benjamin H. Knapp. 1875, William B. Consalus. 1876-77, John A. Sweetman. 1878, Peter Van Guysling. 1879-82, Thomas M. Gilchrist. 1883-89, George C. Valentine. 1890-92, J. Irving Parent. 1893-98, Walter I. Cavert.

Following is a list of the town clerks since 1799:

1799-1801, Alexander Ferguson. 1802-12, Samuel Belding. 1813-15, N. S. Hollister. 1816-17, N. D. Conde. 1818-38, Samuel Belding. 1839-41, Hiram Belding. 1842, Henry M. Huist. 1843-47, James Richey. 1848-49, M. B. Callaghan. 1850, James Richey. 1851.53, James H. Marvin. 1854-55, William H. Ely. 1856-62, Hiram Belding. 1863-65. William H. Ely. 1866-67, Hiram Belding. 1868-76, Norman Smith. 1877, George Conde. 1878, David F. Wicks. 1879-80, John M. Wells. 1881. 82, Norman Smith. 1883-85, Walter I. Cavert. 1886, C. S. Haynes. 1887-91, Joseph N. Hedden. 1892-95, William L. Slover. 1896-97, Robert F. Kernan. 1898, Charles E. Groot.

The records of the justices of the peace elected by the people are missing up to the year 1854. Since the latter date those who have been elected to this office are:

1854, Marvin E. Myers; 1855. Robert Crothers; 1856, Henry Ostrom; 1857, Alexander Davidson; 1858, Isaac Raymond; 1859, Robert Crothers; 1860, Robert Hallowell; 1861, Alexander Davidson; 1862, Alfred H. Hayes; 1863, James C. Bell; 1864, Elbert A. Wilkie; 1865, Alexander Davidson; 1866, Jesse Conde: 1867, James C. Bell; 1868, Elbert A. Wilkie; 1869, Benjamin H. Knapp; 1870, William H. Coons; 1871, Sampson T. Mason; 1872, Elbert A. Wilkie; 1873, Cornwell M. Noxon; 1874, William H. Coons; 1875, Joseph .H. Alexander, John A. Chambers; 1876, Elbert A. Wilkie; 1877, Cornwell M. Noxon; 1878, John A. Chambers; 1879, Sampson T. Mason; 1880, Joseph H. Alexander; 1881, Richard Taylor; 1882, Cornelius B. Young; 1883, William H. Ostrom; 1884, Joseph H. Alexander; 1885, Cornwell M. Noxon; 1886, Cornelius B. Young; 1887, Cornelius Van Buren; 1888, Joseph H. Alexander, 1889, Alexander Crane; 1890, Cornelius B. Young; 1891, Matthew Bunyan; 1892, Elmer Cavert; 1893, Alexander Crane; 1894, Cornelius B. Young; 1896, George F. Smith; 1897, Alexander Crane; 1898, Cornelius B. Young.

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