History of Massena, NY


[an error occurred while processing this directive]

MASSENA, the fourth town organized, lies in the extreme northeast part of the county, and received its name in honor of Marshal Massena of the army of the first Napoleon. The town was incorporated in the same act that formed the county, March 3, 1802, and included in its area the original townships of Louisville, Stockholm and the whole of Great Tract No. 2. By the formation of Hopkinton, Brasher, Lawrence and other towns on the southwest, Massena was reduced to its present area, 30,671 acres. A large portion of this tract was not a part of the Macomb purchase. The St. Lawrence River forms the northern boundary of the town, and the Long Saut and Barnhart's Islands are a part of the town. The surface of the town is nearly level; the soil a fertile loam, mixed in parts with sand and clay. During the early settlement Massena was overspread with a heavy growth of woods that afforded superior lumber and a good quality of timber for spars, many of them measuring from 80 to 110 feet long. Business of lumbering was one of much prominence for many years. It is said that in 1810 one man rafted to Quebec $60,000 worth of timber. This enormous draft of lumber soon denuded the forest of its best timber in that part of the county, when the settlers turned their attention to grain raising.

The early records previous to 1808 having been destroyed by fire, also again in 1853, which included all the documents which had accumulated up to that period, the history in a measure concerning the town affairs up to this last date is gleaned from the memory of the settlers of that time. It is said that the first town meeting to organize and elect officers was held the second week in April, after the passage of the act to erect the town, and that the first supervisor elected was Amos Lay. In the spring of 1808 the town officers were: John Wilison, supervisor; John E. Perkins, clerk; Elisha W. Barber, Thomas Steadman, Enoch French, assessors; Aaron Wright, collector; Benjamin Willard, Jarvis Kimball, Enoch French, commissioners of highways; John Reeve, Aaron Wright, constables; Griffin Place, John Garvin, fence-viewers; John Bullard, Griffin Place, pound-masters.

The town is well watered by both the Raquette and the Grass Rivers, which flow nearly parallel across the town from west to easterly, and about one mile apart, near the village. There is a fair water power on both streams in the western part, but they are subject farther east to the backwater of the St. Lawrence. This backwater sometimes performs remarkable freaks. While the great river seldom freezes in its rapid current from St. Regis so as to permit crossing on the ice, it does freeze into a sort of anchor ice, which obstructs the current, allowing further freezing above, thus creating a temporary dam. Mr. Hough says:

"This has occurred during severe snow storms and intensely cold weather so rapidly as to raise the waters of the St. Lawrence, at certain points, fifteen feet in as many minutes; and the Long Saut rapids, where the waters usually shoot downwards with the swiftness of an arrow, have been known to be as placid as the surface of a mill-pond from obstructions below. The descent of the water is of course the same, but the rapids are carried farther down stream, and still water occurs at points where it is rapid at ordinary seasons. The extreme difference of level hitherto observed from these obstructions is about twenty-five feet in Robinson's bay; in Massena, about nine miles above St. Regis, and in Grasse River, it has been known to rise to an equal height. No winter passes without more or less of these ice-dams and reflex currents, which usually happen towards the latter part of winter, after the waters have become chilled, and ice has formed below. Above the head of the Long Saut they are seldom or never noticed. Similar occurrences happen at Montreal and other places along the rapids at certain seasons, and have often caused serious accidents. The apparent solidity of the obstructions thus temporarily formed is seldom trusted by those acquainted with the river, although there have been those foolhardy enough to venture across the channel upon them. They will sometimes form and break away with astonishing rapidity, for such is the irresistible force of the mighty current that no obstruction can long withstand its power. In 1833 a bridge at Massena Centre, supposed to be placed sufficiently high to be above the reach of all floods, was swept away from this cause, the waters having arisen nearly five feet higher than had before been observed, and it has been found quite impracticable to maintain bridges below Massena village across Grass River. The water has been seen to pour over the dam at Haskell's mill up stream for a short time, and the dam at Massena village has been preserved against the backwater with extreme difficulty.'

Settlement had begun in this town previous to its formation. In the fall of 1798 Amos Lay, a native of Lyme, Conn., and a surveyor, began laying out the lands of Massena for the proprietors. In 1799 a road from Oswegatchie to St. Regis was surveyed and partly opened. Henry Child was probably the first agent, and was succeeded by Mr. Lay, and he by Matthew Perkins. Previous to the dates just named, and probably as early as 1792, a saw mill was built on the site of the Haskell mills by a Frenchman, name unknown, who was succeeded in their ownership by Amable Foucher, from old Chateaugay, who continued in possession until 1808. These lands were claimed by the St. Regis Indians, and a mile square at what was then called Haskell's Falls was reserved to them by the treaty of 1796. It is said that the first dam here was swept away up stream by the action of the backwater before described.

