History of the Gouverneur Talc. Industy, NY


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Talc is a mineral product composed of silica and magnesia. While this material is locally known as talc its chemical properties are substantially the same as asbestos, steatite and soap-stone. It has the greasy feeling of soap-stone and the fibrous properties of asbestos.

Talc is found in France, Italy, Scotland, South Carolina and Pennsylvania. But little French talc is exported, being mostly used at home. Scotch talc exists in too limited quantities to pay for working. The South Carolina and Pennsylvania varieties are of the non-fibrous nature of soap-stone. The Pennsylvania material is valueless by reason of the large amount of iron mingled with it. The fibrous qualities of the talc of this locality renders it peculiarly valuable as a " filler" in the manufacture of paper, and, so far as known, these are the only mines in the world from which this species of talc is taken.

Where Found.- This mineral was first discovered in the town of Gouverneur, near Natural Dam and Little Bow, as early as 1867 by Daniel Minthorn, of Watertown, N. Y., who is an expert mineralogist, and to whom this locality is largely indebted for its world-wide fame as one of the richest and most prolific mineral bearing sections, not only of the United States, but of the known world. (For the formidable list of minerals of Gouverneur and vicinity see "Dand," page 386.)

Taking the village of Gouverneur as a center, talcose indications may be found throughout a radius of ten miles in every direction. The time will doubtless come when this valuable mineral will be found and profitably mined in numerous places at every point of the compass from Gouverneur, where only surface indications now exist to show its presence. Deep digging must be resorted to find it in many places. Past experience has demonstrated that talc exists here at great and unknown depths, and improves in quality with the increasing depths of the mines, some of which have already reached a depth of 350 feet with good size veins in sight, which show no signs of exhaustion.

So far as it has been developed in paying quantities, present mining is confined to what is known as "the talc belt," from seven to nine miles long, and from four to five miles wide, in the towns of Fowler and Edwards, and running northeast and southwest.

First Talc Mining.- The first attempt at talc mining in this section was made by Daniel Minthorn at Natural Dam and Little Bow during the winter of 1869 and '70. Enough material was found to warrant the erection of a mill for testing its value. Mr. Minthorn was joined in the enterprise by George W. Goodrich and George Paddock, of Watertown, N.Y. A mill was erected at Natural Dam in 1871 for preparing the material for market. The product lacked fiber, contained grit and other impurities which rendered it unsuitable as a filler in paper-making, and for these reasons the parties interested became so discouraged that the grinding enterprise was temporarily abandoned.

In the winter of 1873 and '74 Mr. Minthorn, having discovered foliated talc on the Abner Wight farm, near Little York, town of Fowler, secured samples and carried them, with various other mineralogical specimens, to New York city, hoping to induce capitalists to join him in opening and developing mines. Among others, he showed his talc specimens to G. A. Menden, who was a partner of A. L. McCrea, sen, in "promoting stock companies." Menden brought the talc to the attention of his partner, who at once became interested and believed this material could be used in place of various clays as a "paper filler." They visited Gouverneur in the spring of 1873, examined the material on the Wight farm, secured a lease covering the right to open and work mines, and in the spring of 1874 McCrea and Menden took possession of the old plaster mill, in the basement of what is now the Starbuck and McCarty planing mill, in Gouverneur, and in an experimental way began grinding talc from the Abner Wight farm. These operations continued with encouraging success until the spring of 1875, when James McCrea, of Philadelphia, Pa., became financially interested in the enterprise, and it was decided to enlarge the business.

The Agalite Fiber company was organized with A. L. McCrea, president; James McCrea, vice-president; and G. A. Menden, secretary; suitable machinery was secured, a small steam mill was erected near the mine on the Wight farm and the business was thus continued until, with a steadily increasing business, experience had demonstrated the folly of using steam as a motive power in a vicinity which was blessed with many water powers which were then unused and could be had at a trifling expense.

In June, 1877, A. L. McCrea, jr., visited Gouverneur on an intended trip from New York city to the Pacific coast. His father and uncle being largely interested in the talc enterprise, he visited their mills and mines. Being a young man of a decidedly practical business turn, lie pointed out many expensive mistakes in the business as then conducted and suggested numerous changes and improvements. His ideas met with such favor that he was urged to abandon his western journey, invest a considerable sum of money and take a personal interest in the enterprise. To this he consented on condition that he become (as he at once did) the general superintendent of the mines and mills with a potential voice in the general management. From this time the business moved forward with new and increasing energy. From then until the present time the personal influence of but one other individual (" Gus" McDonald, now superintendent of the International Talc Company) has compared at all favorably with that of "Gus" McCrea in lifting the talc industry to its present enviable height of almost peerless prosperity.

Having purchased the Clark & Howard saw mill, which has one of the best water powers on the Oswegatchie River, and fitted it up with the best machinery then known for their business, they, in 1878, moved their milling operations to Hailesboro where they continued to grind material from the Wight farm until 1879. Experiencing extreme difficulty in reducing foliated talc to a degree of fineness required by the trade, this company introduced the Alsing revolving cylinders, which are capable of pulverizing the most refractory rock into an impalpable powder.

After the fibrous talc had been discovered, near Freemansburg, in the town of Edwards, this company secured mineral rights, and having developed valuable mines in that locality, they, in 1879, abandoned their mines on the Wight farm, and drew all material for grinding from their new mines. Now their business boomed and orders far exceeding the capacity of their mills being received, the company, in 1880, purchased the old Henry Haile flouring mill, which nearly adjoined their works 'and when refitted for use their output was increased several fold. The two mills with magnificent water powers and the many improvements added, made an excellent business plant and continued in successful operation until early in 1893 when this company was absorbed or merged in the "International Pulp Company."

Natural Dam Pulp company.- In 1877 the " Mineral Attrition Mills Company" was organized to grind talc, soapstone, etc., into pulp for papermakers' use. The mill erected at Natural Dam by Minthorn and others, and which had also been used for grinding iron ore foi- paint, having lain idle for a number of years, was refitted with a milling plant on the attrition plan. For about one year the company ground foliated talc found near Little York, town of Fowler. This material lacked fiber and although ground to an impalpable powder was neither attractive to the paper trade nor remunerative to the company. These things, with the hard times of 1887 and 1888 caused the company to fail. Early in 1879 Mr. W. Bayand of New York city, a large creditor of the company, bought the property and continued the business long enough to become satisfied that neither soapstone nor foliated talc could be made acceptable to the trade with the machinery in his mills. He acquired mines at Freemansburg and continued the business (using fibrous talc) successfully under the able management of A. J. McDonaid, until 1886, when the property was organized into a stock company under the name and style of the "Natural Dam Pulp Company." Mr. Bayand retaining a controlling interest in its affairs until its transfer to to the " International Pulp Company," in which he is largely interested, being one of its directors.

The plant of the Natural Dam Pulp Company at the time of its transfer, consisted of Mill No. 1 at Natural Dam and their splendid new mill No. 2 at Hailesboro which had just been completed.

Gouverneur Pulp Company.- The name of Col. Henry Palmer stands next to that of Daniel Minthorn on the roll of honor as a discoverer and inaugurator of the talc industry. The colonel having been in the service of the Agalite Fiber Company, as superintendent of its mining operations, withdrew from its employ in June, 1877, and soon after announced the discovery of the genuine fibrous talc on the Brayton farm at Freemansburg, town of Edwards, which has since proven such a big "bonanza." Having secured by lease the mineral rights of the farm (which he subsequently purchased), he tried, for a time, in vain to find a man of means who would put up capital against his valuable find and help open and develop mines.

December 26, 1877, the colonel entered into a written agreement with John S. Honeycomb of Gouverneur, in which he covenanted to assign a share in his lease in case he should induce a capitalist to furnish sufficient money to develop the business. Heneycomb secured the co.operation of S. B. Van Duzee of Gouverneur, who agreed to furnish the money required, and artic]es of incorporation were formed and filed May 7, 1879, under-the name of the "Gouverneur Pulp Company," with Henry Palmer, president; S. B. Van Duzee, treasurer; and John S. Honeycomb, secretary; each of the three incorporators owning onethird of the capital stock.

So modest were their ideas and ambitions at the start, that they considered the very limited quarters first used by McCrea & Menden ample for the requirements of. the proposed business. The basement of the Starbuck & McCarty planing mill was refitted and when in "full blast," about two tons per day of marketable material was produced by simply grinding the crude talc with ordinary buhr stones.