The early settlers in this and adjoining towns suffered much from the depredations of the Indians, and they finally sent, under date of June 24, 1800, the following petition to the governor:

To His Excellency, John Jay, Esq., Governor of the State of New York, in council:
The petition of the several persons whose names are hereunto subscribed, settlers in the townships of Massena and Louisville, on the banks of the river St. Lawrence, in the State of New York, Humbly representeth: That the Indian chiefs and warriors of St. Regis are possessed of a tract of land, chiefly wild meadow, extending from the mouth of Grasse river, in the township of Massena, up to the falls, which is about seven miles. That your petitioners, having settled in the said townships of Massena and Louisville, are greatly annoyed by the said Indians, who threaten to kill and destroy their cattle unavoidably trespassing upon these meadows, they being exposed chiefly without tence, and several of their cattle are missing. Your petitioners. therefore, humbly pray your excellency, in council, to take such measures of accommodation with the said Indians as shall seem meet, in order to secure to your petitioners the peaceable enjoyment of their lands and property against the depredations of the said Indians. And your petitioners will ever pray, etc.

Signed, Amos Lay, Mamri Victory, Calvin Plumley, Kinner Newcomb. Samuel Newcomb, G. S. Descoteaux, William Polley, Anthony Lamping, Aaron Allen, and two illegible. signatures.

In consequence of this action the State purchased the Indian Reservation, paying more for the land than was afterwards realized from it. The signatures to the petition are of interest, as indicating who were interested in the matter at that early date.

Among the settlers who came in, mostly from Vermont, as early as 1803, were Mamri Victory, Calvin Plumley, Bliss Hoisington, David Lytle, Seth Reed, Leonard Herrick, John Bullard, Jacob and David Hutchins, Nathaniel Kezar, and Elijah Bailey. The latter kept a pioneer tavern on the St. Lawrence, and a two-story house erected for this purpose is still standing. In 1803, also Daniel Robinson brought in his iamily, having purchased his land the previous year, and lived here until his death. He had five sons, two of whom, Horatio N. and Luther H., are still living. The father built a saw-mill on a small creek near his place in 1815, which was in operation many years, In 1803 Royal Polley settled at Massena Point, and in 1807 Thomas Steadman. In that year there were ninety-eight voters in the town, Massena Point is formed at the mouth of the Grass River, with the waters of that stream on its southern side and those of the St. Lawrence to the northward.

The first school was taught at the site of Massena village in 1803 by Gilbert Reed, and in the same year the first bridge was built across the Grass River at that point, and shortly after one across the Raquette River at the Springs.

Among the prominent settlers who followed soon after those before named were N. Denison, E. M. Denison, E. Howard, L. A. Robinson, D. Tracy, all of whom have descendants still living in town; Enos Beach, who is still living; Elijah Flagg, J. C. Stone, John E. Perkins, John Garvin, Lemuel Haskeil, Calvin Hubbard, W. S. Paddock, John B. Andrews, Benjamin Phillips. all of whom have descendants in the town; U. H. Orvis and L. E. Waterbury.

The town records after 1809 bear the usual proceedings for the proper government of the district, but nothing of paramount importance. In 1849, however, the people voted to raise $100 to built a float and furnish wires for a ferry across the Grass River near the center of the town.

The War of 1812 interested the inhabitants of Massena deeply on account of operations that occurred near its bounds. Early in the summer of 1812 an American Durham boat on its way up from Montreal was stopped at Mille Roche, a guard placed on board and ordered to proceed to Cornwall. The British officer being unfamiliar with the river channel gave the pilotage of the boat to its former commander and crew, who steered it across the foot of Barnhart's Island, and before the guard realized the situation the boat was moored to the American shore. A militia training was just then in progress at Massena village and a messenger was dispatched thither for help. The result was that the guards were marched as prisoners to the village, and afterwards paroled. It was considered a smart Yankee trick. It was in the same summer also, that the inhabitants of the village thought to protect themselves from possible assault by surrounding a tract of the land with a stockade. This consisted of timbers more than twelve feet long set in the ground close together. Strife about where the line of pickets should run caused abandonment of the work, after a good deal of effort had been expended. During the months of July and August of that year a barrack was built near the center of the town, north of the Grass River, at the expense of the government. It was a frame building about 100 feet long and was occupied by the militia of the county under command of Colonel Fancher, of Madrid, for about three months. Part of the force of 250 or 300 men returned home at the close of that period, and the remainder went to Ogdensburg. In September, 1813, a company of about 300 militia of the county of Stormont, Canada, under Major Anderson, crossed the river in the night, burned this barrack and took several prisoners, who were subsequently released. They also destroyed several Durham boats which had been sunk in the river and were partly exposed by low water. Other events of the war occurring in this vicinity are chronicled in other pages.