The business, which was a success from the start, grew so rapidly that the company was unable to fill the demand, and arrangements were soon completed for enlarging the business. Thirty acres of land, with a fine water power, were purchased one and one-half miles up the Oswegatchie River, and in December following a splendid new mill was in operation and turning out an average product of twenty tons per day. The business prospered and in 1882 was purchased by, and consolidated with the

Adirondac Pulp Company.- In 1880 Amasa Corbin, jr. A. G. Gillett, L. M. Gardner and Samuel Graves, all of Gouverneur, organized the Gouverneur Talc Company," and erected a fine mill on the Oswegatchie River, one mile south of Hailesboro, town of Fowler. After continuing the business with marked success this plant was sold to the Adirondac Pulp Company. The latter company continued the business until 1893, when it also became a part of the great International Pulp .Company. -

Mr. John Manning, a prominent paper manufacturer of Troy, N. Y., who was identified for many years with the Adirondac Pulp Company, is largely interested in the International Pulp Company, and is one of its directors.

St. Lawrence Pulp Company.- In 1884 Messrs. M. Belding, G. H. Kenedy, W. B. Putney, and Austin Stevens purchased of Fred Haile twenty acres of land, on which was good water power, between Gouverneur and Hailesboro, and after organizing the "St. Lawrence Fiber Pulp Company," erected a magnificent mill. Having the benefit of all past experience in the talc business, this company profited by the experimental knowledge of all who had preceded them, and in erecting their mill so combined the excellence of all as to earn the reputation of having the " Model Mill." Their talc was obtained from newly discovered mines south of Fullersville, town of Edwards. Their finished product did not prove to be suitable for the paper trade. They tried foliated talc with the same result. Financial embarrassments arose and the property was sold under mortgage foreclosure. The company was reorganized under the name of the "St. Lawrence Pulp Company." Material for grinding was now obtained from the Freemansburg territory, and business proceeded in a profitable manner until 1893, when it was merged in the "International Company."

All parties closely connected with the "St. Lawrence" are largely interested in the "International," and their views and experience have due weight in its councils.

The Gardner Pulp Company.- In 1880 Capt. W. L. Palmer, of Rochester, N. Y., was instrumental in organizing the "Northern New York Manufacturing Company." The parties interested were Captain Palmer, " Arch" Kennedy, and Donald McNaughton, of Rochester, N, V., J osephus Collett, of Terre Haute, Ind., Hon. Leslie J. Russell, Wm. H. Kimball, and Milton Packard, of Canton, N. Y.

The company purchased land and erected a steam power mill, with a daily capacity of fifteen tons, near the R. W. & O. R. R. track on the west side of Gouverneur village. Talc for grinding was obtained from the Woodcock farm in Fowler and adjoining the Abner Wright premises. The mill was started and run but a short time when, by lack of unity of business sentiment, the mill was shut down and remained closed until 1892, when L. M. Gardner, of Gouverneur, purchased the property. repaired the mill, and after increasing its capacity to twenty tons per day, started the works the following September. Soon thereafter Mr. Gardner sold a half interest to Josephus Collett, of Terre Haute, Ind., and a quarter interest to Wm. Whitney, of Gouverneur. After running the business but a short time Gardner purchased Collett's ha]f, and by selling another quarter interest to Whitney they became joint and equal owners of the business. In December, 1893, the entire plant, including mines and mineral rights, were purchased by A. S. Bigelow and L. M. Hair, of Rochester, N. Y.. F. H. Munson and F. W, Streeter, of Watertown, N. Y., and A. L. McCrea, jr., and L. M. Gardner, of Gouverneur. Upon a reorganization the company name was changed to the "Gardner Pulp Company." The officers are: A. L. McCrea, jr., president; F. H. Munson, vice-president; and F. W. Streeter, secretary and treasurer. The company is doing a fine business, and have extensive mines on the Abner Wright farm, town of Fowler, being the original mines of the Agalite Fibre Company, which were the first mines that were successfully worked. Having sunk these mines to a considerable depth the nature of the material has changed to a fibrous character, and improves in quality and value as greater depths are reached.

The Gardner Pulp Company's mill was completely destroyed by fire March 5, 1894. As this company owns a fine waterpower on the Oswegatchie River and has ample financial ability, it is safe to predict that, with the well known enterprise of the owners, it is more than probable that they will soon erect a new mill that will stand second to none in completeness and capacity.

The United States Talc Company was organized March 30, 1891. Its officers are: Newton Aldrich, president; F. M, Burdick, vice-president; and W. R. Dodge, secretary and treasurer, all of Gouverneur.

Their plant is located seven miles south of Gouverneur on the Oswegatchie River, town of Edwards, and consists of seventy- five acres of land, covering both sides of the river; a magnificent water power with a fall of twenty-six and one half feet; a sixteen cylinder mill with a capacity of sixty tons of finished product per day. Both mill and power are fully equal to a daily output of 100 tons, to which capacity the mill is soon to be increased.

This mill, which was constructed in 1893-4, combines all improvements which past experience in the business have proven desirable. The mill is so situated, with reference to the adjacent high land, that the crude talc rock goes in at the top and is carried downward by the inexpensive force of gravity, through the various processes of manufacture, from floor to floor until it reaches the bottom a completely finished product, sacked and ready for shipment on the cars of the G. & O. R. R., a branch of which runs to their doors. These works are located at a railroad station known as Dodgeville, and named in honor of Mr. W. R. Dodge, one of the active promoters of this splendid enterprise. The company has erected nine commodious dwellings, convenient to the mills, for the occupancy of some of its employees, The company's full force consists of fifty-five men.

The American Talc company was incorporated in 1891, Its officers are; C. C. Gray, president; C. P. Darling, secretary and treasurer and F. G. Wallis, general superintendent. A fine mill was erected in 1892-3, equipped with all modern improvements, and is located on the famous Balmat farm in the town of Fowler, one and one-half miles southeast of Little York and seven miles south of Gouverneur. The power is steam, supplied by a battery of boilers, which runs a fine Cor liss condensing engine. The company's mining rights cover 200 acres, and the talc outcroppings indicate an unlimited supply of the foliated variety which grows more fibrous as the mines increase in depth. A chemical analysis of their talc shows a remarkable freedom from iron and carbonates, and contains from thirty six to eighty per cent. of magnesia. The mills have a daily capacity of thirty tons, the usual force of men employed is forty when in full operation.

In connection with the mines now open, which are near the mills, is a storing shed with a capacity of 6,000 tons of crude rock, which is conveyed to the mills, a distance of 350 feet, in cars operated by a cable. The mill machinery includes two Blake crushers, three buhr-stone mills, and three Alsing pulverizing cylinders.

The Asbestos Pulp company was incorporated in Apri], 1892, with the following officers: E. M. Upton, of Charlotte, N. Y., president; M. Doyle, of Rochester, N. Y., vice-president; A. H. Green, of Rochester, treasurer; and H. S. Predmore, of Gouverneur, secretary.

This company was organized for the purpose of buying out and combining the partnership known as the "Gouverneur Asbestos Pulp Company" and the L M. Gardner mill and mines at Freemansburg.

In 1891 L. M. Gardner, of Gouverneur, who owned a grand water tower and had developed what is known as the Gardner or Gid Free man talc mines at Freemansburg, erected a first class talc mill equipped with four large sized Alsing pulverizing cylinders and other necessary machinery for producing twenty-five tons of finished product per day. This plant and mines were transferred to the Asbestos Pulp Company in February, 1892.

In 1891 A. L. McCrea, jr., and James M. Sparks, of Gouverneur, F. W. Streeter and "Frank" Munson, of Watertown, N. Y., who comprised a company known as the Gouverneur Asbestos Pulp Company, purchased the Abbott woolen mills at Hailesboro' and fitted them up as a talc mill, with a capacity of twenty tons per day. The mill had been in operation but a short time when the plant and business was, in April. 1892, sold to the Asbestos Pulp Company. This company also purchased of "Fred" Haile a lease which he held of the original and therefore famous Col. Palmer mine at Freemansburg.

By improvements in mines and mills this company has increased their output to over fifty tons per day, employing about fifty men.

International Pulp Company.- This company was organized early in 1893 by capitalists of New York city, who count their wealth by figures of such dazzling dimensions as to make the denizens of old St. Lawrence county dizzy when attempting to comprehend the real meaning of so many millions. The officers are: Augustus G. Paine, president; H. Walter Webb, treasurer; Alfred Rindskopf, secretary; C. R. Dimond, jr., manager; and A. J. McDonald, of Gouverneur, superintendent.