One of the most important roads in the town was the old Plattsburg highway; others were those from Ogdensburg to Massena, and from the latter place to Russell, via Potsdam. These latter were located by a commission appointed for the purpose in April, 1816. In 1832 the second bridge was built across the Grass River at the Center, which was soon afterwards swept away. In 1862 $4,000 were appropriated and a covered bridge was built. This was destroyed, and in 1872-73 the present handsome iron bridge was erected at a cost of nearly $10,000. In 1863 $4,000 were raised by tax for a bridge across the Raquette River, and on October 27, 1877, $8,000 were voted to bridge that stream at Massena Springs.

Plank Roads.-See page 168

Steps were taken in 1856 to build a town hall, and $800 were appropriated for the purpose. A commodious brick structure was erected in the village, which is still in use after having been several times improved. In 1875 the town also built a house of detention in the village.

In the War of the Rebellion (See Chapter XV, page 196) this town acted a patriotic part, and sent its several quotas to the support of the Union, as detailed in an earlier chapter.

The island belonging to this town, called by the French Isle au Long Saut, is about five miles long and of irregular width and shape. It contains about 2,000 acres, and all subject to cultivation, a portion being timbered. The island was not sold with others to the Ogdens in 1823, but was reserved by the State for its possible military importance. Under a statute which took effect May 5, 1832, the lands were sold by the surveyor-general. Among the early settlers on the island were John, Michael and William Cline, John and Thomas Delaney, the latter living there now, and also Stephen Miller, John Hutchins, and Dennis McCarthy. Philip Kaiser and E. Atwater now have farms there.

Massena has always provided excellent facilities for educating her children. The town is divided into thirteen districts, in each of which is a good school house, besides those on the islands. The Massena Union Free school will be described further on.

Following is a list of the supervisors of the town from the beginning, with the dates of their service:
1802, Amos Lay; 1808-9, John Wilson; 1810-11, Thomas Steadman; 1812, Calvin Hubbard; 1813-17, Willard Seaton; 1818-19, John E. Perkins; 1820-21, John Stone, jr.; 1822-24, John B. Andrews; 1825-26, Chester Gurney; 1827-28, Lemuel Haskell; 1829- 30, Ira Goodridge; 183!. John B. Andrews; 1832-33, L. Haskell; 1834-37, Ira Goodridge; 1838-39, John B. Judd; 1840-41, Benjamin Phillips; 1842-44, John B. Andrews; 1845, E. D. Ransom; 1846, Allen B. Phillips; 1847, E. D. Ransom; 1848-49, Allen B. Phillips; 1850, Willson Bridges; 1851-52, J. B. Andrews; 1855-60, Guy B. Andrews; 1861-62, Luke Carlton; 1863-64, Guy B. Andrews; 1865- 66, H. S. Ransom; 1867-68, Joseph E. Chary; 1869-72, Henry B. White; 1873-75, John O. Bridges; 1876-79, Henry B. White; 1881-81, Daniel Tracy; 1882-87, Michael H. Flaherty; 1888-90, Fred P. Kirkbridge; 1891-93, Michael H. Flaherty.