The company's New York city office is No. 79 Times Building; its superintendent's office is in the Union Hall building, Gouverneur, N.Y. Its directors are: Chauncy M. Depew, H. Walter Webb, George H. Daniels, John A. Manning, J. Touro Robertson, Theo W. Bayard, L. C. Fuller, Thomas L. James, John W. Welch, Augustus G. Paine, Edgar Van Etten, Alfred Rindskopf and Wm. J. Arkell, mostly of New York city.

The organization of this company resulted in the consolidation of the mining preperties and milling plants of four of the largest and most successful concerns in the talc business up to the time of such consolidation, viz.: Natural Dam Pulp Company, Agalite Fibre Company, Adirondack Pulp Company, and St. Lawrence Pulp Company.

The mining territory and mineral rights acquired cover a sufficient portion of the fibrous talc district, so far as at present known, as to practically insure an unlimited quantity of the unmined material. The milling plant consists of six large and well equipped mills, with a present capacity of not less than 200 tons per day, and which with the company's unused water powers can be made equal to any demand that is likely to be made upon them. The number of men employed by this company averages 260 daily.

Since taking possession of these various properties the company has connected all of its mines and mills with the Gouverneur and 0. R. R. by spurs and trestles, thus minimizing the expense of handling both the crude material and finished product. Their mills have been submitted to the most critical inspection of practical and scientific experts, with a view to adding to their efficiency, both as to output and quality of marketable material. Large warehouses have been erected at each mill for storing any surplus above present demand, so their milling operations may be continuous. While these changes and improvements have entailed an enormous expense, the cost is justified by the fact that the average expense of production is lessened and the output increased.

We have learned from a reliable source that it is the intention of the International Company to take up other industries in the near future, and thus utilize several valuable waterpowers on the Oswegatchie River which this company owns but which are now lying idle. Those who are at all familiar with the business habits of the officers and directors of this company consider it of the utmost advantage to this section that their energy, experience and great wealth have been brought to bear upon the development of the almost limitless natural mineral resources of this portion of St. Lawrence county.

Talc Mining.- This mineral, whose presence is indicated through a wide district by talcose tracings, crops out on the surface in many localities in the towns of Fowler and Edwards. The great talc find in Freemansburg was uncovered many years ago by the grading down of a rocky side hill for a roadway, and was heedlessly passed over by hoof and wheel until 1877, when the trained eye of the veteran miner, Col. Henry Palmer, appreciated its value and thereby laid the foundation of the handsome fortune which he had accumulated before his death.

Talc exists in veins which sometimes grow to a vast deposit; often the vein pinches out to very small proportions and then expands into pockets" of great and small dimensions.

Talc is mined by drilling and blasting and the product when broken to a suitable size for handling, is hoisted to the surface by the various devices used in raising ores, sometimes by horse power, but generally by machinery whose motive power is steam.

The depth of talc veins are not known. Some of the mines that have been longest worked have reached a depth of 350 feet, the material growing finer and more valuable as the mine increases in depth.

Different Kinds of Talc.-In the fibrous variety the fiber permeates every part of the material, being devoid of grit and soft enough to be readily sawed or cut. It is readily reduced to the consistency of flour by grinding with the ordinary buhr stones. The foliated kind is composed of an infinite series of micaceous scales which so successfully resists the action of the stones that no matter how it is ground it retains its scaly condition, oniy the scales are smaller.

Process of Manufacture.- In many respects a talc mill is constructed on a plan quite similar to an ordinary fiouring mill, with hoppers, buhr stones, elevators, etc. Talc is brought to the mill in the shape and size of rough stone used by masons in constructing foundation walls. It is first reduced to a size that will admit its being put through a stone crusher, whose ponderous jaws mash it to the maximum size of a robin's egg. Then it goes to the hopper, and by one or more grindings is reduced to a powder similar to flour in appearance. Fibrous talc can be made fit for some purposes by the grinding process alone. But the finer grades are bolted to rid them of impurities, then conveyed by elevators to the floor on which the cylinders are located.

Alsing Pulverizing cylinders.- These cylinders had formerly been used for reducing silica and other refractory materials to an impalpable powder for pottery purposes. The Agalite Fiber Company, having to deal with foliated talc, was the first to introduce the cylinders, which p roving a perfect success; the example in this regard has been followed by all other companies.