Massena Center.- After Hopkinton was taken from the territory, but more especially after the town being reduced to its present size, the tendency was to make a settlement near the center of the town, which led a few of the inhabitants of Massena to gather and build at what became Massena Center. Its location is on the north side of Grass River, at the head of its still waters, where Durham boats brought in goods and carried away the products of the soil. There is no water power at that point. Arnong those who early located there were Nathaniel Kezar, Arad Smith, P. Smith, Ephraim Hyde, Samuel Dana, Thomas Dodge, Israel Rickard, Ira Goodrich; and in that vicinity were Peabody Kinney, Willard Seaton, Hiram Anderson; and later came in Hiram Fish, Moses Russell, and others who became prominent in the town. Many of these have descendants living in this section. Ephrairn Hyde opened a public house on his farm at an early day, as did Samson Wheeler in the hamlet about 1835; the latter had also a wagon shop, and Israel Rickard was a wheelwright. The post-office was established in 1851, with Augustus Wheeler as postmaster. The present official is Chloe Atwood. The present handsome school house was erected in 1871, and the school has always been a prosperous one. Union Hall, a convenient building for public meetings, was in 1872 converted to its purpose from the Baptist parsonage. There has been very little mercantile business at this place.

Raquelle River.- This is a post-office and hamlet on that river about six miles below Massena Springs. The first settlement was made at this point by Willard Seaton, who built a saw mill about 1804, which was carried away in a freshet before it was finished. About 1830 A. Ransom made another attempt to build a mill, but it was abandoned. Settlers who came in after Seaton were the Chase, Earle, Payne, Tucker, Young, Hitchcock and Smith families. In 1827 Capt. Wilson Brydges opened a public house, which he continued for about twenty-five years. The present postmaster is A. L. Freego. Aside from one small store there is no business now carried on. Other settlers along up the river towards the Springs were Herman Reed, R. Messenger, and the families named Judd, Colburn, Wells, and David Kellogg, Thomas Flaherty, Jacob Gould, Stephen Reed, Jewett Bowers, Wm. Nightingale, John Polley and others.

Massena Springs- Is situated on the north shore of the Raquette River, about one mile southeast of Massena village. The St Regis Indians discovered these springs to the government party sent out to survey the ten townships in the summer of 1785. They described them as water coming out of the ground that smelled bad, where the moose, the deer, and the sick Indian came to lick the water. Game of all kinds at an early day were very plentiful in the vicinity of these springs at all seasons of the year, being attracted to the spot, no doubt, on account of the saline qualities of the water. The analysis of the water, showing its constituents, together with other waters, will be found on page 124. The white people began to use the waters of these springs at an early day, and Spafford, in 1813, mentions them as possessing a reputation for the cure of cutaneous complaints, and that invalids came hither from long distances to partake of these waters. In 1822 Capt. John Polley built the first structures for public accommodation. Six years later the old and well known Harrowgate House was erected by Ruel Taylor for Parsons Taylor. Numerous private dwellings soon followed, and the springs were improved by curbing and a pavilion, also hot and cold shower baths erected. In 1848 Benjamin Phillips became proprietor of the springs, and erected what was long known as the United States Hotel, and which was very popular. This was burned in 1871, and on its site was erected the splendid Hatfield House, at a cost of $75,000. Besides this the Harrowgate House is now kept by W. R. Stearns, who also has charge of the waters of the springs. In addition to these houses the Wheeler is kept by Alonzo Riley, a well conducted and popular house. There are two stores at the Springs, and through the growth of the place and of Massena village the two have become substantially one. While the popularity and reputation of these waters has not, perhaps, declined, there has in very recent years been a less number of visitors to the place than formerly a fact which is creditable almost wholly to the strong opposition at various summer resorts, such as the Thousand Islands, in the Adirondacks, and elsewhere.

Massena Village.- This is now one of the most beautiful and active of the smaller villages of the county. It is situated on both banks of the Grass River, principally on the south side, and now extends nearly to the Springs, with which it is connected by a fine drive. About the first settlement made at this point was by Calvin Hubbard and Stephen Reed. who built a dam and a saw mill in 1803. Some of the other pioneers were Benjamin Phillips, U. H. Orvis, J. B. Andrews, J. Clark, L. E. Waterbury, W. S. Paddock, H. A. Campbell, M. P. Crowley, John Stone, Royal Policy, and E. F. Taylor. The mill privilege here is far superior to the one below, which gave the place early importance; this, together with the growing popularity of the medicinal springs, laid the foundations for a village that soon sapped the interest and destroyed the growth of the one at the center. In the year 1831 about thirtyfive acres on the village site was surveyed and laid out into seventy-one lots, bordering on the streets, and a period of active building began.

Since that time the growth of the place has been quite regular. A custom-house was established here in early years and is still maintained, but the business is not large. In 1808 Hubbard & Reed built the first grist mill a small one with a single run of rock stone. This was purchased in 1810 by James McDowell, who was the owner of the lower mills. He transferred the property to U. H. Orvis in 1828, and two years later he built a stone mill with three run of stones; this was subsequeritly changed into a woolen mill, and in 1848 Mr Orvis built the present grist mill, owned by A. Babcock, and placed in it four run of stones. The old woolen mill has been demolished. The lower mill property passed to L. Haskell, who greatly improved it, and under his management, and others of his family, became widely known. A large stone structure was built many years ago for a starch factory, which has been fitted up with wood-working machinery and is now operated by H. W. Clark. There was formerly a tannery carried on here, but it long since was abandoned. There is a butter tub factory and the usual number of shops of various kinds. A saw mill is operated by the Massena Mill Company.

The mercantile business of Massena was first represented by Benjamin Phillips, U. H. Orvis, J. Clark, and J. B. Andrews, who were in prosperous trade here many years, and many of them succeeded by their sons or friends. J. O. Bridges is now one of the oldest successful merchants in the place. There are now about a dozen stores, covering nearly all ordinary lines of business, and the village has an air of decided prosperity. The recent extension of the R. W. & O. railroad to connect with others leading to Montreal, passing on the easterly side of Raquette River, has been of great benefit to the merchants and others of Massena.

As early as 1810 a large three story house was erected here fora hotel, which was kept by John Stone and others. H. A. Campbell built another house, which was long and popularly known as "The Eagle Hotel." It was destroyed by fire in 1864, and H. B. White erected the present one, which is called "White's Hotel," an imposing brick structure, which has enjoyed extended popularity both as a boarding-house and for the accommodation of travelers. In 1876 the Allen House, another brick hotel, was built by A. A. Allen.

The post-office was established here September 19 1811, with Calvin Hubbard as postmaster. The present official is John S. McFadden. In 1807 the office was made a money order office. A private bankinghouse has been carried on here a number of years by Geo. E. Britton.

The Northern Observer, a bright weekly newspaper, was established in December, 1891, by L. C. Sutton and G. W. Church; it was then a four-column quarto. In May, 1892, Mr. Sutton purchased the interest of Mr. Church and continued the business alone until December 1, of the same year, when he took in George A. Miller as partner. New presses and material were purchased and the paper enlarged to an eight-column folio, its present size. The circulation is now 1,000, and has a steady growth.

Under the General School Laws, districts Nos. 2, 11 and i6 were united April 11, 1866, into a Union Free School, and the following were chosen as a Board of Education: H. F. Crooks, J. O. Bridges, W. H. Paddock, E, Whitney, J. L. Hyde, F. P. Balch, Cephas Nightingale, H. S. Ransom, and L. E. Waterbury. A tract of three acres of land, beautifully situated, was secured for a school building, and a commodious and handsome three story brick structure erected in 1868, at a cost of $14,000. The school opened in 1869, with Thomas Kinney as principal. Within the past five years two other brick school buildings have been added, and the town now takes the front rank for its educational facilities. Following are the names of the present Board of Education: Allen Babcock, Dr. M. J. Stearns, Dr. S. W. Dodge, James Rankin, Samuel S. Danforth, Henry H. Warring, James Kirkbridge, Frank E. Bailey and Louis S. De Rosia.

Massena was one of the first towns visited by missionaries. In the spring of 1806 the Rev. Amos Pettengill and Boyd Phelps held religious meetings at the Center and other places; also made arrangements to have services held occasionally thereafter.

The First congregational Society of M assen a Center, and the oldest religious organization in the town, was organized February 15, 1819, by Rev. Ambrose Porter, of Dartmouth College. Among the twelve members were Peabody Kinney, Rufus Goodale, James G. Steadman, Jacob Chase, Abigail Barber, Sally Kinney and Dorothy Smith. A church was erected in 1836 by joint contributions of several denominations, at a cost of $2,000, principally by the Congregationalists, Baptists and Adventists. The Congregational society was incorporated August 6, 1825, with John E. Perkins, Benjamin Phillips, Charles Gurney, James G. Steadman and U. H. Orvis, trustees. The church continued with varied success until 1883, when it voted to disband, and the members united with the second church at the village. They still retain their interest in the old church edifice, where services are occasionally held. The Baptists held meetings for a time in this church, but their interest finally centered at the village, which see. The Ad. ventists discontinued their meetings long ago.