The cylinders are made of cast iron, strongly bolted together. They are from six to eight feet long, six to eight feet in diameter, lined with thick porcelain brick, also having chilled-iron heads. The cylinders, each having a "man-hole" for filling and emptying, are filled about one-third full of the hardest known pebbles or flint stones, averaging one and one-half inches in diameter, which are brought from the coast of Labrador. The cylinders are then nearly filled with talc, from the buhr stones, and the "man-hole" is securely fastened. The cylinders are hung by means of a pinion at each end, so they can be revolved by machinery, and in from three to five hours after starting, the most stubborn material is reduced to a suitable condition for market.

Uses and Market of the Product.- Although this industry is still in its infancy the product is already known and used in varying quantities almost around the globe. Orders are received and talc is shipped from Gouverneur to Enland, Germany, Spain, Italy, Russia, all over Europe, and even to far distant India. It is principally used as a filler in the manufacture of paper. Being very heavy it has largely taken the place of the various clays both as a filler and a make-weight by paper makers. It is largely used as an adulterant of white lead, and undoubtedly finds its way into many articles of general use where its presence is neither suspected nor detected. It is extensively used in pharmacy for powders, cosmetics, also in making various kinds of soap. Much is used by pill manufacturers for coating, but as it is not deleterious to the human system, there is little if any danger from its use as an adulterant.

The Press.- Although several attempts had been made to establish a newspaper in Gouverneur, nothing was actually accomplished in this direction until 1849, when, in April, W. M. Goodrich and M. Wilson issued the first number of the Northern New Yorker. It was a creditable paper, but passed into the hands of Nelson Bruet & Company, and was discontinued in 1851.

On the 20th of July, 1852, a paper called The Laborer was issued by Martin Mitchell, of Fowler, but after a time he secured an assistant, Mr. Mason, when the name of the paper was changed to the Free Press. Harley Mitchell afterwards succeeded Mr. Mason, and the title was made The St. Lawrence Free Press. In 1854, when it appeared an impossible task to make a newspaper self-supporting in the place, J. J. Emmes, of Hammond, assumed the control of the enterprise and endeavored to form an organization to liquidate the indebtedness and raise a fund for future emergency. While considerable sums were subscribed to this fund, they were not at all realized, and after a short time the whole venture was abandoned. The next effort to establish a paper here was made in 1864, when F. F. Merritt, who had started The Times in Sandy Creek, Oswego county, was induced to remove to Gouverneur. He came in July and called his paper the Gouverneur Times. This paper was, April 1, 1880, sold to The Herald, which then became The Herald-Times

The Gouverneur Herald was established April 10, 1873. It had several owners within a short time and was then purchased by H. C. Reynolds, who continued until November, 1874, when Frank L. Cox purchased a half interest. Mr. Cox went out of the firm October 28, 1878, his half interest being purchased by Jesse T. Reynolds, who now became its editor. Prior to this the paper had been neutral in politics, now it became uncompromisingly Republican. At this time the Herald's circulation was about 900, but with the vigorous and spicy editorials of the new editor it rapidly gained both popularity and patronage.

April 1, 1880, the Times was consolidated with the Herald, making it the Herald Times, and thus adding about 300 to its circulation. That the paper was now ably managed was demonstrated by the fact that its circulation, which became general throughout St. Lawrence county, continually grew until it reached a little over 5,000 (being the largest ever reached by any county newspaper in Northern New York).

May 10, 1887, H G. Reynolds became its sole owner, and continued its management until May 23, 1892, when he sold it to R. S. Sackett, who consolidated it with the Northern Tribune.

Thc Northern Tribune was established in 1887 by Prof. M. R. Sackett. Meanwhile the Free Press had been started, and it was clear enough that Gouverneur had more newspapers than could be supported. This state of affairs resulted in May, 1892, in the consolidation of the Tribune with the Herald - Times. The name of the new publication was made the Northern Tribune and Gouverneur Herald- Times, as at present. The name of the organization is the Gouverneur Publishing Company, which was properly capitalized. M. R. Sackett is secretary of the company and editor of the paper. The paper is Republican in politics and is ably conducted, having a circulation of over 4,000.

The Gouverneur Free Press was established in March, 1882, by B. G. Parker, who is still the editor and proprietor of the paper. Mr. Parker is a practical printer, having learned his trade in Gouverneur, and at nineteen years of age started the Norwood News, which he published five years. He has made the Free Press a recognized authority and influence in Republican politics and given it a circulation of about 4,000.

Also see

* Gouverneur Quarry Industry
* Religious Societies

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