The Second Congregational church was formed at the village September 4, 1833, with thirty-three members. The early meetings were held in the school house, but in 1843-4 the commodious brick church was built, at a cost of $3,000. In 1868 it was thoroughly repaired, at a cost of $2,000. A parsonage costing $3,000 was erected in 1878. The church is in a flourishing condition, the membership being about 100, and Rev. S. A. Worden is pastor.

While the Baptist church in Massena was not regularly organized until September 20, 1843, meetings had been held since 1825 or earlier. About the year 1827 U. H. Orvis built a frame house in the village for religious meetings, which was used by the Baptists for many years. At the date of formal organization there were twenty-one members. Within a few years thereafter several Baptist congregations had been gathered in other parts of the town, with similar faith, and a union was effected February 22, 1850, to which agreement thirty-six names were affixed. On the 8th of March of that year Earle Stone and Peter Ormsby were chosen deacons. Services were then held for a time alternately at the village and at the Center, being essentially one church with two places of worship. The present village church was erected in 1859. In 1875 a parsonage was built, and the property is now worth more than $10,000. Rev. Arthur Holmes is the pastor, and the membership is about 150.

Methodist Society.- In Massena the Methodists were as early on the ground as 1830, and held services in school houses and private homes. Classes were formed at the village and at Raquette River. In 1843 these formed a part of the Louisville and Massena circuit. Five years later Massena became a separate circuit, the class at the village having thirty-four members, and the one at Raquette twenty-three. These still constitute the circuit, the Raquette River church being served most of the time from the village. A brick chapel was begun in the village in 1848, which was used twenty years and then sold to the Episcopal society. In 1869 the present commodious brick edifice was built, and the property with the parsonage is now worth about $15,000. The membership at the two points is about 200, and Rev. Matthew D. Sill is pastor.

St. Peter's Roman Cathlic Church.- This church was formed in 1838, by Father John McNulty, and consisted of twenty families. In the same year a frame church was built, which was subsequently enlarged. In 1873 steps were taken for the erection of a new church. An acre of ground was purchased near Massena Springs and the foundation laid in that year. The beautiful structure was finished and dedicated July 27, 1875, as "The Church of the Sacred Heart." There are now about 500 communicants, under Father Nolan.

The Christian Advent Church.- A church of this faith was established in the town, under the preaching of missionaries, but it was not until i868 that much interest was created. At that time Elder S. J. Mathewson came to town and held a protracted meeting, during which time thirty persons were converted. A church was organized with Royal Policy and James Danforth, deacons. Services were held periodically here and at the Center by evangelists. It was finally decided to erect a church at the village, which was accomplished in 1874, at a cost of $3,600. A year later the parsonage was built, at a cost of $1,400. The present pastor is Rev. George Stearns; the membership, however, is small.

St. John's Episcopal Church.- Services were occasionally held in town by visiting clergymen several years ago, but it was not until June 21, 1868, that an effort was made to establish the work of the church, when Rev. J. F. Winkley, of Norfolk, began holding services in the town hail, where the first communion was held and the members organized into a parish September 13, 1869, as "The Church of the Great Shepherd," with Harvey H. Chittenden and Henry T. Clark, wardens; George A. Snaith, H. F. Crook, J. E. Clary, J. O. Bridges, Joseph Harrison and William N. Gibson, vestrymen. The certificate of incorporation was dated September 15, 1868. Rev. J. F. Winkley was selected as their first rector, and about a year later the parish was admitted to the Albany Diocese. September 28, 1871, the name was changed to "The Wardens and Vestrymen of St. John's Church of Massena." The handsome church was erected in 1878-9, at a cost of over $5,000. The present rector is Rev. C. E. Mackenzie.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

Return to [ NY History ] [ History at Rays Place ] [ Rays Place ]

NY Counties - Albany - Allegany - Broome - Cayuga - Chatauqua - Chenango - Clinton - Columbia - Cortland - Erie - Essex - Franklin - Fulton - Genesee - Herkimer - Jefferson - Lewis - Livingston - Madison - Montgomery - Niagara - Oneida - Onondaga - Ontario - Orange - Orleans - Oswego - Putnam - Queens - Rensselaer - Richmond - Rockland - St. Lawrence - Saratoga - Schenectady - Steuben - Suffolk - Tioga - Tompkins - Tryone - Ulster - Washington - Wayne - Yates

All pages copyright 2003-2012. All items on this site are copyrighted by their author(s). These pages may be linked to but not used on another web site. Anyone may copy and use the information provided here freely for personal use only. Privacy Policy